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Introduction
************

This brief manual contains documentation for the GNU binary utilities
(Linux/GNU Binutils) version 2.20.51.0.2:

   This document is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free
Documentation License version 1.3.  A copy of the license is included
in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

* Menu:

* ar::                          Create, modify, and extract from archives
* nm::                          List symbols from object files
* objcopy::			Copy and translate object files
* objdump::                     Display information from object files
* ranlib::                      Generate index to archive contents
* readelf::                     Display the contents of ELF format files
* size::                        List section sizes and total size
* strings::                     List printable strings from files
* strip::                       Discard symbols
* c++filt::			Filter to demangle encoded C++ symbols
* cxxfilt: c++filt.             MS-DOS name for c++filt
* addr2line::			Convert addresses to file and line
* nlmconv::                     Converts object code into an NLM
* windres::			Manipulate Windows resources
* windmc::			Generator for Windows message resources
* dlltool::			Create files needed to build and use DLLs
* Common Options::              Command-line options for all utilities
* Selecting the Target System:: How these utilities determine the target
* Reporting Bugs::              Reporting Bugs
* GNU Free Documentation License::  GNU Free Documentation License
* Binutils Index::              Binutils Index

File: binutils.info,  Node: ar,  Next: nm,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 ar
****

     ar [`--plugin' NAME] [-]P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]
     ar -M [ <mri-script ]

   The GNU `ar' program creates, modifies, and extracts from archives.
An "archive" is a single file holding a collection of other files in a
structure that makes it possible to retrieve the original individual
files (called "members" of the archive).

   The original files' contents, mode (permissions), timestamp, owner,
and group are preserved in the archive, and can be restored on
extraction.

   GNU `ar' can maintain archives whose members have names of any
length; however, depending on how `ar' is configured on your system, a
limit on member-name length may be imposed for compatibility with
archive formats maintained with other tools.  If it exists, the limit
is often 15 characters (typical of formats related to a.out) or 16
characters (typical of formats related to coff).

   `ar' is considered a binary utility because archives of this sort
are most often used as "libraries" holding commonly needed subroutines.

   `ar' creates an index to the symbols defined in relocatable object
modules in the archive when you specify the modifier `s'.  Once
created, this index is updated in the archive whenever `ar' makes a
change to its contents (save for the `q' update operation).  An archive
with such an index speeds up linking to the library, and allows
routines in the library to call each other without regard to their
placement in the archive.

   You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index table.
If an archive lacks the table, another form of `ar' called `ranlib' can
be used to add just the table.

   GNU `ar' can optionally create a _thin_ archive, which contains a
symbol index and references to the original copies of the member files
of the archives.  Such an archive is useful for building libraries for
use within a local build, where the relocatable objects are expected to
remain available, and copying the contents of each object would only
waste time and space.  Thin archives are also _flattened_, so that
adding one or more archives to a thin archive will add the elements of
the nested archive individually.  The paths to the elements of the
archive are stored relative to the archive itself.

   GNU `ar' is designed to be compatible with two different facilities.
You can control its activity using command-line options, like the
different varieties of `ar' on Unix systems; or, if you specify the
single command-line option `-M', you can control it with a script
supplied via standard input, like the MRI "librarian" program.

* Menu:

* ar cmdline::                  Controlling `ar' on the command line
* ar scripts::                  Controlling `ar' with a script

File: binutils.info,  Node: ar cmdline,  Next: ar scripts,  Up: ar

1.1 Controlling `ar' on the Command Line
========================================

     ar [`--plugin' NAME] [`-X32_64'] [`-']P[MOD [RELPOS] [COUNT]] ARCHIVE [MEMBER...]

   When you use `ar' in the Unix style, `ar' insists on at least two
arguments to execute: one keyletter specifying the _operation_
(optionally accompanied by other keyletters specifying _modifiers_),
and the archive name to act on.

   Most operations can also accept further MEMBER arguments, specifying
particular files to operate on.

   GNU `ar' allows you to mix the operation code P and modifier flags
MOD in any order, within the first command-line argument.

   If you wish, you may begin the first command-line argument with a
dash.

   The P keyletter specifies what operation to execute; it may be any
of the following, but you must specify only one of them:

`d'
     _Delete_ modules from the archive.  Specify the names of modules to
     be deleted as MEMBER...; the archive is untouched if you specify
     no files to delete.

     If you specify the `v' modifier, `ar' lists each module as it is
     deleted.

`m'
     Use this operation to _move_ members in an archive.

     The ordering of members in an archive can make a difference in how
     programs are linked using the library, if a symbol is defined in
     more than one member.

     If no modifiers are used with `m', any members you name in the
     MEMBER arguments are moved to the _end_ of the archive; you can
     use the `a', `b', or `i' modifiers to move them to a specified
     place instead.

`p'
     _Print_ the specified members of the archive, to the standard
     output file.  If the `v' modifier is specified, show the member
     name before copying its contents to standard output.

     If you specify no MEMBER arguments, all the files in the archive
     are printed.

`q'
     _Quick append_; Historically, add the files MEMBER... to the end of
     ARCHIVE, without checking for replacement.

     The modifiers `a', `b', and `i' do _not_ affect this operation;
     new members are always placed at the end of the archive.

     The modifier `v' makes `ar' list each file as it is appended.

     Since the point of this operation is speed, the archive's symbol
     table index is not updated, even if it already existed; you can
     use `ar s' or `ranlib' explicitly to update the symbol table index.

     However, too many different systems assume quick append rebuilds
     the index, so GNU `ar' implements `q' as a synonym for `r'.

`r'
     Insert the files MEMBER... into ARCHIVE (with _replacement_). This
     operation differs from `q' in that any previously existing members
     are deleted if their names match those being added.

     If one of the files named in MEMBER... does not exist, `ar'
     displays an error message, and leaves undisturbed any existing
     members of the archive matching that name.

     By default, new members are added at the end of the file; but you
     may use one of the modifiers `a', `b', or `i' to request placement
     relative to some existing member.

     The modifier `v' used with this operation elicits a line of output
     for each file inserted, along with one of the letters `a' or `r'
     to indicate whether the file was appended (no old member deleted)
     or replaced.

`t'
     Display a _table_ listing the contents of ARCHIVE, or those of the
     files listed in MEMBER... that are present in the archive.
     Normally only the member name is shown; if you also want to see
     the modes (permissions), timestamp, owner, group, and size, you can
     request that by also specifying the `v' modifier.

     If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are
     listed.

     If there is more than one file with the same name (say, `fie') in
     an archive (say `b.a'), `ar t b.a fie' lists only the first
     instance; to see them all, you must ask for a complete listing--in
     our example, `ar t b.a'.

`x'
     _Extract_ members (named MEMBER) from the archive.  You can use
     the `v' modifier with this operation, to request that `ar' list
     each name as it extracts it.

     If you do not specify a MEMBER, all files in the archive are
     extracted.

     Files cannot be extracted from a thin archive.


   A number of modifiers (MOD) may immediately follow the P keyletter,
to specify variations on an operation's behavior:

`a'
     Add new files _after_ an existing member of the archive.  If you
     use the modifier `a', the name of an existing archive member must
     be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
     specification.

`b'
     Add new files _before_ an existing member of the archive.  If you
     use the modifier `b', the name of an existing archive member must
     be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
     specification.  (same as `i').

`c'
     _Create_ the archive.  The specified ARCHIVE is always created if
     it did not exist, when you request an update.  But a warning is
     issued unless you specify in advance that you expect to create it,
     by using this modifier.

`D'
     Operate in _deterministic_ mode.  When adding files and the archive
     index use zero for UIDs, GIDs, timestamps, and use consistent file
     modes for all files.  When this option is used, if `ar' is used
     with identical options and identical input files, multiple runs
     will create identical output files regardless of the input files'
     owners, groups, file modes, or modification times.

`f'
     Truncate names in the archive.  GNU `ar' will normally permit file
     names of any length.  This will cause it to create archives which
     are not compatible with the native `ar' program on some systems.
     If this is a concern, the `f' modifier may be used to truncate file
     names when putting them in the archive.

`i'
     Insert new files _before_ an existing member of the archive.  If
     you use the modifier `i', the name of an existing archive member
     must be present as the RELPOS argument, before the ARCHIVE
     specification.  (same as `b').

`l'
     This modifier is accepted but not used.

`N'
     Uses the COUNT parameter.  This is used if there are multiple
     entries in the archive with the same name.  Extract or delete
     instance COUNT of the given name from the archive.

`o'
     Preserve the _original_ dates of members when extracting them.  If
     you do not specify this modifier, files extracted from the archive
     are stamped with the time of extraction.

`P'
     Use the full path name when matching names in the archive.  GNU
     `ar' can not create an archive with a full path name (such archives
     are not POSIX complaint), but other archive creators can.  This
     option will cause GNU `ar' to match file names using a complete
     path name, which can be convenient when extracting a single file
     from an archive created by another tool.

`s'
     Write an object-file index into the archive, or update an existing
     one, even if no other change is made to the archive.  You may use
     this modifier flag either with any operation, or alone.  Running
     `ar s' on an archive is equivalent to running `ranlib' on it.

`S'
     Do not generate an archive symbol table.  This can speed up
     building a large library in several steps.  The resulting archive
     can not be used with the linker.  In order to build a symbol
     table, you must omit the `S' modifier on the last execution of
     `ar', or you must run `ranlib' on the archive.

`T'
     Make the specified ARCHIVE a _thin_ archive.  If it already exists
     and is a regular archive, the existing members must be present in
     the same directory as ARCHIVE.

`u'
     Normally, `ar r'... inserts all files listed into the archive.  If
     you would like to insert _only_ those of the files you list that
     are newer than existing members of the same names, use this
     modifier.  The `u' modifier is allowed only for the operation `r'
     (replace).  In particular, the combination `qu' is not allowed,
     since checking the timestamps would lose any speed advantage from
     the operation `q'.

`v'
     This modifier requests the _verbose_ version of an operation.  Many
     operations display additional information, such as filenames
     processed, when the modifier `v' is appended.

`V'
     This modifier shows the version number of `ar'.

   `ar' ignores an initial option spelt `-X32_64', for compatibility
with AIX.  The behaviour produced by this option is the default for GNU
`ar'.  `ar' does not support any of the other `-X' options; in
particular, it does not support `-X32' which is the default for AIX
`ar'.

   The optional command line switch `--plugin' NAME causes `ar' to load
the plugin called NAME which adds support for more file formats.  This
option is only available if the toolchain has been built with plugin
support enabled.

File: binutils.info,  Node: ar scripts,  Prev: ar cmdline,  Up: ar

1.2 Controlling `ar' with a Script
==================================

     ar -M [ <SCRIPT ]

   If you use the single command-line option `-M' with `ar', you can
control its operation with a rudimentary command language.  This form
of `ar' operates interactively if standard input is coming directly
from a terminal.  During interactive use, `ar' prompts for input (the
prompt is `AR >'), and continues executing even after errors.  If you
redirect standard input to a script file, no prompts are issued, and
`ar' abandons execution (with a nonzero exit code) on any error.

   The `ar' command language is _not_ designed to be equivalent to the
command-line options; in fact, it provides somewhat less control over
archives.  The only purpose of the command language is to ease the
transition to GNU `ar' for developers who already have scripts written
for the MRI "librarian" program.

   The syntax for the `ar' command language is straightforward:
   * commands are recognized in upper or lower case; for example, `LIST'
     is the same as `list'.  In the following descriptions, commands are
     shown in upper case for clarity.

   * a single command may appear on each line; it is the first word on
     the line.

   * empty lines are allowed, and have no effect.

   * comments are allowed; text after either of the characters `*' or
     `;' is ignored.

   * Whenever you use a list of names as part of the argument to an `ar'
     command, you can separate the individual names with either commas
     or blanks.  Commas are shown in the explanations below, for
     clarity.

   * `+' is used as a line continuation character; if `+' appears at
     the end of a line, the text on the following line is considered
     part of the current command.

   Here are the commands you can use in `ar' scripts, or when using
`ar' interactively.  Three of them have special significance:

   `OPEN' or `CREATE' specify a "current archive", which is a temporary
file required for most of the other commands.

   `SAVE' commits the changes so far specified by the script.  Prior to
`SAVE', commands affect only the temporary copy of the current archive.

`ADDLIB ARCHIVE'
`ADDLIB ARCHIVE (MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE)'
     Add all the contents of ARCHIVE (or, if specified, each named
     MODULE from ARCHIVE) to the current archive.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`ADDMOD MEMBER, MEMBER, ... MEMBER'
     Add each named MEMBER as a module in the current archive.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`CLEAR'
     Discard the contents of the current archive, canceling the effect
     of any operations since the last `SAVE'.  May be executed (with no
     effect) even if  no current archive is specified.

`CREATE ARCHIVE'
     Creates an archive, and makes it the current archive (required for
     many other commands).  The new archive is created with a temporary
     name; it is not actually saved as ARCHIVE until you use `SAVE'.
     You can overwrite existing archives; similarly, the contents of any
     existing file named ARCHIVE will not be destroyed until `SAVE'.

`DELETE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
     Delete each listed MODULE from the current archive; equivalent to
     `ar -d ARCHIVE MODULE ... MODULE'.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE)'
`DIRECTORY ARCHIVE (MODULE, ... MODULE) OUTPUTFILE'
     List each named MODULE present in ARCHIVE.  The separate command
     `VERBOSE' specifies the form of the output: when verbose output is
     off, output is like that of `ar -t ARCHIVE MODULE...'.  When
     verbose output is on, the listing is like `ar -tv ARCHIVE
     MODULE...'.

     Output normally goes to the standard output stream; however, if you
     specify OUTPUTFILE as a final argument, `ar' directs the output to
     that file.

`END'
     Exit from `ar', with a `0' exit code to indicate successful
     completion.  This command does not save the output file; if you
     have changed the current archive since the last `SAVE' command,
     those changes are lost.

`EXTRACT MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
     Extract each named MODULE from the current archive, writing them
     into the current directory as separate files.  Equivalent to `ar -x
     ARCHIVE MODULE...'.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`LIST'
     Display full contents of the current archive, in "verbose" style
     regardless of the state of `VERBOSE'.  The effect is like `ar tv
     ARCHIVE'.  (This single command is a GNU `ar' enhancement, rather
     than present for MRI compatibility.)

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`OPEN ARCHIVE'
     Opens an existing archive for use as the current archive (required
     for many other commands).  Any changes as the result of subsequent
     commands will not actually affect ARCHIVE until you next use
     `SAVE'.

`REPLACE MODULE, MODULE, ... MODULE'
     In the current archive, replace each existing MODULE (named in the
     `REPLACE' arguments) from files in the current working directory.
     To execute this command without errors, both the file, and the
     module in the current archive, must exist.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.

`VERBOSE'
     Toggle an internal flag governing the output from `DIRECTORY'.
     When the flag is on, `DIRECTORY' output matches output from `ar
     -tv '....

`SAVE'
     Commit your changes to the current archive, and actually save it
     as a file with the name specified in the last `CREATE' or `OPEN'
     command.

     Requires prior use of `OPEN' or `CREATE'.


File: binutils.info,  Node: nm,  Next: objcopy,  Prev: ar,  Up: Top

2 nm
****

     nm [`-a'|`--debug-syms']
        [`-g'|`--extern-only'][`--plugin' NAME]
        [`-B'] [`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE]] [`-D'|`--dynamic']
        [`-S'|`--print-size'] [`-s'|`--print-armap']
        [`-A'|`-o'|`--print-file-name'][`--special-syms']
        [`-n'|`-v'|`--numeric-sort'] [`-p'|`--no-sort']
        [`-r'|`--reverse-sort'] [`--size-sort'] [`-u'|`--undefined-only']
        [`-t' RADIX|`--radix='RADIX] [`-P'|`--portability']
        [`--target='BFDNAME] [`-f'FORMAT|`--format='FORMAT]
        [`--defined-only'] [`-l'|`--line-numbers'] [`--no-demangle']
        [`-V'|`--version'] [`-X 32_64'] [`--help']  [OBJFILE...]

   GNU `nm' lists the symbols from object files OBJFILE....  If no
object files are listed as arguments, `nm' assumes the file `a.out'.

   For each symbol, `nm' shows:

   * The symbol value, in the radix selected by options (see below), or
     hexadecimal by default.

   * The symbol type.  At least the following types are used; others
     are, as well, depending on the object file format.  If lowercase,
     the symbol is local; if uppercase, the symbol is global (external).

    `A'
          The symbol's value is absolute, and will not be changed by
          further linking.

    `B'
    `b'
          The symbol is in the uninitialized data section (known as
          BSS).

    `C'
          The symbol is common.  Common symbols are uninitialized data.
          When linking, multiple common symbols may appear with the
          same name.  If the symbol is defined anywhere, the common
          symbols are treated as undefined references.  For more
          details on common symbols, see the discussion of -warn-common
          in *note Linker options: (ld.info)Options.

    `D'
    `d'
          The symbol is in the initialized data section.

    `G'
    `g'
          The symbol is in an initialized data section for small
          objects.  Some object file formats permit more efficient
          access to small data objects, such as a global int variable
          as opposed to a large global array.

    `i'
          For PE format files this indicates that the symbol is in a
          section specific to the implementation of DLLs.  For ELF
          format files this indicates that the symbol is an indirect
          function.  This is a GNU extension to the standard set of ELF
          symbol types.  It indicates a symbol which if referenced by a
          relocation does not evaluate to its address, but instead must
          be invoked at runtime.  The runtime execution will then
          return the value to be used in the relocation.

    `N'
          The symbol is a debugging symbol.

    `p'
          The symbols is in a stack unwind section.

    `R'
    `r'
          The symbol is in a read only data section.

    `S'
    `s'
          The symbol is in an uninitialized data section for small
          objects.

    `T'
    `t'
          The symbol is in the text (code) section.

    `U'
          The symbol is undefined.

    `u'
          The symbol is a unique global symbol.  This is a GNU
          extension to the standard set of ELF symbol bindings.  For
          such a symbol the dynamic linker will make sure that in the
          entire process there is just one symbol with this name and
          type in use.

    `V'
    `v'
          The symbol is a weak object.  When a weak defined symbol is
          linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
          symbol is used with no error.  When a weak undefined symbol
          is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the
          weak symbol becomes zero with no error.  On some systems,
          uppercase indicates that a default value has been specified.

    `W'
    `w'
          The symbol is a weak symbol that has not been specifically
          tagged as a weak object symbol.  When a weak defined symbol
          is linked with a normal defined symbol, the normal defined
          symbol is used with no error.  When a weak undefined symbol
          is linked and the symbol is not defined, the value of the
          symbol is determined in a system-specific manner without
          error.  On some systems, uppercase indicates that a default
          value has been specified.

    `-'
          The symbol is a stabs symbol in an a.out object file.  In
          this case, the next values printed are the stabs other field,
          the stabs desc field, and the stab type.  Stabs symbols are
          used to hold debugging information.  For more information,
          see *note Stabs: (stabs.info)Top.

    `?'
          The symbol type is unknown, or object file format specific.

   * The symbol name.

   The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.

`-A'
`-o'
`--print-file-name'
     Precede each symbol by the name of the input file (or archive
     member) in which it was found, rather than identifying the input
     file once only, before all of its symbols.

`-a'
`--debug-syms'
     Display all symbols, even debugger-only symbols; normally these
     are not listed.

`-B'
     The same as `--format=bsd' (for compatibility with the MIPS `nm').

`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
     Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
     Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
     this makes C++ function names readable. Different compilers have
     different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
     can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
     compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.

`--no-demangle'
     Do not demangle low-level symbol names.  This is the default.

`-D'
`--dynamic'
     Display the dynamic symbols rather than the normal symbols.  This
     is only meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of
     shared libraries.

`-f FORMAT'
`--format=FORMAT'
     Use the output format FORMAT, which can be `bsd', `sysv', or
     `posix'.  The default is `bsd'.  Only the first character of
     FORMAT is significant; it can be either upper or lower case.

`-g'
`--extern-only'
     Display only external symbols.

`--plugin NAME'
     Load the plugin called NAME to add support for extra target types.
     This option is only available if the toolchain has been built with
     plugin support enabled.

`-l'
`--line-numbers'
     For each symbol, use debugging information to try to find a
     filename and line number.  For a defined symbol, look for the line
     number of the address of the symbol.  For an undefined symbol,
     look for the line number of a relocation entry which refers to the
     symbol.  If line number information can be found, print it after
     the other symbol information.

`-n'
`-v'
`--numeric-sort'
     Sort symbols numerically by their addresses, rather than
     alphabetically by their names.

`-p'
`--no-sort'
     Do not bother to sort the symbols in any order; print them in the
     order encountered.

`-P'
`--portability'
     Use the POSIX.2 standard output format instead of the default
     format.  Equivalent to `-f posix'.

`-S'
`--print-size'
     Print both value and size of defined symbols for the `bsd' output
     style.  This option has no effect for object formats that do not
     record symbol sizes, unless `--size-sort' is also used in which
     case a calculated size is displayed.

`-s'
`--print-armap'
     When listing symbols from archive members, include the index: a
     mapping (stored in the archive by `ar' or `ranlib') of which
     modules contain definitions for which names.

`-r'
`--reverse-sort'
     Reverse the order of the sort (whether numeric or alphabetic); let
     the last come first.

`--size-sort'
     Sort symbols by size.  The size is computed as the difference
     between the value of the symbol and the value of the symbol with
     the next higher value.  If the `bsd' output format is used the
     size of the symbol is printed, rather than the value, and `-S'
     must be used in order both size and value to be printed.

`--special-syms'
     Display symbols which have a target-specific special meaning.
     These symbols are usually used by the target for some special
     processing and are not normally helpful when included included in
     the normal symbol lists.  For example for ARM targets this option
     would skip the mapping symbols used to mark transitions between
     ARM code, THUMB code and data.

`-t RADIX'
`--radix=RADIX'
     Use RADIX as the radix for printing the symbol values.  It must be
     `d' for decimal, `o' for octal, or `x' for hexadecimal.

`--target=BFDNAME'
     Specify an object code format other than your system's default
     format.  *Note Target Selection::, for more information.

`-u'
`--undefined-only'
     Display only undefined symbols (those external to each object
     file).

`--defined-only'
     Display only defined symbols for each object file.

`-V'
`--version'
     Show the version number of `nm' and exit.

`-X'
     This option is ignored for compatibility with the AIX version of
     `nm'.  It takes one parameter which must be the string `32_64'.
     The default mode of AIX `nm' corresponds to `-X 32', which is not
     supported by GNU `nm'.

`--help'
     Show a summary of the options to `nm' and exit.

File: binutils.info,  Node: objcopy,  Next: objdump,  Prev: nm,  Up: Top

3 objcopy
*********

     objcopy [`-F' BFDNAME|`--target='BFDNAME]
             [`-I' BFDNAME|`--input-target='BFDNAME]
             [`-O' BFDNAME|`--output-target='BFDNAME]
             [`-B' BFDARCH|`--binary-architecture='BFDARCH]
             [`-S'|`--strip-all']
             [`-g'|`--strip-debug']
             [`-K' SYMBOLNAME|`--keep-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`-N' SYMBOLNAME|`--strip-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`--strip-unneeded-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`-G' SYMBOLNAME|`--keep-global-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`--localize-hidden']
             [`-L' SYMBOLNAME|`--localize-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`--globalize-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`-W' SYMBOLNAME|`--weaken-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
             [`-w'|`--wildcard']
             [`-x'|`--discard-all']
             [`-X'|`--discard-locals']
             [`-b' BYTE|`--byte='BYTE]
             [`-i' INTERLEAVE|`--interleave='INTERLEAVE]
             [`-j' SECTIONNAME|`--only-section='SECTIONNAME]
             [`-R' SECTIONNAME|`--remove-section='SECTIONNAME]
             [`-p'|`--preserve-dates']
             [`--debugging']
             [`--gap-fill='VAL]
             [`--pad-to='ADDRESS]
             [`--set-start='VAL]
             [`--adjust-start='INCR]
             [`--change-addresses='INCR]
             [`--change-section-address' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
             [`--change-section-lma' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
             [`--change-section-vma' SECTION{=,+,-}VAL]
             [`--change-warnings'] [`--no-change-warnings']
             [`--set-section-flags' SECTION=FLAGS]
             [`--add-section' SECTIONNAME=FILENAME]
             [`--rename-section' OLDNAME=NEWNAME[,FLAGS]]
             [`--long-section-names' {enable,disable,keep}]
             [`--change-leading-char'] [`--remove-leading-char']
             [`--reverse-bytes='NUM]
             [`--srec-len='IVAL] [`--srec-forceS3']
             [`--redefine-sym' OLD=NEW]
             [`--redefine-syms='FILENAME]
             [`--weaken']
             [`--keep-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--strip-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--strip-unneeded-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--keep-global-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--localize-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--globalize-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--weaken-symbols='FILENAME]
             [`--alt-machine-code='INDEX]
             [`--prefix-symbols='STRING]
             [`--prefix-sections='STRING]
             [`--prefix-alloc-sections='STRING]
             [`--add-gnu-debuglink='PATH-TO-FILE]
             [`--keep-file-symbols']
             [`--only-keep-debug']
             [`--extract-symbol']
             [`--writable-text']
             [`--readonly-text']
             [`--pure']
             [`--impure']
             [`--file-alignment='NUM]
             [`--heap='SIZE]
             [`--image-base='ADDRESS]
             [`--section-alignment='NUM]
             [`--stack='SIZE]
             [`--subsystem='WHICH:MAJOR.MINOR]
             [`-v'|`--verbose']
             [`-V'|`--version']
             [`--help'] [`--info']
             INFILE [OUTFILE]

   The GNU `objcopy' utility copies the contents of an object file to
another.  `objcopy' uses the GNU BFD Library to read and write the
object files.  It can write the destination object file in a format
different from that of the source object file.  The exact behavior of
`objcopy' is controlled by command-line options.  Note that `objcopy'
should be able to copy a fully linked file between any two formats.
However, copying a relocatable object file between any two formats may
not work as expected.

   `objcopy' creates temporary files to do its translations and deletes
them afterward.  `objcopy' uses BFD to do all its translation work; it
has access to all the formats described in BFD and thus is able to
recognize most formats without being told explicitly.  *Note BFD:
(ld.info)BFD.

   `objcopy' can be used to generate S-records by using an output
target of `srec' (e.g., use `-O srec').

   `objcopy' can be used to generate a raw binary file by using an
output target of `binary' (e.g., use `-O binary').  When `objcopy'
generates a raw binary file, it will essentially produce a memory dump
of the contents of the input object file.  All symbols and relocation
information will be discarded.  The memory dump will start at the load
address of the lowest section copied into the output file.

   When generating an S-record or a raw binary file, it may be helpful
to use `-S' to remove sections containing debugging information.  In
some cases `-R' will be useful to remove sections which contain
information that is not needed by the binary file.

   Note--`objcopy' is not able to change the endianness of its input
files.  If the input format has an endianness (some formats do not),
`objcopy' can only copy the inputs into file formats that have the same
endianness or which have no endianness (e.g., `srec').  (However, see
the `--reverse-bytes' option.)

`INFILE'
`OUTFILE'
     The input and output files, respectively.  If you do not specify
     OUTFILE, `objcopy' creates a temporary file and destructively
     renames the result with the name of INFILE.

`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
     Consider the source file's object format to be BFDNAME, rather than
     attempting to deduce it.  *Note Target Selection::, for more
     information.

`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
     Write the output file using the object format BFDNAME.  *Note
     Target Selection::, for more information.

`-F BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
     Use BFDNAME as the object format for both the input and the output
     file; i.e., simply transfer data from source to destination with no
     translation.  *Note Target Selection::, for more information.

`-B BFDARCH'
`--binary-architecture=BFDARCH'
     Useful when transforming a architecture-less input file into an
     object file.  In this case the output architecture can be set to
     BFDARCH.  This option will be ignored if the input file has a
     known BFDARCH.  You can access this binary data inside a program
     by referencing the special symbols that are created by the
     conversion process.  These symbols are called
     _binary_OBJFILE_start, _binary_OBJFILE_end and
     _binary_OBJFILE_size.  e.g. you can transform a picture file into
     an object file and then access it in your code using these symbols.

`-j SECTIONNAME'
`--only-section=SECTIONNAME'
     Copy only the named section from the input file to the output file.
     This option may be given more than once.  Note that using this
     option inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

`-R SECTIONNAME'
`--remove-section=SECTIONNAME'
     Remove any section named SECTIONNAME from the output file.  This
     option may be given more than once.  Note that using this option
     inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

`-S'
`--strip-all'
     Do not copy relocation and symbol information from the source file.

`-g'
`--strip-debug'
     Do not copy debugging symbols or sections from the source file.

`--strip-unneeded'
     Strip all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

`-K SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     When stripping symbols, keep symbol SYMBOLNAME even if it would
     normally be stripped.  This option may be given more than once.

`-N SYMBOLNAME'
`--strip-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Do not copy symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file.  This option
     may be given more than once.

`--strip-unneeded-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Do not copy symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file unless it is
     needed by a relocation.  This option may be given more than once.

`-G SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-global-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Keep only symbol SYMBOLNAME global.  Make all other symbols local
     to the file, so that they are not visible externally.  This option
     may be given more than once.

`--localize-hidden'
     In an ELF object, mark all symbols that have hidden or internal
     visibility as local.  This option applies on top of
     symbol-specific localization options such as `-L'.

`-L SYMBOLNAME'
`--localize-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Make symbol SYMBOLNAME local to the file, so that it is not
     visible externally.  This option may be given more than once.

`-W SYMBOLNAME'
`--weaken-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Make symbol SYMBOLNAME weak. This option may be given more than
     once.

`--globalize-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Give symbol SYMBOLNAME global scoping so that it is visible
     outside of the file in which it is defined.  This option may be
     given more than once.

`-w'
`--wildcard'
     Permit regular expressions in SYMBOLNAMEs used in other command
     line options.  The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
     and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
     symbol name.  If the first character of the symbol name is the
     exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for
     that symbol.  For example:

            -w -W !foo -W fo*

     would cause objcopy to weaken all symbols that start with "fo"
     except for the symbol "foo".

`-x'
`--discard-all'
     Do not copy non-global symbols from the source file.

`-X'
`--discard-locals'
     Do not copy compiler-generated local symbols.  (These usually
     start with `L' or `.'.)

`-b BYTE'
`--byte=BYTE'
     Keep only every BYTEth byte of the input file (header data is not
     affected).  BYTE can be in the range from 0 to INTERLEAVE-1, where
     INTERLEAVE is given by the `-i' or `--interleave' option, or the
     default of 4.  This option is useful for creating files to program
     ROM.  It is typically used with an `srec' output target.

`-i INTERLEAVE'
`--interleave=INTERLEAVE'
     Only copy one out of every INTERLEAVE bytes.  Select which byte to
     copy with the `-b' or `--byte' option.  The default is 4.
     `objcopy' ignores this option if you do not specify either `-b' or
     `--byte'.

`-p'
`--preserve-dates'
     Set the access and modification dates of the output file to be the
     same as those of the input file.

`--debugging'
     Convert debugging information, if possible.  This is not the
     default because only certain debugging formats are supported, and
     the conversion process can be time consuming.

`--gap-fill VAL'
     Fill gaps between sections with VAL.  This operation applies to
     the _load address_ (LMA) of the sections.  It is done by increasing
     the size of the section with the lower address, and filling in the
     extra space created with VAL.

`--pad-to ADDRESS'
     Pad the output file up to the load address ADDRESS.  This is done
     by increasing the size of the last section.  The extra space is
     filled in with the value specified by `--gap-fill' (default zero).

`--set-start VAL'
     Set the start address of the new file to VAL.  Not all object file
     formats support setting the start address.

`--change-start INCR'
`--adjust-start INCR'
     Change the start address by adding INCR.  Not all object file
     formats support setting the start address.

`--change-addresses INCR'
`--adjust-vma INCR'
     Change the VMA and LMA addresses of all sections, as well as the
     start address, by adding INCR.  Some object file formats do not
     permit section addresses to be changed arbitrarily.  Note that
     this does not relocate the sections; if the program expects
     sections to be loaded at a certain address, and this option is
     used to change the sections such that they are loaded at a
     different address, the program may fail.

`--change-section-address SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
`--adjust-section-vma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
     Set or change both the VMA address and the LMA address of the named
     SECTION.  If `=' is used, the section address is set to VAL.
     Otherwise, VAL is added to or subtracted from the section address.
     See the comments under `--change-addresses', above. If SECTION
     does not exist in the input file, a warning will be issued, unless
     `--no-change-warnings' is used.

`--change-section-lma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
     Set or change the LMA address of the named SECTION.  The LMA
     address is the address where the section will be loaded into
     memory at program load time.  Normally this is the same as the VMA
     address, which is the address of the section at program run time,
     but on some systems, especially those where a program is held in
     ROM, the two can be different.  If `=' is used, the section
     address is set to VAL.  Otherwise, VAL is added to or subtracted
     from the section address.  See the comments under
     `--change-addresses', above.  If SECTION does not exist in the
     input file, a warning will be issued, unless
     `--no-change-warnings' is used.

`--change-section-vma SECTION{=,+,-}VAL'
     Set or change the VMA address of the named SECTION.  The VMA
     address is the address where the section will be located once the
     program has started executing.  Normally this is the same as the
     LMA address, which is the address where the section will be loaded
     into memory, but on some systems, especially those where a program
     is held in ROM, the two can be different.  If `=' is used, the
     section address is set to VAL.  Otherwise, VAL is added to or
     subtracted from the section address.  See the comments under
     `--change-addresses', above.  If SECTION does not exist in the
     input file, a warning will be issued, unless
     `--no-change-warnings' is used.

`--change-warnings'
`--adjust-warnings'
     If `--change-section-address' or `--change-section-lma' or
     `--change-section-vma' is used, and the named section does not
     exist, issue a warning.  This is the default.

`--no-change-warnings'
`--no-adjust-warnings'
     Do not issue a warning if `--change-section-address' or
     `--adjust-section-lma' or `--adjust-section-vma' is used, even if
     the named section does not exist.

`--set-section-flags SECTION=FLAGS'
     Set the flags for the named section.  The FLAGS argument is a
     comma separated string of flag names.  The recognized names are
     `alloc', `contents', `load', `noload', `readonly', `code', `data',
     `rom', `share', and `debug'.  You can set the `contents' flag for
     a section which does not have contents, but it is not meaningful
     to clear the `contents' flag of a section which does have
     contents-just remove the section instead.  Not all flags are
     meaningful for all object file formats.

`--add-section SECTIONNAME=FILENAME'
     Add a new section named SECTIONNAME while copying the file.  The
     contents of the new section are taken from the file FILENAME.  The
     size of the section will be the size of the file.  This option only
     works on file formats which can support sections with arbitrary
     names.

`--rename-section OLDNAME=NEWNAME[,FLAGS]'
     Rename a section from OLDNAME to NEWNAME, optionally changing the
     section's flags to FLAGS in the process.  This has the advantage
     over usng a linker script to perform the rename in that the output
     stays as an object file and does not become a linked executable.

     This option is particularly helpful when the input format is
     binary, since this will always create a section called .data.  If
     for example, you wanted instead to create a section called .rodata
     containing binary data you could use the following command line to
     achieve it:

            objcopy -I binary -O <output_format> -B <architecture> \
             --rename-section .data=.rodata,alloc,load,readonly,data,contents \
             <input_binary_file> <output_object_file>

`--long-section-names {enable,disable,keep}'
     Controls the handling of long section names when processing `COFF'
     and `PE-COFF' object formats.  The default behaviour, `keep', is
     to preserve long section names if any are present in the input
     file.  The `enable' and `disable' options forcibly enable or
     disable the use of long section names in the output object; when
     `disable' is in effect, any long section names in the input object
     will be truncated.  The `enable' option will only emit long
     section names if any are present in the inputs; this is mostly the
     same as `keep', but it is left undefined whether the `enable'
     option might force the creation of an empty string table in the
     output file.

`--change-leading-char'
     Some object file formats use special characters at the start of
     symbols.  The most common such character is underscore, which
     compilers often add before every symbol.  This option tells
     `objcopy' to change the leading character of every symbol when it
     converts between object file formats.  If the object file formats
     use the same leading character, this option has no effect.
     Otherwise, it will add a character, or remove a character, or
     change a character, as appropriate.

`--remove-leading-char'
     If the first character of a global symbol is a special symbol
     leading character used by the object file format, remove the
     character.  The most common symbol leading character is
     underscore.  This option will remove a leading underscore from all
     global symbols.  This can be useful if you want to link together
     objects of different file formats with different conventions for
     symbol names.  This is different from `--change-leading-char'
     because it always changes the symbol name when appropriate,
     regardless of the object file format of the output file.

`--reverse-bytes=NUM'
     Reverse the bytes in a section with output contents.  A section
     length must be evenly divisible by the value given in order for
     the swap to be able to take place. Reversing takes place before
     the interleaving is performed.

     This option is used typically in generating ROM images for
     problematic target systems.  For example, on some target boards,
     the 32-bit words fetched from 8-bit ROMs are re-assembled in
     little-endian byte order regardless of the CPU byte order.
     Depending on the programming model, the endianness of the ROM may
     need to be modified.

     Consider a simple file with a section containing the following
     eight bytes:  `12345678'.

     Using `--reverse-bytes=2' for the above example, the bytes in the
     output file would be ordered `21436587'.

     Using `--reverse-bytes=4' for the above example, the bytes in the
     output file would be ordered `43218765'.

     By using `--reverse-bytes=2' for the above example, followed by
     `--reverse-bytes=4' on the output file, the bytes in the second
     output file would be ordered `34127856'.

`--srec-len=IVAL'
     Meaningful only for srec output.  Set the maximum length of the
     Srecords being produced to IVAL.  This length covers both address,
     data and crc fields.

`--srec-forceS3'
     Meaningful only for srec output.  Avoid generation of S1/S2
     records, creating S3-only record format.

`--redefine-sym OLD=NEW'
     Change the name of a symbol OLD, to NEW.  This can be useful when
     one is trying link two things together for which you have no
     source, and there are name collisions.

`--redefine-syms=FILENAME'
     Apply `--redefine-sym' to each symbol pair "OLD NEW" listed in the
     file FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol
     pair per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash
     character.  This option may be given more than once.

`--weaken'
     Change all global symbols in the file to be weak.  This can be
     useful when building an object which will be linked against other
     objects using the `-R' option to the linker.  This option is only
     effective when using an object file format which supports weak
     symbols.

`--keep-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--keep-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
     FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
     per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
     This option may be given more than once.

`--strip-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--strip-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
     FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
     per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
     This option may be given more than once.

`--strip-unneeded-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--strip-unneeded-symbol' option to each symbol listed in
     the file FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one
     symbol name per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash
     character.  This option may be given more than once.

`--keep-global-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--keep-global-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the
     file FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol
     name per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash
     character.  This option may be given more than once.

`--localize-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--localize-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
     FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
     per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
     This option may be given more than once.

`--globalize-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--globalize-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
     FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
     per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
     This option may be given more than once.

`--weaken-symbols=FILENAME'
     Apply `--weaken-symbol' option to each symbol listed in the file
     FILENAME.  FILENAME is simply a flat file, with one symbol name
     per line.  Line comments may be introduced by the hash character.
     This option may be given more than once.

`--alt-machine-code=INDEX'
     If the output architecture has alternate machine codes, use the
     INDEXth code instead of the default one.  This is useful in case a
     machine is assigned an official code and the tool-chain adopts the
     new code, but other applications still depend on the original code
     being used.  For ELF based architectures if the INDEX alternative
     does not exist then the value is treated as an absolute number to
     be stored in the e_machine field of the ELF header.

`--writable-text'
     Mark the output text as writable.  This option isn't meaningful
     for all object file formats.

`--readonly-text'
     Make the output text write protected.  This option isn't
     meaningful for all object file formats.

`--pure'
     Mark the output file as demand paged.  This option isn't
     meaningful for all object file formats.

`--impure'
     Mark the output file as impure.  This option isn't meaningful for
     all object file formats.

`--prefix-symbols=STRING'
     Prefix all symbols in the output file with STRING.

`--prefix-sections=STRING'
     Prefix all section names in the output file with STRING.

`--prefix-alloc-sections=STRING'
     Prefix all the names of all allocated sections in the output file
     with STRING.

`--add-gnu-debuglink=PATH-TO-FILE'
     Creates a .gnu_debuglink section which contains a reference to
     PATH-TO-FILE and adds it to the output file.

`--keep-file-symbols'
     When stripping a file, perhaps with `--strip-debug' or
     `--strip-unneeded', retain any symbols specifying source file
     names, which would otherwise get stripped.

`--only-keep-debug'
     Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
     stripped by `--strip-debug' and leaving the debugging sections
     intact.  In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
     output.

     The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
     `--add-gnu-debuglink' to create a two part executable.  One a
     stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
     distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
     only needed if debugging abilities are required.  The suggested
     procedure to create these files is as follows:

       1. Link the executable as normal.  Assuming that is is called
          `foo' then...

       2. Run `objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg' to create a file
          containing the debugging info.

       3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo' to create a stripped
          executable.

       4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo' to add a link
          to the debugging info into the stripped executable.

     Note--the choice of `.dbg' as an extension for the debug info file
     is arbitrary.  Also the `--only-keep-debug' step is optional.  You
     could instead do this:

       1. Link the executable as normal.

       2. Copy `foo' to  `foo.full'

       3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo'

       4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo'

     i.e., the file pointed to by the `--add-gnu-debuglink' can be the
     full executable.  It does not have to be a file created by the
     `--only-keep-debug' switch.

     Note--this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files.
     It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
     debugging information may be incomplete.  Besides the
     gnu_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
     filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
     on a one-per-object-file basis.

`--file-alignment NUM'
     Specify the file alignment.  Sections in the file will always
     begin at file offsets which are multiples of this number.  This
     defaults to 512.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

`--heap RESERVE'
`--heap RESERVE,COMMIT'
     Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally
     commit) to be used as heap for this program.  [This option is
     specific to PE targets.]

`--image-base VALUE'
     Use VALUE as the base address of your program or dll.  This is the
     lowest memory location that will be used when your program or dll
     is loaded.  To reduce the need to relocate and improve performance
     of your dlls, each should have a unique base address and not
     overlap any other dlls.  The default is 0x400000 for executables,
     and 0x10000000 for dlls.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

`--section-alignment NUM'
     Sets the section alignment.  Sections in memory will always begin
     at addresses which are a multiple of this number.  Defaults to
     0x1000.  [This option is specific to PE targets.]

`--stack RESERVE'
`--stack RESERVE,COMMIT'
     Specify the number of bytes of memory to reserve (and optionally
     commit) to be used as stack for this program.  [This option is
     specific to PE targets.]

`--subsystem WHICH'
`--subsystem WHICH:MAJOR'
`--subsystem WHICH:MAJOR.MINOR'
     Specifies the subsystem under which your program will execute.  The
     legal values for WHICH are `native', `windows', `console',
     `posix', `efi-app', `efi-bsd', `efi-rtd', `sal-rtd', and `xbox'.
     You may optionally set the subsystem version also.  Numeric values
     are also accepted for WHICH.  [This option is specific to PE
     targets.]

`--extract-symbol'
     Keep the file's section flags and symbols but remove all section
     data.  Specifically, the option:

        * removes the contents of all sections;

        * sets the size of every section to zero; and

        * sets the file's start address to zero.

     This option is used to build a `.sym' file for a VxWorks kernel.
     It can also be a useful way of reducing the size of a
     `--just-symbols' linker input file.

`-V'
`--version'
     Show the version number of `objcopy'.

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Verbose output: list all object files modified.  In the case of
     archives, `objcopy -V' lists all members of the archive.

`--help'
     Show a summary of the options to `objcopy'.

`--info'
     Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
     available.

File: binutils.info,  Node: objdump,  Next: ranlib,  Prev: objcopy,  Up: Top

4 objdump
*********

     objdump [`-a'|`--archive-headers']
             [`-b' BFDNAME|`--target=BFDNAME']
             [`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE] ]
             [`-d'|`--disassemble']
             [`-D'|`--disassemble-all']
             [`-z'|`--disassemble-zeroes']
             [`-EB'|`-EL'|`--endian='{big | little }]
             [`-f'|`--file-headers']
             [`-F'|`--file-offsets']
             [`--file-start-context']
             [`-g'|`--debugging']
             [`-e'|`--debugging-tags']
             [`-h'|`--section-headers'|`--headers']
             [`-i'|`--info']
             [`-j' SECTION|`--section='SECTION]
             [`-l'|`--line-numbers']
             [`-S'|`--source']
             [`-m' MACHINE|`--architecture='MACHINE]
             [`-M' OPTIONS|`--disassembler-options='OPTIONS]
             [`-p'|`--private-headers']
             [`-r'|`--reloc']
             [`-R'|`--dynamic-reloc']
             [`-s'|`--full-contents']
             [`-W[lLiaprmfFsoR]'|
              `--dwarf'[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]]
             [`-G'|`--stabs']
             [`-t'|`--syms']
             [`-T'|`--dynamic-syms']
             [`-x'|`--all-headers']
             [`-w'|`--wide']
             [`--start-address='ADDRESS]
             [`--stop-address='ADDRESS]
             [`--prefix-addresses']
             [`--[no-]show-raw-insn']
             [`--adjust-vma='OFFSET]
             [`--special-syms']
             [`--prefix='PREFIX]
             [`--prefix-strip='LEVEL]
             [`--insn-width='WIDTH]
             [`-V'|`--version']
             [`-H'|`--help']
             OBJFILE...

   `objdump' displays information about one or more object files.  The
options control what particular information to display.  This
information is mostly useful to programmers who are working on the
compilation tools, as opposed to programmers who just want their
program to compile and work.

   OBJFILE... are the object files to be examined.  When you specify
archives, `objdump' shows information on each of the member object
files.

   The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.  At least one option from the list
`-a,-d,-D,-e,-f,-g,-G,-h,-H,-p,-r,-R,-s,-S,-t,-T,-V,-x' must be given.

`-a'
`--archive-header'
     If any of the OBJFILE files are archives, display the archive
     header information (in a format similar to `ls -l').  Besides the
     information you could list with `ar tv', `objdump -a' shows the
     object file format of each archive member.

`--adjust-vma=OFFSET'
     When dumping information, first add OFFSET to all the section
     addresses.  This is useful if the section addresses do not
     correspond to the symbol table, which can happen when putting
     sections at particular addresses when using a format which can not
     represent section addresses, such as a.out.

`-b BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
     Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
     BFDNAME.  This option may not be necessary; OBJDUMP can
     automatically recognize many formats.

     For example,
          objdump -b oasys -m vax -h fu.o
     displays summary information from the section headers (`-h') of
     `fu.o', which is explicitly identified (`-m') as a VAX object file
     in the format produced by Oasys compilers.  You can list the
     formats available with the `-i' option.  *Note Target Selection::,
     for more information.

`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
     Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
     Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
     this makes C++ function names readable.  Different compilers have
     different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
     can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
     compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.

`-g'
`--debugging'
     Display debugging information.  This attempts to parse STABS and
     IEEE debugging format information stored in the file and print it
     out using a C like syntax.  If neither of these formats are found
     this option falls back on the `-W' option to print any DWARF
     information in the file.

`-e'
`--debugging-tags'
     Like `-g', but the information is generated in a format compatible
     with ctags tool.

`-d'
`--disassemble'
     Display the assembler mnemonics for the machine instructions from
     OBJFILE.  This option only disassembles those sections which are
     expected to contain instructions.

`-D'
`--disassemble-all'
     Like `-d', but disassemble the contents of all sections, not just
     those expected to contain instructions.

     If the target is an ARM architecture this switch also has the
     effect of forcing the disassembler to decode pieces of data found
     in code sections as if they were instructions.

`--prefix-addresses'
     When disassembling, print the complete address on each line.  This
     is the older disassembly format.

`-EB'
`-EL'
`--endian={big|little}'
     Specify the endianness of the object files.  This only affects
     disassembly.  This can be useful when disassembling a file format
     which does not describe endianness information, such as S-records.

`-f'
`--file-headers'
     Display summary information from the overall header of each of the
     OBJFILE files.

`-F'
`--file-offsets'
     When disassembling sections, whenever a symbol is displayed, also
     display the file offset of the region of data that is about to be
     dumped.  If zeroes are being skipped, then when disassembly
     resumes, tell the user how many zeroes were skipped and the file
     offset of the location from where the disassembly resumes.  When
     dumping sections, display the file offset of the location from
     where the dump starts.

`--file-start-context'
     Specify that when displaying interlisted source code/disassembly
     (assumes `-S') from a file that has not yet been displayed, extend
     the context to the start of the file.

`-h'
`--section-headers'
`--headers'
     Display summary information from the section headers of the object
     file.

     File segments may be relocated to nonstandard addresses, for
     example by using the `-Ttext', `-Tdata', or `-Tbss' options to
     `ld'.  However, some object file formats, such as a.out, do not
     store the starting address of the file segments.  In those
     situations, although `ld' relocates the sections correctly, using
     `objdump -h' to list the file section headers cannot show the
     correct addresses.  Instead, it shows the usual addresses, which
     are implicit for the target.

`-H'
`--help'
     Print a summary of the options to `objdump' and exit.

`-i'
`--info'
     Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
     available for specification with `-b' or `-m'.

`-j NAME'
`--section=NAME'
     Display information only for section NAME.

`-l'
`--line-numbers'
     Label the display (using debugging information) with the filename
     and source line numbers corresponding to the object code or relocs
     shown.  Only useful with `-d', `-D', or `-r'.

`-m MACHINE'
`--architecture=MACHINE'
     Specify the architecture to use when disassembling object files.
     This can be useful when disassembling object files which do not
     describe architecture information, such as S-records.  You can
     list the available architectures with the `-i' option.

     If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch has an
     additional effect.  It restricts the disassembly to only those
     instructions supported by the architecture specified by MACHINE.
     If it is necessary to use this switch because the input file does
     not contain any architecture information, but it is also desired to
     disassemble all the instructions use `-marm'.

`-M OPTIONS'
`--disassembler-options=OPTIONS'
     Pass target specific information to the disassembler.  Only
     supported on some targets.  If it is necessary to specify more
     than one disassembler option then multiple `-M' options can be
     used or can be placed together into a comma separated list.

     If the target is an ARM architecture then this switch can be used
     to select which register name set is used during disassembler.
     Specifying `-M reg-names-std' (the default) will select the
     register names as used in ARM's instruction set documentation, but
     with register 13 called 'sp', register 14 called 'lr' and register
     15 called 'pc'.  Specifying `-M reg-names-apcs' will select the
     name set used by the ARM Procedure Call Standard, whilst
     specifying `-M reg-names-raw' will just use `r' followed by the
     register number.

     There are also two variants on the APCS register naming scheme
     enabled by `-M reg-names-atpcs' and `-M reg-names-special-atpcs'
     which use the ARM/Thumb Procedure Call Standard naming
     conventions.  (Either with the normal register names or the
     special register names).

     This option can also be used for ARM architectures to force the
     disassembler to interpret all instructions as Thumb instructions by
     using the switch `--disassembler-options=force-thumb'.  This can be
     useful when attempting to disassemble thumb code produced by other
     compilers.

     For the x86, some of the options duplicate functions of the `-m'
     switch, but allow finer grained control.  Multiple selections from
     the following may be specified as a comma separated string.
     `x86-64', `i386' and `i8086' select disassembly for the given
     architecture.  `intel' and `att' select between intel syntax mode
     and AT&T syntax mode.  `intel-mnemonic' and `att-mnemonic' select
     between intel mnemonic mode and AT&T mnemonic mode.
     `intel-mnemonic' implies `intel' and `att-mnemonic' implies `att'.
     `addr64', `addr32', `addr16', `data32' and `data16' specify the
     default address size and operand size.  These four options will be
     overridden if `x86-64', `i386' or `i8086' appear later in the
     option string.  Lastly, `suffix', when in AT&T mode, instructs the
     disassembler to print a mnemonic suffix even when the suffix could
     be inferred by the operands.

     For PowerPC, `booke' controls the disassembly of BookE
     instructions.  `32' and `64' select PowerPC and PowerPC64
     disassembly, respectively.  `e300' selects disassembly for the
     e300 family.  `440' selects disassembly for the PowerPC 440.
     `ppcps' selects disassembly for the paired single instructions of
     the PPC750CL.

     For MIPS, this option controls the printing of instruction mnemonic
     names and register names in disassembled instructions.  Multiple
     selections from the following may be specified as a comma separated
     string, and invalid options are ignored:

    `no-aliases'
          Print the 'raw' instruction mnemonic instead of some pseudo
          instruction mnemonic.  I.e., print 'daddu' or 'or' instead of
          'move', 'sll' instead of 'nop', etc.

    `gpr-names=ABI'
          Print GPR (general-purpose register) names as appropriate for
          the specified ABI.  By default, GPR names are selected
          according to the ABI of the binary being disassembled.

    `fpr-names=ABI'
          Print FPR (floating-point register) names as appropriate for
          the specified ABI.  By default, FPR numbers are printed
          rather than names.

    `cp0-names=ARCH'
          Print CP0 (system control coprocessor; coprocessor 0)
          register names as appropriate for the CPU or architecture
          specified by ARCH.  By default, CP0 register names are
          selected according to the architecture and CPU of the binary
          being disassembled.

    `hwr-names=ARCH'
          Print HWR (hardware register, used by the `rdhwr'
          instruction) names as appropriate for the CPU or architecture
          specified by ARCH.  By default, HWR names are selected
          according to the architecture and CPU of the binary being
          disassembled.

    `reg-names=ABI'
          Print GPR and FPR names as appropriate for the selected ABI.

    `reg-names=ARCH'
          Print CPU-specific register names (CP0 register and HWR names)
          as appropriate for the selected CPU or architecture.

     For any of the options listed above, ABI or ARCH may be specified
     as `numeric' to have numbers printed rather than names, for the
     selected types of registers.  You can list the available values of
     ABI and ARCH using the `--help' option.

     For VAX, you can specify function entry addresses with `-M
     entry:0xf00ba'.  You can use this multiple times to properly
     disassemble VAX binary files that don't contain symbol tables (like
     ROM dumps).  In these cases, the function entry mask would
     otherwise be decoded as VAX instructions, which would probably
     lead the rest of the function being wrongly disassembled.

`-p'
`--private-headers'
     Print information that is specific to the object file format.  The
     exact information printed depends upon the object file format.
     For some object file formats, no additional information is printed.

`-r'
`--reloc'
     Print the relocation entries of the file.  If used with `-d' or
     `-D', the relocations are printed interspersed with the
     disassembly.

`-R'
`--dynamic-reloc'
     Print the dynamic relocation entries of the file.  This is only
     meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
     libraries.  As for `-r', if used with `-d' or `-D', the
     relocations are printed interspersed with the disassembly.

`-s'
`--full-contents'
     Display the full contents of any sections requested.  By default
     all non-empty sections are displayed.

`-S'
`--source'
     Display source code intermixed with disassembly, if possible.
     Implies `-d'.

`--prefix=PREFIX'
     Specify PREFIX to add to the absolute paths when used with `-S'.

`--prefix-strip=LEVEL'
     Indicate how many initial directory names to strip off the
     hardwired absolute paths. It has no effect without
     `--prefix='PREFIX.

`--show-raw-insn'
     When disassembling instructions, print the instruction in hex as
     well as in symbolic form.  This is the default except when
     `--prefix-addresses' is used.

`--no-show-raw-insn'
     When disassembling instructions, do not print the instruction
     bytes.  This is the default when `--prefix-addresses' is used.

`--insn-width=WIDTH'
     Display WIDTH bytes on a single line when disassembling
     instructions.

`-W[lLiaprmfFsoR]'
`--dwarf[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]'
     Displays the contents of the debug sections in the file, if any are
     present.  If one of the optional letters or words follows the
     switch then only data found in those specific sections will be
     dumped.

`-G'
`--stabs'
     Display the full contents of any sections requested.  Display the
     contents of the .stab and .stab.index and .stab.excl sections from
     an ELF file.  This is only useful on systems (such as Solaris 2.0)
     in which `.stab' debugging symbol-table entries are carried in an
     ELF section.  In most other file formats, debugging symbol-table
     entries are interleaved with linkage symbols, and are visible in
     the `--syms' output.  For more information on stabs symbols, see
     *note Stabs: (stabs.info)Top.

`--start-address=ADDRESS'
     Start displaying data at the specified address.  This affects the
     output of the `-d', `-r' and `-s' options.

`--stop-address=ADDRESS'
     Stop displaying data at the specified address.  This affects the
     output of the `-d', `-r' and `-s' options.

`-t'
`--syms'
     Print the symbol table entries of the file.  This is similar to
     the information provided by the `nm' program, although the display
     format is different.  The format of the output depends upon the
     format of the file being dumped, but there are two main types.
     One looks like this:

          [  4](sec  3)(fl 0x00)(ty   0)(scl   3) (nx 1) 0x00000000 .bss
          [  6](sec  1)(fl 0x00)(ty   0)(scl   2) (nx 0) 0x00000000 fred

     where the number inside the square brackets is the number of the
     entry in the symbol table, the SEC number is the section number,
     the FL value are the symbol's flag bits, the TY number is the
     symbol's type, the SCL number is the symbol's storage class and
     the NX value is the number of auxilary entries associated with the
     symbol.  The last two fields are the symbol's value and its name.

     The other common output format, usually seen with ELF based files,
     looks like this:

          00000000 l    d  .bss   00000000 .bss
          00000000 g       .text  00000000 fred

     Here the first number is the symbol's value (sometimes refered to
     as its address).  The next field is actually a set of characters
     and spaces indicating the flag bits that are set on the symbol.
     These characters are described below.  Next is the section with
     which the symbol is associated or _*ABS*_ if the section is
     absolute (ie not connected with any section), or _*UND*_ if the
     section is referenced in the file being dumped, but not defined
     there.

     After the section name comes another field, a number, which for
     common symbols is the alignment and for other symbol is the size.
     Finally the symbol's name is displayed.

     The flag characters are divided into 7 groups as follows:
    `l'
    `g'
    `u'
    `!'
          The symbol is a local (l), global (g), unique global (u),
          neither global nor local (a space) or both global and local
          (!).  A symbol can be neither local or global for a variety
          of reasons, e.g., because it is used for debugging, but it is
          probably an indication of a bug if it is ever both local and
          global.  Unique global symbols are a GNU extension to the
          standard set of ELF symbol bindings.  For such a symbol the
          dynamic linker will make sure that in the entire process
          there is just one symbol with this name and type in use.

    `w'
          The symbol is weak (w) or strong (a space).

    `C'
          The symbol denotes a constructor (C) or an ordinary symbol (a
          space).

    `W'
          The symbol is a warning (W) or a normal symbol (a space).  A
          warning symbol's name is a message to be displayed if the
          symbol following the warning symbol is ever referenced.

    `I'

    `i'
          The symbol is an indirect reference to another symbol (I), a
          function to be evaluated during reloc processing (i) or a
          normal symbol (a space).

    `d'
    `D'
          The symbol is a debugging symbol (d) or a dynamic symbol (D)
          or a normal symbol (a space).

    `F'

    `f'

    `O'
          The symbol is the name of a function (F) or a file (f) or an
          object (O) or just a normal symbol (a space).

`-T'
`--dynamic-syms'
     Print the dynamic symbol table entries of the file.  This is only
     meaningful for dynamic objects, such as certain types of shared
     libraries.  This is similar to the information provided by the `nm'
     program when given the `-D' (`--dynamic') option.

`--special-syms'
     When displaying symbols include those which the target considers
     to be special in some way and which would not normally be of
     interest to the user.

`-V'
`--version'
     Print the version number of `objdump' and exit.

`-x'
`--all-headers'
     Display all available header information, including the symbol
     table and relocation entries.  Using `-x' is equivalent to
     specifying all of `-a -f -h -p -r -t'.

`-w'
`--wide'
     Format some lines for output devices that have more than 80
     columns.  Also do not truncate symbol names when they are
     displayed.

`-z'
`--disassemble-zeroes'
     Normally the disassembly output will skip blocks of zeroes.  This
     option directs the disassembler to disassemble those blocks, just
     like any other data.

File: binutils.info,  Node: ranlib,  Next: readelf,  Prev: objdump,  Up: Top

5 ranlib
********

     ranlib [`-vVt'] ARCHIVE

   `ranlib' generates an index to the contents of an archive and stores
it in the archive.  The index lists each symbol defined by a member of
an archive that is a relocatable object file.

   You may use `nm -s' or `nm --print-armap' to list this index.

   An archive with such an index speeds up linking to the library and
allows routines in the library to call each other without regard to
their placement in the archive.

   The GNU `ranlib' program is another form of GNU `ar'; running
`ranlib' is completely equivalent to executing `ar -s'.  *Note ar::.

`-v'
`-V'
`--version'
     Show the version number of `ranlib'.

`-t'
     Update the timestamp of the symbol map of an archive.

File: binutils.info,  Node: readelf,  Next: size,  Prev: ranlib,  Up: Top

15 readelf
**********

     readelf [`-a'|`--all']
             [`-h'|`--file-header']
             [`-l'|`--program-headers'|`--segments']
             [`-S'|`--section-headers'|`--sections']
             [`-g'|`--section-groups']
             [`-t'|`--section-details']
             [`-e'|`--headers']
             [`-s'|`--syms'|`--symbols']
             [`-n'|`--notes']
             [`-r'|`--relocs']
             [`-u'|`--unwind']
             [`-d'|`--dynamic']
             [`-V'|`--version-info']
             [`-A'|`--arch-specific']
             [`-D'|`--use-dynamic']
             [`-x' <number or name>|`--hex-dump='<number or name>]
             [`-p' <number or name>|`--string-dump='<number or name>]
             [`-R' <number or name>|`--relocated-dump='<number or name>]
             [`-c'|`--archive-index']
             [`-w[lLiaprmfFsoR]'|
              `--debug-dump'[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]]
             [`-I'|`-histogram']
             [`-v'|`--version']
             [`-W'|`--wide']
             [`-H'|`--help']
             ELFFILE...

   `readelf' displays information about one or more ELF format object
files.  The options control what particular information to display.

   ELFFILE... are the object files to be examined.  32-bit and 64-bit
ELF files are supported, as are archives containing ELF files.

   This program performs a similar function to `objdump' but it goes
into more detail and it exists independently of the BFD library, so if
there is a bug in BFD then readelf will not be affected.

   The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.  At least one option besides `-v' or `-H' must be given.

`-a'
`--all'
     Equivalent to specifying `--file-header', `--program-headers',
     `--sections', `--symbols', `--relocs', `--dynamic', `--notes' and
     `--version-info'.

`-h'
`--file-header'
     Displays the information contained in the ELF header at the start
     of the file.

`-l'
`--program-headers'
`--segments'
     Displays the information contained in the file's segment headers,
     if it has any.

`-S'
`--sections'
`--section-headers'
     Displays the information contained in the file's section headers,
     if it has any.

`-g'
`--section-groups'
     Displays the information contained in the file's section groups,
     if it has any.

`-t'
`--section-details'
     Displays the detailed section information. Implies `-S'.

`-s'
`--symbols'
`--syms'
     Displays the entries in symbol table section of the file, if it
     has one.

`-e'
`--headers'
     Display all the headers in the file.  Equivalent to `-h -l -S'.

`-n'
`--notes'
     Displays the contents of the NOTE segments and/or sections, if any.

`-r'
`--relocs'
     Displays the contents of the file's relocation section, if it has
     one.

`-u'
`--unwind'
     Displays the contents of the file's unwind section, if it has one.
     Only the unwind sections for IA64 ELF files are currently
     supported.

`-d'
`--dynamic'
     Displays the contents of the file's dynamic section, if it has one.

`-V'
`--version-info'
     Displays the contents of the version sections in the file, it they
     exist.

`-A'
`--arch-specific'
     Displays architecture-specific information in the file, if there
     is any.

`-D'
`--use-dynamic'
     When displaying symbols, this option makes `readelf' use the
     symbol table in the file's dynamic section, rather than the one in
     the symbols section.

`-x <number or name>'
`--hex-dump=<number or name>'
     Displays the contents of the indicated section as a hexadecimal
     bytes.  A number identifies a particular section by index in the
     section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
     name in the object file.

`-R <number or name>'
`--relocated-dump=<number or name>'
     Displays the contents of the indicated section as a hexadecimal
     bytes.  A number identifies a particular section by index in the
     section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
     name in the object file.  The contents of the section will be
     relocated before they are displayed.

`-p <number or name>'
`--string-dump=<number or name>'
     Displays the contents of the indicated section as printable
     strings.  A number identifies a particular section by index in the
     section table; any other string identifies all sections with that
     name in the object file.

`-c'
`--archive-index'
     Displays the file symbol index infomation contained in the header
     part of binary archives.  Performs the same function as the `t'
     command to `ar', but without using the BFD library.  *Note ar::.

`-w[lLiaprmfFsoR]'
`--debug-dump[=rawline,=decodedline,=info,=abbrev,=pubnames,=aranges,=macro,=frames,=frames-interp,=str,=loc,=Ranges]'
     Displays the contents of the debug sections in the file, if any are
     present.  If one of the optional letters or words follows the
     switch then only data found in those specific sections will be
     dumped.

     Note: the `=decodedline' option will display the interpreted
     contents of a .debug_line section whereas the `=rawline' option
     dumps the contents in a raw format.

`-I'
`--histogram'
     Display a histogram of bucket list lengths when displaying the
     contents of the symbol tables.

`-v'
`--version'
     Display the version number of readelf.

`-W'
`--wide'
     Don't break output lines to fit into 80 columns. By default
     `readelf' breaks section header and segment listing lines for
     64-bit ELF files, so that they fit into 80 columns. This option
     causes `readelf' to print each section header resp. each segment
     one a single line, which is far more readable on terminals wider
     than 80 columns.

`-H'
`--help'
     Display the command line options understood by `readelf'.


File: binutils.info,  Node: size,  Next: strings,  Prev: readelf,  Up: Top

6 size
******

     size [`-A'|`-B'|`--format='COMPATIBILITY]
          [`--help']
          [`-d'|`-o'|`-x'|`--radix='NUMBER]
          [`--common']
          [`-t'|`--totals']
          [`--target='BFDNAME] [`-V'|`--version']
          [OBJFILE...]

   The GNU `size' utility lists the section sizes--and the total
size--for each of the object or archive files OBJFILE in its argument
list.  By default, one line of output is generated for each object file
or each module in an archive.

   OBJFILE... are the object files to be examined.  If none are
specified, the file `a.out' will be used.

   The command line options have the following meanings:

`-A'
`-B'
`--format=COMPATIBILITY'
     Using one of these options, you can choose whether the output from
     GNU `size' resembles output from System V `size' (using `-A', or
     `--format=sysv'), or Berkeley `size' (using `-B', or
     `--format=berkeley').  The default is the one-line format similar
     to Berkeley's.

     Here is an example of the Berkeley (default) format of output from
     `size':
          $ size --format=Berkeley ranlib size
          text    data    bss     dec     hex     filename
          294880  81920   11592   388392  5ed28   ranlib
          294880  81920   11888   388688  5ee50   size

     This is the same data, but displayed closer to System V
     conventions:

          $ size --format=SysV ranlib size
          ranlib  :
          section         size         addr
          .text         294880         8192
          .data          81920       303104
          .bss           11592       385024
          Total         388392


          size  :
          section         size         addr
          .text         294880         8192
          .data          81920       303104
          .bss           11888       385024
          Total         388688

`--help'
     Show a summary of acceptable arguments and options.

`-d'
`-o'
`-x'
`--radix=NUMBER'
     Using one of these options, you can control whether the size of
     each section is given in decimal (`-d', or `--radix=10'); octal
     (`-o', or `--radix=8'); or hexadecimal (`-x', or `--radix=16').
     In `--radix=NUMBER', only the three values (8, 10, 16) are
     supported.  The total size is always given in two radices; decimal
     and hexadecimal for `-d' or `-x' output, or octal and hexadecimal
     if you're using `-o'.

`--common'
     Print total size of common symbols in each file.  When using
     Berkeley format these are included in the bss size.

`-t'
`--totals'
     Show totals of all objects listed (Berkeley format listing mode
     only).

`--target=BFDNAME'
     Specify that the object-code format for OBJFILE is BFDNAME.  This
     option may not be necessary; `size' can automatically recognize
     many formats.  *Note Target Selection::, for more information.

`-V'
`--version'
     Display the version number of `size'.

File: binutils.info,  Node: strings,  Next: strip,  Prev: size,  Up: Top

7 strings
*********

     strings [`-afovV'] [`-'MIN-LEN]
             [`-n' MIN-LEN] [`--bytes='MIN-LEN]
             [`-t' RADIX] [`--radix='RADIX]
             [`-e' ENCODING] [`--encoding='ENCODING]
             [`-'] [`--all'] [`--print-file-name']
             [`-T' BFDNAME] [`--target='BFDNAME]
             [`--help'] [`--version'] FILE...

   For each FILE given, GNU `strings' prints the printable character
sequences that are at least 4 characters long (or the number given with
the options below) and are followed by an unprintable character.  By
default, it only prints the strings from the initialized and loaded
sections of object files; for other types of files, it prints the
strings from the whole file.

   `strings' is mainly useful for determining the contents of non-text
files.

`-a'
`--all'
`-'
     Do not scan only the initialized and loaded sections of object
     files; scan the whole files.

`-f'
`--print-file-name'
     Print the name of the file before each string.

`--help'
     Print a summary of the program usage on the standard output and
     exit.

`-MIN-LEN'
`-n MIN-LEN'
`--bytes=MIN-LEN'
     Print sequences of characters that are at least MIN-LEN characters
     long, instead of the default 4.

`-o'
     Like `-t o'.  Some other versions of `strings' have `-o' act like
     `-t d' instead.  Since we can not be compatible with both ways, we
     simply chose one.

`-t RADIX'
`--radix=RADIX'
     Print the offset within the file before each string.  The single
     character argument specifies the radix of the offset--`o' for
     octal, `x' for hexadecimal, or `d' for decimal.

`-e ENCODING'
`--encoding=ENCODING'
     Select the character encoding of the strings that are to be found.
     Possible values for ENCODING are: `s' = single-7-bit-byte
     characters (ASCII, ISO 8859, etc., default), `S' =
     single-8-bit-byte characters, `b' = 16-bit bigendian, `l' = 16-bit
     littleendian, `B' = 32-bit bigendian, `L' = 32-bit littleendian.
     Useful for finding wide character strings. (`l' and `b' apply to,
     for example, Unicode UTF-16/UCS-2 encodings).

`-T BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
     Specify an object code format other than your system's default
     format.  *Note Target Selection::, for more information.

`-v'
`-V'
`--version'
     Print the program version number on the standard output and exit.

File: binutils.info,  Node: strip,  Next: c++filt,  Prev: strings,  Up: Top

8 strip
*******

     strip [`-F' BFDNAME |`--target='BFDNAME]
           [`-I' BFDNAME |`--input-target='BFDNAME]
           [`-O' BFDNAME |`--output-target='BFDNAME]
           [`-s'|`--strip-all']
           [`-S'|`-g'|`-d'|`--strip-debug']
           [`-K' SYMBOLNAME |`--keep-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
           [`-N' SYMBOLNAME |`--strip-symbol='SYMBOLNAME]
           [`-w'|`--wildcard']
           [`-x'|`--discard-all'] [`-X' |`--discard-locals']
           [`-R' SECTIONNAME |`--remove-section='SECTIONNAME]
           [`-o' FILE] [`-p'|`--preserve-dates']
           [`--keep-file-symbols']
           [`--only-keep-debug']
           [`-v' |`--verbose'] [`-V'|`--version']
           [`--help'] [`--info']
           OBJFILE...

   GNU `strip' discards all symbols from object files OBJFILE.  The
list of object files may include archives.  At least one object file
must be given.

   `strip' modifies the files named in its argument, rather than
writing modified copies under different names.

`-F BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
     Treat the original OBJFILE as a file with the object code format
     BFDNAME, and rewrite it in the same format.  *Note Target
     Selection::, for more information.

`--help'
     Show a summary of the options to `strip' and exit.

`--info'
     Display a list showing all architectures and object formats
     available.

`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
     Treat the original OBJFILE as a file with the object code format
     BFDNAME.  *Note Target Selection::, for more information.

`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
     Replace OBJFILE with a file in the output format BFDNAME.  *Note
     Target Selection::, for more information.

`-R SECTIONNAME'
`--remove-section=SECTIONNAME'
     Remove any section named SECTIONNAME from the output file.  This
     option may be given more than once.  Note that using this option
     inappropriately may make the output file unusable.

`-s'
`--strip-all'
     Remove all symbols.

`-g'
`-S'
`-d'
`--strip-debug'
     Remove debugging symbols only.

`--strip-unneeded'
     Remove all symbols that are not needed for relocation processing.

`-K SYMBOLNAME'
`--keep-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     When stripping symbols, keep symbol SYMBOLNAME even if it would
     normally be stripped.  This option may be given more than once.

`-N SYMBOLNAME'
`--strip-symbol=SYMBOLNAME'
     Remove symbol SYMBOLNAME from the source file. This option may be
     given more than once, and may be combined with strip options other
     than `-K'.

`-o FILE'
     Put the stripped output in FILE, rather than replacing the
     existing file.  When this argument is used, only one OBJFILE
     argument may be specified.

`-p'
`--preserve-dates'
     Preserve the access and modification dates of the file.

`-w'
`--wildcard'
     Permit regular expressions in SYMBOLNAMEs used in other command
     line options.  The question mark (?), asterisk (*), backslash (\)
     and square brackets ([]) operators can be used anywhere in the
     symbol name.  If the first character of the symbol name is the
     exclamation point (!) then the sense of the switch is reversed for
     that symbol.  For example:

            -w -K !foo -K fo*

     would cause strip to only keep symbols that start with the letters
     "fo", but to discard the symbol "foo".

`-x'
`--discard-all'
     Remove non-global symbols.

`-X'
`--discard-locals'
     Remove compiler-generated local symbols.  (These usually start
     with `L' or `.'.)

`--keep-file-symbols'
     When stripping a file, perhaps with `--strip-debug' or
     `--strip-unneeded', retain any symbols specifying source file
     names, which would otherwise get stripped.

`--only-keep-debug'
     Strip a file, removing contents of any sections that would not be
     stripped by `--strip-debug' and leaving the debugging sections
     intact.  In ELF files, this preserves all note sections in the
     output.

     The intention is that this option will be used in conjunction with
     `--add-gnu-debuglink' to create a two part executable.  One a
     stripped binary which will occupy less space in RAM and in a
     distribution and the second a debugging information file which is
     only needed if debugging abilities are required.  The suggested
     procedure to create these files is as follows:

       1. Link the executable as normal.  Assuming that is is called
          `foo' then...

       2. Run `objcopy --only-keep-debug foo foo.dbg' to create a file
          containing the debugging info.

       3. Run `objcopy --strip-debug foo' to create a stripped
          executable.

       4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.dbg foo' to add a link
          to the debugging info into the stripped executable.

     Note--the choice of `.dbg' as an extension for the debug info file
     is arbitrary.  Also the `--only-keep-debug' step is optional.  You
     could instead do this:

       1. Link the executable as normal.

       2. Copy `foo' to `foo.full'

       3. Run `strip --strip-debug foo'

       4. Run `objcopy --add-gnu-debuglink=foo.full foo'

     i.e., the file pointed to by the `--add-gnu-debuglink' can be the
     full executable.  It does not have to be a file created by the
     `--only-keep-debug' switch.

     Note--this switch is only intended for use on fully linked files.
     It does not make sense to use it on object files where the
     debugging information may be incomplete.  Besides the
     gnu_debuglink feature currently only supports the presence of one
     filename containing debugging information, not multiple filenames
     on a one-per-object-file basis.

`-V'
`--version'
     Show the version number for `strip'.

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Verbose output: list all object files modified.  In the case of
     archives, `strip -v' lists all members of the archive.

File: binutils.info,  Node: c++filt,  Next: addr2line,  Prev: strip,  Up: Top

9 c++filt
*********

     c++filt [`-_'|`--strip-underscore']
             [`-n'|`--no-strip-underscore']
             [`-p'|`--no-params']
             [`-t'|`--types']
             [`-i'|`--no-verbose']
             [`-s' FORMAT|`--format='FORMAT]
             [`--help']  [`--version']  [SYMBOL...]

   The C++ and Java languages provide function overloading, which means
that you can write many functions with the same name, providing that
each function takes parameters of different types.  In order to be able
to distinguish these similarly named functions C++ and Java encode them
into a low-level assembler name which uniquely identifies each
different version.  This process is known as "mangling". The `c++filt'
(1) program does the inverse mapping: it decodes ("demangles") low-level
names into user-level names so that they can be read.

   Every alphanumeric word (consisting of letters, digits, underscores,
dollars, or periods) seen in the input is a potential mangled name.  If
the name decodes into a C++ name, the C++ name replaces the low-level
name in the output, otherwise the original word is output.  In this way
you can pass an entire assembler source file, containing mangled names,
through `c++filt' and see the same source file containing demangled
names.

   You can also use `c++filt' to decipher individual symbols by passing
them on the command line:

     c++filt SYMBOL

   If no SYMBOL arguments are given, `c++filt' reads symbol names from
the standard input instead.  All the results are printed on the
standard output.  The difference between reading names from the command
line versus reading names from the standard input is that command line
arguments are expected to be just mangled names and no checking is
performed to separate them from surrounding text.  Thus for example:

     c++filt -n _Z1fv

   will work and demangle the name to "f()" whereas:

     c++filt -n _Z1fv,

   will not work.  (Note the extra comma at the end of the mangled name
which makes it invalid).  This command however will work:

     echo _Z1fv, | c++filt -n

   and will display "f(),", i.e., the demangled name followed by a
trailing comma.  This behaviour is because when the names are read from
the standard input it is expected that they might be part of an
assembler source file where there might be extra, extraneous characters
trailing after a mangled name.  For example:

         .type   _Z1fv, @function

`-_'
`--strip-underscore'
     On some systems, both the C and C++ compilers put an underscore in
     front of every name.  For example, the C name `foo' gets the
     low-level name `_foo'.  This option removes the initial
     underscore.  Whether `c++filt' removes the underscore by default
     is target dependent.

`-n'
`--no-strip-underscore'
     Do not remove the initial underscore.

`-p'
`--no-params'
     When demangling the name of a function, do not display the types of
     the function's parameters.

`-t'
`--types'
     Attempt to demangle types as well as function names.  This is
     disabled by default since mangled types are normally only used
     internally in the compiler, and they can be confused with
     non-mangled names.  For example, a function called "a" treated as
     a mangled type name would be demangled to "signed char".

`-i'
`--no-verbose'
     Do not include implementation details (if any) in the demangled
     output.

`-s FORMAT'
`--format=FORMAT'
     `c++filt' can decode various methods of mangling, used by
     different compilers.  The argument to this option selects which
     method it uses:

    `auto'
          Automatic selection based on executable (the default method)

    `gnu'
          the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++)

    `lucid'
          the one used by the Lucid compiler (lcc)

    `arm'
          the one specified by the C++ Annotated Reference Manual

    `hp'
          the one used by the HP compiler (aCC)

    `edg'
          the one used by the EDG compiler

    `gnu-v3'
          the one used by the GNU C++ compiler (g++) with the V3 ABI.

    `java'
          the one used by the GNU Java compiler (gcj)

    `gnat'
          the one used by the GNU Ada compiler (GNAT).

`--help'
     Print a summary of the options to `c++filt' and exit.

`--version'
     Print the version number of `c++filt' and exit.

     _Warning:_ `c++filt' is a new utility, and the details of its user
     interface are subject to change in future releases.  In particular,
     a command-line option may be required in the future to decode a
     name passed as an argument on the command line; in other words,

          c++filt SYMBOL

     may in a future release become

          c++filt OPTION SYMBOL

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) MS-DOS does not allow `+' characters in file names, so on MS-DOS
this program is named `CXXFILT'.

File: binutils.info,  Node: addr2line,  Next: nlmconv,  Prev: c++filt,  Up: Top

10 addr2line
************

     addr2line [`-b' BFDNAME|`--target='BFDNAME]
               [`-C'|`--demangle'[=STYLE]]
               [`-e' FILENAME|`--exe='FILENAME]
               [`-f'|`--functions'] [`-s'|`--basename']
               [`-i'|`--inlines']
               [`-j'|`--section='NAME]
               [`-H'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
               [addr addr ...]

   `addr2line' translates addresses into file names and line numbers.
Given an address in an executable or an offset in a section of a
relocatable object, it uses the debugging information to figure out
which file name and line number are associated with it.

   The executable or relocatable object to use is specified with the
`-e' option.  The default is the file `a.out'.  The section in the
relocatable object to use is specified with the `-j' option.

   `addr2line' has two modes of operation.

   In the first, hexadecimal addresses are specified on the command
line, and `addr2line' displays the file name and line number for each
address.

   In the second, `addr2line' reads hexadecimal addresses from standard
input, and prints the file name and line number for each address on
standard output.  In this mode, `addr2line' may be used in a pipe to
convert dynamically chosen addresses.

   The format of the output is `FILENAME:LINENO'.  The file name and
line number for each address is printed on a separate line.  If the
`-f' option is used, then each `FILENAME:LINENO' line is preceded by a
`FUNCTIONNAME' line which is the name of the function containing the
address.

   If the file name or function name can not be determined, `addr2line'
will print two question marks in their place.  If the line number can
not be determined, `addr2line' will print 0.

   The long and short forms of options, shown here as alternatives, are
equivalent.

`-b BFDNAME'
`--target=BFDNAME'
     Specify that the object-code format for the object files is
     BFDNAME.

`-C'
`--demangle[=STYLE]'
     Decode ("demangle") low-level symbol names into user-level names.
     Besides removing any initial underscore prepended by the system,
     this makes C++ function names readable.  Different compilers have
     different mangling styles. The optional demangling style argument
     can be used to choose an appropriate demangling style for your
     compiler. *Note c++filt::, for more information on demangling.

`-e FILENAME'
`--exe=FILENAME'
     Specify the name of the executable for which addresses should be
     translated.  The default file is `a.out'.

`-f'
`--functions'
     Display function names as well as file and line number information.

`-s'
`--basenames'
     Display only the base of each file name.

`-i'
`--inlines'
     If the address belongs to a function that was inlined, the source
     information for all enclosing scopes back to the first non-inlined
     function will also be printed.  For example, if `main' inlines
     `callee1' which inlines `callee2', and address is from `callee2',
     the source information for `callee1' and `main' will also be
     printed.

`-j'
`--section'
     Read offsets relative to the specified section instead of absolute
     addresses.

File: binutils.info,  Node: nlmconv,  Next: windres,  Prev: addr2line,  Up: Top

11 nlmconv
**********

`nlmconv' converts a relocatable object file into a NetWare Loadable
Module.

     _Warning:_ `nlmconv' is not always built as part of the binary
     utilities, since it is only useful for NLM targets.

     nlmconv [`-I' BFDNAME|`--input-target='BFDNAME]
             [`-O' BFDNAME|`--output-target='BFDNAME]
             [`-T' HEADERFILE|`--header-file='HEADERFILE]
             [`-d'|`--debug'] [`-l' LINKER|`--linker='LINKER]
             [`-h'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
             INFILE OUTFILE

   `nlmconv' converts the relocatable `i386' object file INFILE into
the NetWare Loadable Module OUTFILE, optionally reading HEADERFILE for
NLM header information.  For instructions on writing the NLM command
file language used in header files, see the `linkers' section,
`NLMLINK' in particular, of the `NLM Development and Tools Overview',
which is part of the NLM Software Developer's Kit ("NLM SDK"),
available from Novell, Inc.  `nlmconv' uses the GNU Binary File
Descriptor library to read INFILE; see *note BFD: (ld.info)BFD, for
more information.

   `nlmconv' can perform a link step.  In other words, you can list
more than one object file for input if you list them in the definitions
file (rather than simply specifying one input file on the command line).
In this case, `nlmconv' calls the linker for you.

`-I BFDNAME'
`--input-target=BFDNAME'
     Object format of the input file.  `nlmconv' can usually determine
     the format of a given file (so no default is necessary).  *Note
     Target Selection::, for more information.

`-O BFDNAME'
`--output-target=BFDNAME'
     Object format of the output file.  `nlmconv' infers the output
     format based on the input format, e.g. for a `i386' input file the
     output format is `nlm32-i386'.  *Note Target Selection::, for more
     information.

`-T HEADERFILE'
`--header-file=HEADERFILE'
     Reads HEADERFILE for NLM header information.  For instructions on
     writing the NLM command file language used in header files, see
     see the `linkers' section, of the `NLM Development and Tools
     Overview', which is part of the NLM Software Developer's Kit,
     available from Novell, Inc.

`-d'
`--debug'
     Displays (on standard error) the linker command line used by
     `nlmconv'.

`-l LINKER'
`--linker=LINKER'
     Use LINKER for any linking.  LINKER can be an absolute or a
     relative pathname.

`-h'
`--help'
     Prints a usage summary.

`-V'
`--version'
     Prints the version number for `nlmconv'.

File: binutils.info,  Node: windres,  Next: windmc,  Prev: nlmconv,  Up: Top

13 windres
**********

`windres' may be used to manipulate Windows resources.

     _Warning:_ `windres' is not always built as part of the binary
     utilities, since it is only useful for Windows targets.

     windres [options] [input-file] [output-file]

   `windres' reads resources from an input file and copies them into an
output file.  Either file may be in one of three formats:

`rc'
     A text format read by the Resource Compiler.

`res'
     A binary format generated by the Resource Compiler.

`coff'
     A COFF object or executable.

   The exact description of these different formats is available in
documentation from Microsoft.

   When `windres' converts from the `rc' format to the `res' format, it
is acting like the Windows Resource Compiler.  When `windres' converts
from the `res' format to the `coff' format, it is acting like the
Windows `CVTRES' program.

   When `windres' generates an `rc' file, the output is similar but not
identical to the format expected for the input.  When an input `rc'
file refers to an external filename, an output `rc' file will instead
include the file contents.

   If the input or output format is not specified, `windres' will guess
based on the file name, or, for the input file, the file contents.  A
file with an extension of `.rc' will be treated as an `rc' file, a file
with an extension of `.res' will be treated as a `res' file, and a file
with an extension of `.o' or `.exe' will be treated as a `coff' file.

   If no output file is specified, `windres' will print the resources
in `rc' format to standard output.

   The normal use is for you to write an `rc' file, use `windres' to
convert it to a COFF object file, and then link the COFF file into your
application.  This will make the resources described in the `rc' file
available to Windows.

`-i FILENAME'
`--input FILENAME'
     The name of the input file.  If this option is not used, then
     `windres' will use the first non-option argument as the input file
     name.  If there are no non-option arguments, then `windres' will
     read from standard input.  `windres' can not read a COFF file from
     standard input.

`-o FILENAME'
`--output FILENAME'
     The name of the output file.  If this option is not used, then
     `windres' will use the first non-option argument, after any used
     for the input file name, as the output file name.  If there is no
     non-option argument, then `windres' will write to standard output.
     `windres' can not write a COFF file to standard output.  Note, for
     compatibility with `rc' the option `-fo' is also accepted, but its
     use is not recommended.

`-J FORMAT'
`--input-format FORMAT'
     The input format to read.  FORMAT may be `res', `rc', or `coff'.
     If no input format is specified, `windres' will guess, as
     described above.

`-O FORMAT'
`--output-format FORMAT'
     The output format to generate.  FORMAT may be `res', `rc', or
     `coff'.  If no output format is specified, `windres' will guess,
     as described above.

`-F TARGET'
`--target TARGET'
     Specify the BFD format to use for a COFF file as input or output.
     This is a BFD target name; you can use the `--help' option to see
     a list of supported targets.  Normally `windres' will use the
     default format, which is the first one listed by the `--help'
     option.  *note Target Selection::.

`--preprocessor PROGRAM'
     When `windres' reads an `rc' file, it runs it through the C
     preprocessor first.  This option may be used to specify the
     preprocessor to use, including any leading arguments.  The default
     preprocessor argument is `gcc -E -xc-header -DRC_INVOKED'.

`-I DIRECTORY'
`--include-dir DIRECTORY'
     Specify an include directory to use when reading an `rc' file.
     `windres' will pass this to the preprocessor as an `-I' option.
     `windres' will also search this directory when looking for files
     named in the `rc' file.  If the argument passed to this command
     matches any of the supported FORMATS (as described in the `-J'
     option), it will issue a deprecation warning, and behave just like
     the `-J' option.  New programs should not use this behaviour.  If a
     directory happens to match a FORMAT, simple prefix it with `./' to
     disable the backward compatibility.

`-D TARGET'
`--define SYM[=VAL]'
     Specify a `-D' option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
     `rc' file.

`-U TARGET'
`--undefine SYM'
     Specify a `-U' option to pass to the preprocessor when reading an
     `rc' file.

`-r'
     Ignored for compatibility with rc.

`-v'
     Enable verbose mode.  This tells you what the preprocessor is if
     you didn't specify one.

`-c VAL'

`--codepage VAL'
     Specify the default codepage to use when reading an `rc' file.
     VAL should be a hexadecimal prefixed by `0x' or decimal codepage
     code. The valid range is from zero up to 0xffff, but the validity
     of the codepage is host and configuration dependent.

`-l VAL'

`--language VAL'
     Specify the default language to use when reading an `rc' file.
     VAL should be a hexadecimal language code.  The low eight bits are
     the language, and the high eight bits are the sublanguage.

`--use-temp-file'
     Use a temporary file to instead of using popen to read the output
     of the preprocessor. Use this option if the popen implementation
     is buggy on the host (eg., certain non-English language versions
     of Windows 95 and Windows 98 are known to have buggy popen where
     the output will instead go the console).

`--no-use-temp-file'
     Use popen, not a temporary file, to read the output of the
     preprocessor.  This is the default behaviour.

`-h'

`--help'
     Prints a usage summary.

`-V'

`--version'
     Prints the version number for `windres'.

`--yydebug'
     If `windres' is compiled with `YYDEBUG' defined as `1', this will
     turn on parser debugging.

File: binutils.info,  Node: windmc,  Next: dlltool,  Prev: windres,  Up: Top

12 windmc
*********

`windmc' may be used to generator Windows message resources.

     _Warning:_ `windmc' is not always built as part of the binary
     utilities, since it is only useful for Windows targets.

     windmc [options] input-file

   `windmc' reads message definitions from an input file (.mc) and
translate them into a set of output files.  The output files may be of
four kinds:

`h'
     A C header file containing the message definitions.

`rc'
     A resource file compilable by the `windres' tool.

`bin'
     One or more binary files containing the resource data for a
     specific message language.

`dbg'
     A C include file that maps message id's to their symbolic name.

   The exact description of these different formats is available in
documentation from Microsoft.

   When `windmc' converts from the `mc' format to the `bin' format,
`rc', `h', and optional `dbg' it is acting like the Windows Message
Compiler.

`-a'
`--ascii_in'
     Specifies that the input file specified is ANSI. This is the
     default behaviour.

`-A'
`--ascii_out'
     Specifies that messages in the output `bin' files should be in ANSI
     format.

`-b'
`--binprefix'
     Specifies that `bin' filenames should have to be prefixed by the
     basename of the source file.

`-c'
`--customflag'
     Sets the customer bit in all message id's.

`-C CODEPAGE'
`--codepage_in CODEPAGE'
     Sets the default codepage to be used to convert input file to
     UTF16. The default is ocdepage 1252.

`-d'
`--decimal_values'
     Outputs the constants in the header file in decimal. Default is
     using hexadecimal output.

`-e EXT'
`--extension EXT'
     The extension for the header file. The default is .h extension.

`-F TARGET'
`--target TARGET'
     Specify the BFD format to use for a bin file as output.  This is a
     BFD target name; you can use the `--help' option to see a list of
     supported targets.  Normally `windmc' will use the default format,
     which is the first one listed by the `--help' option.  *note
     Target Selection::.

`-h PATH'
`--headerdir PATH'
     The target directory of the generated header file. The default is
     the current directory.

`-H'
`--help'
     Displays a list of command line options and then exits.

`-m CHARACTERS'
`--maxlength CHARACTERS'
     Instructs `windmc' to generate a warning if the length of any
     message exceeds the number specified.

`-n'
`--nullterminate'
     Terminate message text in `bin' files by zero. By default they are
     terminated by CR/LF.

`-o'
`--hresult_use'
     Not yet implemented. Instructs `windmc' to generate an OLE2 header
     file, using HRESULT definitions. Status codes are used if the flag
     is not specified.

`-O CODEPAGE'
`--codepage_out CODEPAGE'
     Sets the default codepage to be used to output text files. The
     default is ocdepage 1252.

`-r PATH'
`--rcdir PATH'
     The target directory for the generated `rc' script and the
     generated `bin' files that the resource compiler script includes.
     The default is the current directory.

`-u'
`--unicode_in'
     Specifies that the input file is UTF16.

`-U'
`--unicode_out'
     Specifies that messages in the output `bin' file should be in UTF16
     format. This is the default behaviour.

`-v'

`--verbose'
     Enable verbose mode.

`-V'

`--version'
     Prints the version number for `windmc'.

`-x PATH'
`--xdgb PATH'
     The path of the `dbg' C include file that maps message id's to the
     symbolic name. No such file is generated without specifying the
     switch.

File: binutils.info,  Node: dlltool,  Next: Common Options,  Prev: windmc,  Up: Top

14 dlltool
**********

`dlltool' is used to create the files needed to create dynamic link
libraries (DLLs) on systems which understand PE format image files such
as Windows.  A DLL contains an export table which contains information
that the runtime loader needs to resolve references from a referencing
program.

   The export table is generated by this program by reading in a `.def'
file or scanning the `.a' and `.o' files which will be in the DLL.  A
`.o' file can contain information in special `.drectve' sections with
export information.

     _Note:_ `dlltool' is not always built as part of the binary
     utilities, since it is only useful for those targets which support
     DLLs.

     dlltool [`-d'|`--input-def' DEF-FILE-NAME]
             [`-b'|`--base-file' BASE-FILE-NAME]
             [`-e'|`--output-exp' EXPORTS-FILE-NAME]
             [`-z'|`--output-def' DEF-FILE-NAME]
             [`-l'|`--output-lib' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME]
             [`-y'|`--output-delaylib' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME]
             [`--export-all-symbols'] [`--no-export-all-symbols']
             [`--exclude-symbols' LIST]
             [`--no-default-excludes']
             [`-S'|`--as' PATH-TO-ASSEMBLER] [`-f'|`--as-flags' OPTIONS]
             [`-D'|`--dllname' NAME] [`-m'|`--machine' MACHINE]
             [`-a'|`--add-indirect']
             [`-U'|`--add-underscore'] [`--add-stdcall-underscore']
             [`-k'|`--kill-at'] [`-A'|`--add-stdcall-alias']
             [`-p'|`--ext-prefix-alias' PREFIX]
             [`-x'|`--no-idata4'] [`-c'|`--no-idata5']
             [`--use-nul-prefixed-import-tables']
             [`-I'|`--identify' LIBRARY-FILE-NAME] [`--identify-strict']
             [`-i'|`--interwork']
             [`-n'|`--nodelete'] [`-t'|`--temp-prefix' PREFIX]
             [`-v'|`--verbose']
             [`-h'|`--help'] [`-V'|`--version']
             [object-file ...]

   `dlltool' reads its inputs, which can come from the `-d' and `-b'
options as well as object files specified on the command line.  It then
processes these inputs and if the `-e' option has been specified it
creates a exports file.  If the `-l' option has been specified it
creates a library file and if the `-z' option has been specified it
creates a def file.  Any or all of the `-e', `-l' and `-z' options can
be present in one invocation of dlltool.

   When creating a DLL, along with the source for the DLL, it is
necessary to have three other files.  `dlltool' can help with the
creation of these files.

   The first file is a `.def' file which specifies which functions are
exported from the DLL, which functions the DLL imports, and so on.  This
is a text file and can be created by hand, or `dlltool' can be used to
create it using the `-z' option.  In this case `dlltool' will scan the
object files specified on its command line looking for those functions
which have been specially marked as being exported and put entries for
them in the `.def' file it creates.

   In order to mark a function as being exported from a DLL, it needs to
have an `-export:<name_of_function>' entry in the `.drectve' section of
the object file.  This can be done in C by using the asm() operator:

       asm (".section .drectve");
       asm (".ascii \"-export:my_func\"");

       int my_func (void) { ... }

   The second file needed for DLL creation is an exports file.  This
file is linked with the object files that make up the body of the DLL
and it handles the interface between the DLL and the outside world.
This is a binary file and it can be created by giving the `-e' option to
`dlltool' when it is creating or reading in a `.def' file.

   The third file needed for DLL creation is the library file that
programs will link with in order to access the functions in the DLL (an
`import library').  This file can be created by giving the `-l' option
to dlltool when it is creating or reading in a `.def' file.

   If the `-y' option is specified, dlltool generates a delay-import
library that can be used instead of the normal import library to allow
a program to link to the dll only as soon as an imported function is
called for the first time. The resulting executable will need to be
linked to the static delayimp library containing __delayLoadHelper2(),
which in turn will import LoadLibraryA and GetProcAddress from kernel32.

   `dlltool' builds the library file by hand, but it builds the exports
file by creating temporary files containing assembler statements and
then assembling these.  The `-S' command line option can be used to
specify the path to the assembler that dlltool will use, and the `-f'
option can be used to pass specific flags to that assembler.  The `-n'
can be used to prevent dlltool from deleting these temporary assembler
files when it is done, and if `-n' is specified twice then this will
prevent dlltool from deleting the temporary object files it used to
build the library.

   Here is an example of creating a DLL from a source file `dll.c' and
also creating a program (from an object file called `program.o') that
uses that DLL:

       gcc -c dll.c
       dlltool -e exports.o -l dll.lib dll.o
       gcc dll.o exports.o -o dll.dll
       gcc program.o dll.lib -o program

   `dlltool' may also be used to query an existing import library to
determine the name of the DLL to which it is associated.  See the
description of the `-I' or `--identify' option.

   The command line options have the following meanings:

`-d FILENAME'
`--input-def FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of a `.def' file to be read in and processed.

`-b FILENAME'
`--base-file FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of a base file to be read in and processed.  The
     contents of this file will be added to the relocation section in
     the exports file generated by dlltool.

`-e FILENAME'
`--output-exp FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of the export file to be created by dlltool.

`-z FILENAME'
`--output-def FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of the `.def' file to be created by dlltool.

`-l FILENAME'
`--output-lib FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of the library file to be created by dlltool.

`-y FILENAME'
`--output-delaylib FILENAME'
     Specifies the name of the delay-import library file to be created
     by dlltool.

`--export-all-symbols'
     Treat all global and weak defined symbols found in the input object
     files as symbols to be exported.  There is a small list of symbols
     which are not exported by default; see the `--no-default-excludes'
     option.  You may add to the list of symbols to not export by using
     the `--exclude-symbols' option.

`--no-export-all-symbols'
     Only export symbols explicitly listed in an input `.def' file or in
     `.drectve' sections in the input object files.  This is the default
     behaviour.  The `.drectve' sections are created by `dllexport'
     attributes in the source code.

`--exclude-symbols LIST'
     Do not export the symbols in LIST.  This is a list of symbol names
     separated by comma or colon characters.  The symbol names should
     not contain a leading underscore.  This is only meaningful when
     `--export-all-symbols' is used.

`--no-default-excludes'
     When `--export-all-symbols' is used, it will by default avoid
     exporting certain special symbols.  The current list of symbols to
     avoid exporting is `DllMain@12', `DllEntryPoint@0', `impure_ptr'.
     You may use the `--no-default-excludes' option to go ahead and
     export these special symbols.  This is only meaningful when
     `--export-all-symbols' is used.

`-S PATH'
`--as PATH'
     Specifies the path, including the filename, of the assembler to be
     used to create the exports file.

`-f OPTIONS'
`--as-flags OPTIONS'
     Specifies any specific command line options to be passed to the
     assembler when building the exports file.  This option will work
     even if the `-S' option is not used.  This option only takes one
     argument, and if it occurs more than once on the command line,
     then later occurrences will override earlier occurrences.  So if
     it is necessary to pass multiple options to the assembler they
     should be enclosed in double quotes.

`-D NAME'
`--dll-name NAME'
     Specifies the name to be stored in the `.def' file as the name of
     the DLL when the `-e' option is used.  If this option is not
     present, then the filename given to the `-e' option will be used
     as the name of the DLL.

`-m MACHINE'
`-machine MACHINE'
     Specifies the type of machine for which the library file should be
     built.  `dlltool' has a built in default type, depending upon how
     it was created, but this option can be used to override that.
     This is normally only useful when creating DLLs for an ARM
     processor, when the contents of the DLL are actually encode using
     Thumb instructions.

`-a'
`--add-indirect'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
     should add a section which allows the exported functions to be
     referenced without using the import library.  Whatever the hell
     that means!

`-U'
`--add-underscore'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
     should prepend an underscore to the names of _all_ exported
     symbols.

`--add-stdcall-underscore'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
     should prepend an underscore to the names of exported _stdcall_
     functions. Variable names and non-stdcall function names are not
     modified.  This option is useful when creating GNU-compatible
     import libs for third party DLLs that were built with MS-Windows
     tools.

`-k'
`--kill-at'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
     should not append the string `@ <number>'.  These numbers are
     called ordinal numbers and they represent another way of accessing
     the function in a DLL, other than by name.

`-A'
`--add-stdcall-alias'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports file it
     should add aliases for stdcall symbols without `@ <number>' in
     addition to the symbols with `@ <number>'.

`-p'
`--ext-prefix-alias PREFIX'
     Causes `dlltool' to create external aliases for all DLL imports
     with the specified prefix.  The aliases are created for both
     external and import symbols with no leading underscore.

`-x'
`--no-idata4'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
     files it should omit the `.idata4' section.  This is for
     compatibility with certain operating systems.

`--use-nul-prefixed-import-tables'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
     files it should prefix the `.idata4' and `.idata5' by zero an
     element. This emulates old gnu import library generation of
     `dlltool'. By default this option is turned off.

`-c'
`--no-idata5'
     Specifies that when `dlltool' is creating the exports and library
     files it should omit the `.idata5' section.  This is for
     compatibility with certain operating systems.

`-I FILENAME'
`--identify FILENAME'
     Specifies that `dlltool' should inspect the import library
     indicated by FILENAME and report, on `stdout', the name(s) of the
     associated DLL(s).  This can be performed in addition to any other
     operations indicated by the other options and arguments.
     `dlltool' fails if the import library does not exist or is not
     actually an import library. See also `--identify-strict'.

`--identify-strict'
     Modifies the behavior of the `--identify' option, such that an
     error is reported if FILENAME is associated with more than one DLL.

`-i'
`--interwork'
     Specifies that `dlltool' should mark the objects in the library
     file and exports file that it produces as supporting interworking
     between ARM and Thumb code.

`-n'
`--nodelete'
     Makes `dlltool' preserve the temporary assembler files it used to
     create the exports file.  If this option is repeated then dlltool
     will also preserve the temporary object files it uses to create
     the library file.

`-t PREFIX'
`--temp-prefix PREFIX'
     Makes `dlltool' use PREFIX when constructing the names of
     temporary assembler and object files.  By default, the temp file
     prefix is generated from the pid.

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Make dlltool describe what it is doing.

`-h'
`--help'
     Displays a list of command line options and then exits.

`-V'
`--version'
     Displays dlltool's version number and then exits.


* Menu:

* def file format::             The format of the dlltool `.def' file

File: binutils.info,  Node: def file format,  Up: dlltool

14.1 The format of the `dlltool' `.def' file
============================================

A `.def' file contains any number of the following commands:

`NAME' NAME `[ ,' BASE `]'
     The result is going to be named NAME`.exe'.

`LIBRARY' NAME `[ ,' BASE `]'
     The result is going to be named NAME`.dll'.

`EXPORTS ( ( (' NAME1 `[ = ' NAME2 `] ) | ( ' NAME1 `=' MODULE-NAME `.' EXTERNAL-NAME `) )'

`[' INTEGER `] [ NONAME ] [ CONSTANT ] [ DATA ] [ PRIVATE ] ) *'
     Declares NAME1 as an exported symbol from the DLL, with optional
     ordinal number INTEGER, or declares NAME1 as an alias (forward) of
     the function EXTERNAL-NAME in the DLL MODULE-NAME.

`IMPORTS ( (' INTERNAL-NAME `=' MODULE-NAME `.' INTEGER `) | [' INTERNAL-NAME `= ]' MODULE-NAME `.' EXTERNAL-NAME `) ) *'
     Declares that EXTERNAL-NAME or the exported function whose ordinal
     number is INTEGER is to be imported from the file MODULE-NAME.  If
     INTERNAL-NAME is specified then this is the name that the imported
     function will be referred to in the body of the DLL.

`DESCRIPTION' STRING
     Puts STRING into the output `.exp' file in the `.rdata' section.

`STACKSIZE' NUMBER-RESERVE `[, ' NUMBER-COMMIT `]'

`HEAPSIZE' NUMBER-RESERVE `[, ' NUMBER-COMMIT `]'
     Generates `--stack' or `--heap' NUMBER-RESERVE,NUMBER-COMMIT in
     the output `.drectve' section.  The linker will see this and act
     upon it.

`CODE' ATTR `+'

`DATA' ATTR `+'

`SECTIONS (' SECTION-NAME ATTR` + ) *'
     Generates `--attr' SECTION-NAME ATTR in the output `.drectve'
     section, where ATTR is one of `READ', `WRITE', `EXECUTE' or
     `SHARED'.  The linker will see this and act upon it.


File: binutils.info,  Node: Common Options,  Next: Selecting the Target System,  Prev: dlltool,  Up: Top

16 Common Options
*****************

The following command-line options are supported by all of the programs
described in this manual.

`@FILE'
     Read command-line options from FILE.  The options read are
     inserted in place of the original @FILE option.  If FILE does not
     exist, or cannot be read, then the option will be treated
     literally, and not removed.

     Options in FILE are separated by whitespace.  A whitespace
     character may be included in an option by surrounding the entire
     option in either single or double quotes.  Any character
     (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character
     to be included with a backslash.  The FILE may itself contain
     additional @FILE options; any such options will be processed
     recursively.

`--help'
     Display the command-line options supported by the program.

`--version'
     Display the version number of the program.


File: binutils.info,  Node: Selecting the Target System,  Next: Reporting Bugs,  Prev: Common Options,  Up: Top

17 Selecting the Target System
******************************

You can specify two aspects of the target system to the GNU binary file
utilities, each in several ways:

   * the target

   * the architecture

   In the following summaries, the lists of ways to specify values are
in order of decreasing precedence.  The ways listed first override those
listed later.

   The commands to list valid values only list the values for which the
programs you are running were configured.  If they were configured with
`--enable-targets=all', the commands list most of the available values,
but a few are left out; not all targets can be configured in at once
because some of them can only be configured "native" (on hosts with the
same type as the target system).

* Menu:

* Target Selection::
* Architecture Selection::

File: binutils.info,  Node: Target Selection,  Next: Architecture Selection,  Up: Selecting the Target System

17.1 Target Selection
=====================

A "target" is an object file format.  A given target may be supported
for multiple architectures (*note Architecture Selection::).  A target
selection may also have variations for different operating systems or
architectures.

   The command to list valid target values is `objdump -i' (the first
column of output contains the relevant information).

   Some sample values are: `a.out-hp300bsd', `ecoff-littlemips',
`a.out-sunos-big'.

   You can also specify a target using a configuration triplet.  This is
the same sort of name that is passed to `configure' to specify a
target.  When you use a configuration triplet as an argument, it must be
fully canonicalized.  You can see the canonical version of a triplet by
running the shell script `config.sub' which is included with the
sources.

   Some sample configuration triplets are: `m68k-hp-bsd',
`mips-dec-ultrix', `sparc-sun-sunos'.

`objdump' Target
----------------

Ways to specify:

  1. command line option: `-b' or `--target'

  2. environment variable `GNUTARGET'

  3. deduced from the input file

`objcopy' and `strip' Input Target
----------------------------------

Ways to specify:

  1. command line options: `-I' or `--input-target', or `-F' or
     `--target'

  2. environment variable `GNUTARGET'

  3. deduced from the input file

`objcopy' and `strip' Output Target
-----------------------------------

Ways to specify:

  1. command line options: `-O' or `--output-target', or `-F' or
     `--target'

  2. the input target (see "`objcopy' and `strip' Input Target" above)

  3. environment variable `GNUTARGET'

  4. deduced from the input file

`nm', `size', and `strings' Target
----------------------------------

Ways to specify:

  1. command line option: `--target'

  2. environment variable `GNUTARGET'

  3. deduced from the input file

File: binutils.info,  Node: Architecture Selection,  Prev: Target Selection,  Up: Selecting the Target System

17.2 Architecture Selection
===========================

An "architecture" is a type of CPU on which an object file is to run.
Its name may contain a colon, separating the name of the processor
family from the name of the particular CPU.

   The command to list valid architecture values is `objdump -i' (the
second column contains the relevant information).

   Sample values: `m68k:68020', `mips:3000', `sparc'.

`objdump' Architecture
----------------------

Ways to specify:

  1. command line option: `-m' or `--architecture'

  2. deduced from the input file

`objcopy', `nm', `size', `strings' Architecture
-----------------------------------------------

Ways to specify:

  1. deduced from the input file

File: binutils.info,  Node: Reporting Bugs,  Next: GNU Free Documentation License,  Prev: Selecting the Target System,  Up: Top

18 Reporting Bugs
*****************

Your bug reports play an essential role in making the binary utilities
reliable.

   Reporting a bug may help you by bringing a solution to your problem,
or it may not.  But in any case the principal function of a bug report
is to help the entire community by making the next version of the binary
utilities work better.  Bug reports are your contribution to their
maintenance.

   In order for a bug report to serve its purpose, you must include the
information that enables us to fix the bug.

* Menu:

* Bug Criteria::                Have you found a bug?
* Bug Reporting::               How to report bugs

File: binutils.info,  Node: Bug Criteria,  Next: Bug Reporting,  Up: Reporting Bugs

18.1 Have You Found a Bug?
==========================

If you are not sure whether you have found a bug, here are some
guidelines:

   * If a binary utility gets a fatal signal, for any input whatever,
     that is a bug.  Reliable utilities never crash.

   * If a binary utility produces an error message for valid input,
     that is a bug.

   * If you are an experienced user of binary utilities, your
     suggestions for improvement are welcome in any case.

File: binutils.info,  Node: Bug Reporting,  Prev: Bug Criteria,  Up: Reporting Bugs

18.2 How to Report Bugs
=======================

A number of companies and individuals offer support for GNU products.
If you obtained the binary utilities from a support organization, we
recommend you contact that organization first.

   You can find contact information for many support companies and
individuals in the file `etc/SERVICE' in the GNU Emacs distribution.

   In any event, we also recommend that you send bug reports for the
binary utilities to `http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/'.

   The fundamental principle of reporting bugs usefully is this:
*report all the facts*.  If you are not sure whether to state a fact or
leave it out, state it!

   Often people omit facts because they think they know what causes the
problem and assume that some details do not matter.  Thus, you might
assume that the name of a file you use in an example does not matter.
Well, probably it does not, but one cannot be sure.  Perhaps the bug is
a stray memory reference which happens to fetch from the location where
that pathname is stored in memory; perhaps, if the pathname were
different, the contents of that location would fool the utility into
doing the right thing despite the bug.  Play it safe and give a
specific, complete example.  That is the easiest thing for you to do,
and the most helpful.

   Keep in mind that the purpose of a bug report is to enable us to fix
the bug if it is new to us.  Therefore, always write your bug reports
on the assumption that the bug has not been reported previously.

   Sometimes people give a few sketchy facts and ask, "Does this ring a
bell?"  This cannot help us fix a bug, so it is basically useless.  We
respond by asking for enough details to enable us to investigate.  You
might as well expedite matters by sending them to begin with.

   To enable us to fix the bug, you should include all these things:

   * The version of the utility.  Each utility announces it if you
     start it with the `--version' argument.

     Without this, we will not know whether there is any point in
     looking for the bug in the current version of the binary utilities.

   * Any patches you may have applied to the source, including any
     patches made to the `BFD' library.

   * The type of machine you are using, and the operating system name
     and version number.

   * What compiler (and its version) was used to compile the
     utilities--e.g.  "`gcc-2.7'".

   * The command arguments you gave the utility to observe the bug.  To
     guarantee you will not omit something important, list them all.  A
     copy of the Makefile (or the output from make) is sufficient.

     If we were to try to guess the arguments, we would probably guess
     wrong and then we might not encounter the bug.

   * A complete input file, or set of input files, that will reproduce
     the bug.  If the utility is reading an object file or files, then
     it is generally most helpful to send the actual object files.

     If the source files were produced exclusively using GNU programs
     (e.g., `gcc', `gas', and/or the GNU `ld'), then it may be OK to
     send the source files rather than the object files.  In this case,
     be sure to say exactly what version of `gcc', or whatever, was
     used to produce the object files.  Also say how `gcc', or
     whatever, was configured.

   * A description of what behavior you observe that you believe is
     incorrect.  For example, "It gets a fatal signal."

     Of course, if the bug is that the utility gets a fatal signal,
     then we will certainly notice it.  But if the bug is incorrect
     output, we might not notice unless it is glaringly wrong.  You
     might as well not give us a chance to make a mistake.

     Even if the problem you experience is a fatal signal, you should
     still say so explicitly.  Suppose something strange is going on,
     such as your copy of the utility is out of sync, or you have
     encountered a bug in the C library on your system.  (This has
     happened!)  Your copy might crash and ours would not.  If you told
     us to expect a crash, then when ours fails to crash, we would know
     that the bug was not happening for us.  If you had not told us to
     expect a crash, then we would not be able to draw any conclusion
     from our observations.

   * If you wish to suggest changes to the source, send us context
     diffs, as generated by `diff' with the `-u', `-c', or `-p' option.
     Always send diffs from the old file to the new file.  If you wish
     to discuss something in the `ld' source, refer to it by context,
     not by line number.

     The line numbers in our development sources will not match those
     in your sources.  Your line numbers would convey no useful
     information to us.

   Here are some things that are not necessary:

   * A description of the envelope of the bug.

     Often people who encounter a bug spend a lot of time investigating
     which changes to the input file will make the bug go away and which
     changes will not affect it.

     This is often time consuming and not very useful, because the way
     we will find the bug is by running a single example under the
     debugger with breakpoints, not by pure deduction from a series of
     examples.  We recommend that you save your time for something else.

     Of course, if you can find a simpler example to report _instead_
     of the original one, that is a convenience for us.  Errors in the
     output will be easier to spot, running under the debugger will take
     less time, and so on.

     However, simplification is not vital; if you do not want to do
     this, report the bug anyway and send us the entire test case you
     used.

   * A patch for the bug.

     A patch for the bug does help us if it is a good one.  But do not
     omit the necessary information, such as the test case, on the
     assumption that a patch is all we need.  We might see problems
     with your patch and decide to fix the problem another way, or we
     might not understand it at all.

     Sometimes with programs as complicated as the binary utilities it
     is very hard to construct an example that will make the program
     follow a certain path through the code.  If you do not send us the
     example, we will not be able to construct one, so we will not be
     able to verify that the bug is fixed.

     And if we cannot understand what bug you are trying to fix, or why
     your patch should be an improvement, we will not install it.  A
     test case will help us to understand.

   * A guess about what the bug is or what it depends on.

     Such guesses are usually wrong.  Even we cannot guess right about
     such things without first using the debugger to find the facts.

File: binutils.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: Binutils Index,  Prev: Reporting Bugs,  Up: Top

Appendix A GNU Free Documentation License
*****************************************

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
     that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it
     can be distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice
     grants a world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration,
     to use that work under the conditions stated herein.  The
     "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any member
     of the public is a licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You
     accept the license if you copy, modify or distribute the work in a
     way requiring permission under copyright law.

     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
     Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
     modifications and/or translated into another language.

     A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section
     of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
     publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
     subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could
     fall directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document
     is in part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not
     explain any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of
     historical connection with the subject or with related matters, or
     of legal, commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position
     regarding them.

     The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose
     titles are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in
     the notice that says that the Document is released under this
     License.  If a section does not fit the above definition of
     Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant.
     The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.  If the Document
     does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none.

     The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are
     listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice
     that says that the Document is released under this License.  A
     Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may
     be at most 25 words.

     A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
     represented in a format whose specification is available to the
     general public, that is suitable for revising the document
     straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images
     composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some
     widely available drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to
     text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of
     formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A copy made in an
     otherwise Transparent file format whose markup, or absence of
     markup, has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent
     modification by readers is not Transparent.  An image format is
     not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text.  A
     copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".

     Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
     ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format,
     SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD, and
     standard-conforming simple HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for
     human modification.  Examples of transparent image formats include
     PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that
     can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
     XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally
     available, and the machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF
     produced by some word processors for output purposes only.

     The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
     plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the
     material this License requires to appear in the title page.  For
     works in formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title
     Page" means the text near the most prominent appearance of the
     work's title, preceding the beginning of the body of the text.

     The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies
     of the Document to the public.

     A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document
     whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses
     following text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ
     stands for a specific section name mentioned below, such as
     "Acknowledgements", "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)
     To "Preserve the Title" of such a section when you modify the
     Document means that it remains a section "Entitled XYZ" according
     to this definition.

     The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice
     which states that this License applies to the Document.  These
     Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in
     this License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
     implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and
     has no effect on the meaning of this License.

  2. VERBATIM COPYING

     You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
     commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
     copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License
     applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you
     add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You
     may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading
     or further copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However,
     you may accept compensation in exchange for copies.  If you
     distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow
     the conditions in section 3.

     You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above,
     and you may publicly display copies.

  3. COPYING IN QUANTITY

     If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly
     have printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and
     the Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must
     enclose the copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all
     these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and
     Back-Cover Texts on the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly
     and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies.  The
     front cover must present the full title with all words of the
     title equally prominent and visible.  You may add other material
     on the covers in addition.  Copying with changes limited to the
     covers, as long as they preserve the title of the Document and
     satisfy these conditions, can be treated as verbatim copying in
     other respects.

     If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
     legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
     reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto
     adjacent pages.

     If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
     numbering more than 100, you must either include a
     machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy, or
     state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from
     which the general network-using public has access to download
     using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent
     copy of the Document, free of added material.  If you use the
     latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps, when you
     begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that
     this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
     location until at least one year after the last time you
     distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or
     retailers) of that edition to the public.

     It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of
     the Document well before redistributing any large number of
     copies, to give them a chance to provide you with an updated
     version of the Document.

  4. MODIFICATIONS

     You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document
     under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you
     release the Modified Version under precisely this License, with
     the Modified Version filling the role of the Document, thus
     licensing distribution and modification of the Modified Version to
     whoever possesses a copy of it.  In addition, you must do these
     things in the Modified Version:

       A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title
          distinct from that of the Document, and from those of
          previous versions (which should, if there were any, be listed
          in the History section of the Document).  You may use the
          same title as a previous version if the original publisher of
          that version gives permission.

       B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or
          entities responsible for authorship of the modifications in
          the Modified Version, together with at least five of the
          principal authors of the Document (all of its principal
          authors, if it has fewer than five), unless they release you
          from this requirement.

       C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
          Modified Version, as the publisher.

       D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.

       E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
          adjacent to the other copyright notices.

       F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license
          notice giving the public permission to use the Modified
          Version under the terms of this License, in the form shown in
          the Addendum below.

       G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant
          Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document's
          license notice.

       H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title,
          and add to it an item stating at least the title, year, new
          authors, and publisher of the Modified Version as given on
          the Title Page.  If there is no section Entitled "History" in
          the Document, create one stating the title, year, authors,
          and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page,
          then add an item describing the Modified Version as stated in
          the previous sentence.

       J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document
          for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and
          likewise the network locations given in the Document for
          previous versions it was based on.  These may be placed in
          the "History" section.  You may omit a network location for a
          work that was published at least four years before the
          Document itself, or if the original publisher of the version
          it refers to gives permission.

       K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
          Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the
          section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor
          acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein.

       L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
          unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
          or the equivalent are not considered part of the section
          titles.

       M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
          may not be included in the Modified Version.

       N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled
          "Endorsements" or to conflict in title with any Invariant
          Section.

       O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.

     If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
     appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no
     material copied from the Document, you may at your option
     designate some or all of these sections as invariant.  To do this,
     add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modified
     Version's license notice.  These titles must be distinct from any
     other section titles.

     You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
     nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
     parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text
     has been approved by an organization as the authoritative
     definition of a standard.

     You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text,
     and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end
     of the list of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one
     passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be
     added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the
     Document already includes a cover text for the same cover,
     previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity
     you are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but you may
     replace the old one, on explicit permission from the previous
     publisher that added the old one.

     The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this
     License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to
     assert or imply endorsement of any Modified Version.

  5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS

     You may combine the Document with other documents released under
     this License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for
     modified versions, provided that you include in the combination
     all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents,
     unmodified, and list them all as Invariant Sections of your
     combined work in its license notice, and that you preserve all
     their Warranty Disclaimers.

     The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
     multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
     copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name
     but different contents, make the title of each such section unique
     by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the
     original author or publisher of that section if known, or else a
     unique number.  Make the same adjustment to the section titles in
     the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the
     combined work.

     In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled
     "History" in the various original documents, forming one section
     Entitled "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled
     "Acknowledgements", and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You
     must delete all sections Entitled "Endorsements."

  6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS

     You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
     documents released under this License, and replace the individual
     copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
     that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the
     rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the
     documents in all other respects.

     You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
     distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert
     a copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow
     this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of
     that document.

  7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS

     A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other
     separate and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of
     a storage or distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the
     copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the
     legal rights of the compilation's users beyond what the individual
     works permit.  When the Document is included in an aggregate, this
     License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which
     are not themselves derivative works of the Document.

     If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
     copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half
     of the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed
     on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
     electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic
     form.  Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket
     the whole aggregate.

  8. TRANSLATION

     Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
     distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section
     4.  Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
     permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
     translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
     original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
     translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
     Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also
     include the original English version of this License and the
     original versions of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a
     disagreement between the translation and the original version of
     this License or a notice or disclaimer, the original version will
     prevail.

     If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
     "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to
     Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the
     actual title.

  9. TERMINATION

     You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
     except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
     otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void,
     and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of
     the same material does not give you any rights to use it.

 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE

     The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of
     the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
     versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
     differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
     `http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/'.

     Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version
     number.  If the Document specifies that a particular numbered
     version of this License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that specified version or of any later version that has been
     published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If
     the Document does not specify a version number of this License,
     you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Document specifies that a proxy
     can decide which future versions of this License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Document.

 11. RELICENSING

     "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
     World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
     provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
     public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.
     A "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the
     site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
     site.

     "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
     license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
     corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
     California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
     published by that same organization.

     "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
     in part, as part of another Document.

     An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
     License, and if all works that were first published under this
     License somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently
     incorporated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover
     texts or invariant sections, and (2) were thus incorporated prior
     to November 1, 2008.

     The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the
     site under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1,
     2009, provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.


ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
       under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
       or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
       Free Documentation License''.

   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
         the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts
         being LIST.

   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: binutils.info,  Node: Binutils Index,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Top

Binutils Index
**************

[index]
* Menu:

* .stab:                                 objdump.             (line 370)
* Add prefix to absolute paths:          objdump.             (line 341)
* addr2line:                             addr2line.           (line   6)
* address to file name and line number:  addr2line.           (line   6)
* all header information, object file:   objdump.             (line 489)
* ar:                                    ar.                  (line   6)
* ar compatibility:                      ar.                  (line  50)
* architecture:                          objdump.             (line 195)
* architectures available:               objdump.             (line 180)
* archive contents:                      ranlib.              (line   6)
* Archive file symbol index information: readelf.             (line 147)
* archive headers:                       objdump.             (line  65)
* archives:                              ar.                  (line   6)
* base files:                            dlltool.             (line 123)
* bug criteria:                          Bug Criteria.        (line   6)
* bug reports:                           Bug Reporting.       (line   6)
* bugs:                                  Reporting Bugs.      (line   6)
* bugs, reporting:                       Bug Reporting.       (line   6)
* c++filt:                               c++filt.             (line   6)
* changing object addresses:             objcopy.             (line 282)
* changing section address:              objcopy.             (line 292)
* changing section LMA:                  objcopy.             (line 300)
* changing section VMA:                  objcopy.             (line 313)
* changing start address:                objcopy.             (line 277)
* collections of files:                  ar.                  (line   6)
* compatibility, ar:                     ar.                  (line  50)
* contents of archive:                   ar cmdline.          (line  88)
* crash:                                 Bug Criteria.        (line   9)
* creating archives:                     ar cmdline.          (line 129)
* creating thin archive:                 ar cmdline.          (line 190)
* cxxfilt:                               c++filt.             (line  14)
* dates in archive:                      ar cmdline.          (line 164)
* debug symbols:                         objdump.             (line 363)
* debugging symbols:                     nm.                  (line 141)
* deleting from archive:                 ar cmdline.          (line  26)
* demangling C++ symbols:                c++filt.             (line   6)
* demangling in nm:                      nm.                  (line 149)
* demangling in objdump <1>:             addr2line.           (line  55)
* demangling in objdump:                 objdump.             (line  93)
* deterministic archives:                ar cmdline.          (line 135)
* disassembling object code:             objdump.             (line 115)
* disassembly architecture:              objdump.             (line 195)
* disassembly endianness:                objdump.             (line 135)
* disassembly, with source:              objdump.             (line 337)
* discarding symbols:                    strip.               (line   6)
* DLL:                                   dlltool.             (line   6)
* dlltool:                               dlltool.             (line   6)
* DWARF:                                 objdump.             (line 363)
* dynamic relocation entries, in object file: objdump.        (line 325)
* dynamic symbol table entries, printing: objdump.            (line 473)
* dynamic symbols:                       nm.                  (line 161)
* ELF dynamic section information:       readelf.             (line 105)
* ELF file header information:           readelf.             (line  54)
* ELF file information:                  readelf.             (line   6)
* ELF notes:                             readelf.             (line  90)
* ELF object file format:                objdump.             (line 370)
* ELF program header information:        readelf.             (line  60)
* ELF reloc information:                 readelf.             (line  94)
* ELF section group information:         readelf.             (line  71)
* ELF section information:               readelf.             (line  66)
* ELF segment information:               readelf.             (line  60)
* ELF symbol table information:          readelf.             (line  81)
* ELF version sections informations:     readelf.             (line 109)
* endianness:                            objdump.             (line 135)
* error on valid input:                  Bug Criteria.        (line  12)
* external symbols:                      nm.                  (line 173)
* extract from archive:                  ar cmdline.          (line 103)
* fatal signal:                          Bug Criteria.        (line   9)
* file name:                             nm.                  (line 135)
* header information, all:               objdump.             (line 489)
* input .def file:                       dlltool.             (line 119)
* input file name:                       nm.                  (line 135)
* Instruction width:                     objdump.             (line 358)
* libraries:                             ar.                  (line  25)
* listings strings:                      strings.             (line   6)
* load plugin:                           nm.                  (line 176)
* machine instructions:                  objdump.             (line 115)
* moving in archive:                     ar cmdline.          (line  34)
* MRI compatibility, ar:                 ar scripts.          (line   8)
* name duplication in archive:           ar cmdline.          (line  97)
* name length:                           ar.                  (line  18)
* nm:                                    nm.                  (line   6)
* nm compatibility:                      nm.                  (line 145)
* nm format:                             nm.                  (line 145)
* not writing archive index:             ar cmdline.          (line 183)
* objdump:                               objdump.             (line   6)
* object code format <1>:                addr2line.           (line  50)
* object code format <2>:                strings.             (line  67)
* object code format <3>:                size.                (line  84)
* object code format <4>:                objdump.             (line  79)
* object code format:                    nm.                  (line 244)
* object file header:                    objdump.             (line 141)
* object file information:               objdump.             (line   6)
* object file offsets:                   objdump.             (line 146)
* object file sections:                  objdump.             (line 332)
* object formats available:              objdump.             (line 180)
* operations on archive:                 ar cmdline.          (line  22)
* printing from archive:                 ar cmdline.          (line  46)
* printing strings:                      strings.             (line   6)
* quick append to archive:               ar cmdline.          (line  54)
* radix for section sizes:               size.                (line  66)
* ranlib:                                ranlib.              (line   6)
* readelf:                               readelf.             (line   6)
* relative placement in archive:         ar cmdline.          (line 117)
* relocation entries, in object file:    objdump.             (line 319)
* removing symbols:                      strip.               (line   6)
* repeated names in archive:             ar cmdline.          (line  97)
* replacement in archive:                ar cmdline.          (line  70)
* reporting bugs:                        Reporting Bugs.      (line   6)
* scripts, ar:                           ar scripts.          (line   8)
* section addresses in objdump:          objdump.             (line  71)
* section headers:                       objdump.             (line 162)
* section information:                   objdump.             (line 185)
* section sizes:                         size.                (line   6)
* sections, full contents:               objdump.             (line 332)
* size:                                  size.                (line   6)
* size display format:                   size.                (line  27)
* size number format:                    size.                (line  66)
* sorting symbols:                       nm.                  (line 197)
* source code context:                   objdump.             (line 155)
* source disassembly:                    objdump.             (line 337)
* source file name:                      nm.                  (line 135)
* source filenames for object files:     objdump.             (line 189)
* stab:                                  objdump.             (line 370)
* start-address:                         objdump.             (line 380)
* stop-address:                          objdump.             (line 384)
* strings:                               strings.             (line   6)
* strings, printing:                     strings.             (line   6)
* strip:                                 strip.               (line   6)
* Strip absolute paths:                  objdump.             (line 344)
* symbol index <1>:                      ranlib.              (line   6)
* symbol index:                          ar.                  (line  28)
* symbol index, listing:                 nm.                  (line 214)
* symbol line numbers:                   nm.                  (line 182)
* symbol table entries, printing:        objdump.             (line 389)
* symbols:                               nm.                  (line   6)
* symbols, discarding:                   strip.               (line   6)
* thin archives:                         ar.                  (line  40)
* undefined symbols:                     nm.                  (line 249)
* Unix compatibility, ar:                ar cmdline.          (line   8)
* unwind information:                    readelf.             (line  99)
* updating an archive:                   ar cmdline.          (line 195)
* version:                               Top.                 (line   6)
* VMA in objdump:                        objdump.             (line  71)
* wide output, printing:                 objdump.             (line 495)
* writing archive index:                 ar cmdline.          (line 177)



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