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GNU configure and build system
******************************

The GNU configure and build system.

* Menu:

* Introduction::		Introduction.
* Getting Started::		Getting Started.
* Files::			Files.
* Configuration Names::		Configuration Names.
* Cross Compilation Tools::	Cross Compilation Tools.
* Canadian Cross::		Canadian Cross.
* Cygnus Configure::		Cygnus Configure.
* Multilibs::			Multilibs.
* FAQ::				Frequently Asked Questions.
* Index::			Index.

File: configure.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Getting Started,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

This document describes the GNU configure and build systems.  It
describes how autoconf, automake, libtool, and make fit together.  It
also includes a discussion of the older Cygnus configure system.

   This document does not describe in detail how to use each of the
tools; see the respective manuals for that.  Instead, it describes
which files the developer must write, which files are machine generated
and how they are generated, and where certain common problems should be
addressed.

   This document draws on several sources, including the autoconf
manual by David MacKenzie (*note autoconf overview: (autoconf)Top.),
the automake manual by David MacKenzie and Tom Tromey (*note automake
overview: (automake)Top.), the libtool manual by Gordon Matzigkeit
(*note libtool overview: (libtool)Top.), and the Cygnus configure
manual by K. Richard Pixley.

* Menu:

* Goals::			Goals.
* Tools::			The tools.
* History::			History.
* Building::			Building.

File: configure.info,  Node: Goals,  Next: Tools,  Up: Introduction

1.1 Goals
=========

The GNU configure and build system has two main goals.

   The first is to simplify the development of portable programs.  The
system permits the developer to concentrate on writing the program,
simplifying many details of portability across Unix and even Windows
systems, and permitting the developer to describe how to build the
program using simple rules rather than complex Makefiles.

   The second is to simplify the building of programs distributed as
source code.  All programs are built using a simple, standardized, two
step process.  The program builder need not install any special tools in
order to build the program.

File: configure.info,  Node: Tools,  Next: History,  Prev: Goals,  Up: Introduction

1.2 Tools
=========

The GNU configure and build system is comprised of several different
tools.  Program developers must build and install all of these tools.

   People who just want to build programs from distributed sources
normally do not need any special tools beyond a Unix shell, a make
program, and a C compiler.

autoconf
     provides a general portability framework, based on testing the
     features of the host system at build time.

automake
     a system for describing how to build a program, permitting the
     developer to write a simplified `Makefile'.

libtool
     a standardized approach to building shared libraries.

gettext
     provides a framework for translation of text messages into other
     languages; not really discussed in this document.

m4
     autoconf requires the GNU version of m4; the standard Unix m4 does
     not suffice.

perl
     automake requires perl.

File: configure.info,  Node: History,  Next: Building,  Prev: Tools,  Up: Introduction

1.3 History
===========

This is a very brief and probably inaccurate history.

   As the number of Unix variants increased during the 1980s, it became
harder to write programs which could run on all variants.  While it was
often possible to use `#ifdef' to identify particular systems,
developers frequently did not have access to every system, and the
characteristics of some systems changed from version to version.

   By 1992, at least three different approaches had been developed:
   * The Metaconfig program, by Larry Wall, Harlan Stenn, and Raphael
     Manfredi.

   * The Cygnus configure script, by K. Richard Pixley, and the gcc
     configure script, by Richard Stallman.  These use essentially the
     same approach, and the developers communicated regularly.

   * The autoconf program, by David MacKenzie.

   The Metaconfig program is still used for Perl and a few other
programs.  It is part of the Dist package.  I do not know if it is
being developed.

   In 1994, David MacKenzie and others modified autoconf to incorporate
all the features of Cygnus configure.  Since then, there has been a
slow but steady conversion of GNU programs from Cygnus configure to
autoconf. gcc has been converted, eliminating the gcc configure script.

   GNU autoconf was regularly maintained until late 1996.  As of this
writing in June, 1998, it has no public maintainer.

   Most programs are built using the make program, which requires the
developer to write Makefiles describing how to build the programs.
Since most programs are built in pretty much the same way, this led to a
lot of duplication.

   The X Window system is built using the imake tool, which uses a
database of rules to eliminate the duplication.  However, building a
tool which was developed using imake requires that the builder have
imake installed, violating one of the goals of the GNU system.

   The new BSD make provides a standard library of Makefile fragments,
which permits developers to write very simple Makefiles.  However, this
requires that the builder install the new BSD make program.

   In 1994, David MacKenzie wrote the first version of automake, which
permitted writing a simple build description which was converted into a
Makefile which could be used by the standard make program.  In 1995, Tom
Tromey completely rewrote automake in Perl, and he continues to enhance
it.

   Various free packages built libraries, and by around 1995 several
included support to build shared libraries on various platforms.
However, there was no consistent approach.  In early 1996, Gordon
Matzigkeit began working on libtool, which provided a standardized
approach to building shared libraries.  This was integrated into
automake from the start.

   The development of automake and libtool was driven by the GNITS
project, a group of GNU maintainers who designed standardized tools to
help meet the GNU coding standards.

File: configure.info,  Node: Building,  Prev: History,  Up: Introduction

1.4 Building
============

Most readers of this document should already know how to build a tool by
running `configure' and `make'.  This section may serve as a quick
introduction or reminder.

   Building a tool is normally as simple as running `configure'
followed by `make'.  You should normally run `configure' from an empty
directory, using some path to refer to the `configure' script in the
source directory.  The directory in which you run `configure' is called
the "object directory".

   In order to use a object directory which is different from the source
directory, you must be using the GNU version of `make', which has the
required `VPATH' support.  Despite this restriction, using a different
object directory is highly recommended:
   * It keeps the files generated during the build from cluttering up
     your sources.

   * It permits you to remove the built files by simply removing the
     entire build directory.

   * It permits you to build from the same sources with several sets of
     configure options simultaneously.

   If you don't have GNU `make', you will have to run `configure' in
the source directory.  All GNU packages should support this; in
particular, GNU packages should not assume the presence of GNU `make'.

   After running `configure', you can build the tools by running `make'.

   To install the tools, run `make install'.  Installing the tools will
copy the programs and any required support files to the "installation
directory".  The location of the installation directory is controlled
by `configure' options, as described below.

   In the Cygnus tree at present, the info files are built and
installed as a separate step.  To build them, run `make info'.  To
install them, run `make install-info'. The equivalent html files are
also built and installed in a separate step. To build the html files,
run `make html'. To install the html files run `make install-html'.

   All `configure' scripts support a wide variety of options.  The most
interesting ones are `--with' and `--enable' options which are
generally specific to particular tools.  You can usually use the
`--help' option to get a list of interesting options for a particular
configure script.

   The only generic options you are likely to use are the `--prefix'
and `--exec-prefix' options.  These options are used to specify the
installation directory.

   The directory named by the `--prefix' option will hold machine
independent files such as info files.

   The directory named by the `--exec-prefix' option, which is normally
a subdirectory of the `--prefix' directory, will hold machine dependent
files such as executables.

   The default for `--prefix' is `/usr/local'.  The default for
`--exec-prefix' is the value used for `--prefix'.

   The convention used in Cygnus releases is to use a `--prefix' option
of `/usr/cygnus/RELEASE', where RELEASE is the name of the release, and
to use a `--exec-prefix' option of `/usr/cygnus/RELEASE/H-HOST', where
HOST is the configuration name of the host system (*note Configuration
Names::).

   Do not use either the source or the object directory as the
installation directory.  That will just lead to confusion.

File: configure.info,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Files,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Getting Started
*****************

To start using the GNU configure and build system with your software
package, you must write three files, and you must run some tools to
manually generate additional files.

* Menu:

* Write configure.in::		Write configure.in.
* Write Makefile.am::		Write Makefile.am.
* Write acconfig.h::		Write acconfig.h.
* Generate files::		Generate files.
* Getting Started Example::	Example.

File: configure.info,  Node: Write configure.in,  Next: Write Makefile.am,  Up: Getting Started

2.1 Write configure.in
======================

You must first write the file `configure.in'.  This is an autoconf
input file, and the autoconf manual describes in detail what this file
should look like.

   You will write tests in your `configure.in' file to check for
conditions that may change from one system to another, such as the
presence of particular header files or functions.

   For example, not all systems support the `gettimeofday' function.
If you want to use the `gettimeofday' function when it is available,
and to use some other function when it is not, you would check for this
by putting `AC_CHECK_FUNCS(gettimeofday)' in `configure.in'.

   When the configure script is run at build time, this will arrange to
define the preprocessor macro `HAVE_GETTIMEOFDAY' to the value 1 if the
`gettimeofday' function is available, and to not define the macro at
all if the function is not available.  Your code can then use `#ifdef'
to test whether it is safe to call `gettimeofday'.

   If you have an existing body of code, the `autoscan' program may
help identify potential portability problems, and hence configure tests
that you will want to use.  *Note Invoking autoscan: (autoconf)Invoking
autoscan.

   Another handy tool for an existing body of code is `ifnames'.  This
will show you all the preprocessor conditionals that the code already
uses.  *Note Invoking ifnames: (autoconf)Invoking ifnames.

   Besides the portability tests which are specific to your particular
package, every `configure.in' file should contain the following macros.

`AC_INIT'
     This macro takes a single argument, which is the name of a file in
     your package.  For example, `AC_INIT(foo.c)'.

`AC_PREREQ(VERSION)'
     This macro is optional.  It may be used to indicate the version of
     `autoconf' that you are using.  This will prevent users from
     running an earlier version of `autoconf' and perhaps getting an
     invalid `configure' script.  For example, `AC_PREREQ(2.12)'.

`AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE'
     This macro takes two arguments: the name of the package, and a
     version number.  For example, `AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(foo, 1.0)'.  (This
     macro is not needed if you are not using automake).

`AM_CONFIG_HEADER'
     This macro names the header file which will hold the preprocessor
     macro definitions at run time.  Normally this should be
     `config.h'.  Your sources would then use `#include "config.h"' to
     include it.

     This macro may optionally name the input file for that header
     file; by default, this is `config.h.in', but that file name works
     poorly on DOS filesystems.  Therefore, it is often better to name
     it explicitly as `config.in'.

     This is what you should normally put in `configure.in':
          AM_CONFIG_HEADER(config.h:config.in)

     (If you are not using automake, use `AC_CONFIG_HEADER' rather than
     `AM_CONFIG_HEADER').

`AM_MAINTAINER_MODE'
     This macro always appears in Cygnus configure scripts.  Other
     programs may or may not use it.

     If this macro is used, the `--enable-maintainer-mode' option is
     required to enable automatic rebuilding of generated files used by
     the configure system.  This of course requires that developers be
     aware of, and use, that option.

     If this macro is not used, then the generated files will always be
     rebuilt automatically.  This will cause problems if the wrong
     versions of autoconf, automake, or others are in the builder's
     `PATH'.

     (If you are not using automake, you do not need to use this macro).

`AC_EXEEXT'
     Either this macro or `AM_EXEEXT' always appears in Cygnus configure
     files.  Other programs may or may not use one of them.

     This macro looks for the executable suffix used on the host
     system.  On Unix systems, this is the empty string.  On Windows
     systems, this is `.exe'.  This macro directs automake to use the
     executable suffix as appropriate when creating programs.  This
     macro does not take any arguments.

     The `AC_EXEEXT' form is new, and is part of a Cygnus patch to
     autoconf to support compiling with Visual C++.  Older programs use
     `AM_EXEEXT' instead.

     (Programs which do not use automake use neither `AC_EXEEXT' nor
     `AM_EXEEXT').

`AC_PROG_CC'
     If you are writing C code, you will normally want to use this
     macro.  It locates the C compiler to use.  It does not take any
     arguments.

     However, if this `configure.in' file is for a library which is to
     be compiled by a cross compiler which may not fully work, then you
     will not want to use `AC_PROG_CC'.  Instead, you will want to use a
     variant which does not call the macro `AC_PROG_CC_WORKS'.  Examples
     can be found in various `configure.in' files for libraries that are
     compiled with cross compilers, such as libiberty or libgloss.
     This is essentially a bug in autoconf, and there will probably be
     a better workaround at some point.

`AC_PROG_CXX'
     If you are writing C++ code, you will want to use this macro.  It
     locates the C++ compiler to use.  It does not take any arguments.
     The same cross compiler comments apply as for `AC_PROG_CC'.

`AM_PROG_LIBTOOL'
     If you want to build libraries, and you want to permit them to be
     shared, or you want to link against libraries which were built
     using libtool, then you will need this macro.  This macro is
     required in order to use libtool.

     By default, this will cause all libraries to be built as shared
     libraries.  To prevent this-to change the default-use
     `AM_DISABLE_SHARED' before `AM_PROG_LIBTOOL'.  The configure
     options `--enable-shared' and `--disable-shared' may be used to
     override the default at build time.

`AC_DEFINE(_GNU_SOURCE)'
     GNU packages should normally include this line before any other
     feature tests.  This defines the macro `_GNU_SOURCE' when
     compiling, which directs the libc header files to provide the
     standard GNU system interfaces including all GNU extensions.  If
     this macro is not defined, certain GNU extensions may not be
     available.

`AC_OUTPUT'
     This macro takes a list of file names which the configure process
     should produce.  This is normally a list of one or more `Makefile'
     files in different directories.  If your package lives entirely in
     a single directory, you would use simply `AC_OUTPUT(Makefile)'.
     If you also have, for example, a `lib' subdirectory, you would use
     `AC_OUTPUT(Makefile lib/Makefile)'.

   If you want to use locally defined macros in your `configure.in'
file, then you will need to write a `acinclude.m4' file which defines
them (if not using automake, this file is called `aclocal.m4').
Alternatively, you can put separate macros in an `m4' subdirectory, and
put `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS = -I m4' in your `Makefile.am' file so that the
`aclocal' program will be able to find them.

   The different macro prefixes indicate which tool defines the macro.
Macros which start with `AC_' are part of autoconf.  Macros which start
with `AM_' are provided by automake or libtool.

File: configure.info,  Node: Write Makefile.am,  Next: Write acconfig.h,  Prev: Write configure.in,  Up: Getting Started

2.2 Write Makefile.am
=====================

You must write the file `Makefile.am'.  This is an automake input file,
and the automake manual describes in detail what this file should look
like.

   The automake commands in `Makefile.am' mostly look like variable
assignments in a `Makefile'.  automake recognizes special variable
names, and automatically add make rules to the output as needed.

   There will be one `Makefile.am' file for each directory in your
package.  For each directory with subdirectories, the `Makefile.am'
file should contain the line
     SUBDIRS = DIR DIR ...
   where each DIR is the name of a subdirectory.

   For each `Makefile.am', there should be a corresponding `Makefile'
in the `AC_OUTPUT' macro in `configure.in'.

   Every `Makefile.am' written at Cygnus should contain the line
     AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS = cygnus
   This puts automake into Cygnus mode.  See the automake manual for
details.

   You may to include the version number of `automake' that you are
using on the `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' line.  For example,
     AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS = cygnus 1.3
   This will prevent users from running an earlier version of
`automake' and perhaps getting an invalid `Makefile.in'.

   If your package builds a program, then in the directory where that
program is built you will normally want a line like
     bin_PROGRAMS = PROGRAM
   where PROGRAM is the name of the program.  You will then want a line
like
     PROGRAM_SOURCES = FILE FILE ...
   where each FILE is the name of a source file to link into the
program (e.g., `foo.c').

   If your package builds a library, and you do not want the library to
ever be built as a shared library, then in the directory where that
library is built you will normally want a line like
     lib_LIBRARIES = libNAME.a
   where `libNAME.a' is the name of the library.  You will then want a
line like
     libNAME_a_SOURCES = FILE FILE ...
   where each FILE is the name of a source file to add to the library.

   If your package builds a library, and you want to permit building the
library as a shared library, then in the directory where that library is
built you will normally want a line like
     lib_LTLIBRARIES = libNAME.la
   The use of `LTLIBRARIES', and the `.la' extension, indicate a
library to be built using libtool.  As usual, you will then want a line
like
     libNAME_la_SOURCES = FILE FILE ...

   The strings `bin' and `lib' that appear above in `bin_PROGRAMS' and
`lib_LIBRARIES' are not arbitrary.  They refer to particular
directories, which may be set by the `--bindir' and `--libdir' options
to `configure'.  If those options are not used, the default values are
based on the `--prefix' or `--exec-prefix' options to `configure'.  It
is possible to use other names if the program or library should be
installed in some other directory.

   The `Makefile.am' file may also contain almost anything that may
appear in a normal `Makefile'.  automake also supports many other
special variables, as well as conditionals.

   See the automake manual for more information.

File: configure.info,  Node: Write acconfig.h,  Next: Generate files,  Prev: Write Makefile.am,  Up: Getting Started

2.3 Write acconfig.h
====================

If you are generating a portability header file, (i.e., you are using
`AM_CONFIG_HEADER' in `configure.in'), then you will have to write a
`acconfig.h' file.  It will have to contain the following lines.

     /* Name of package.  */
     #undef PACKAGE

     /* Version of package.  */
     #undef VERSION

   This requirement is really a bug in the system, and the requirement
may be eliminated at some later date.

   The `acconfig.h' file will also similar comment and `#undef' lines
for any unusual macros in the `configure.in' file, including any macro
which appears in a `AC_DEFINE' macro.

   In particular, if you are writing a GNU package and therefore include
`AC_DEFINE(_GNU_SOURCE)' in `configure.in' as suggested above, you will
need lines like this in `acconfig.h':
     /* Enable GNU extensions.  */
     #undef _GNU_SOURCE

   Normally the `autoheader' program will inform you of any such
requirements by printing an error message when it is run.  However, if
you do anything particular odd in your `configure.in' file, you will
have to make sure that the right entries appear in `acconfig.h', since
otherwise the results of the tests may not be available in the
`config.h' file which your code will use.

   (Thee `PACKAGE' and `VERSION' lines are not required if you are not
using automake, and in that case you may not need a `acconfig.h' file
at all).

File: configure.info,  Node: Generate files,  Next: Getting Started Example,  Prev: Write acconfig.h,  Up: Getting Started

2.4 Generate files
==================

Once you have written `configure.in', `Makefile.am', `acconfig.h', and
possibly `acinclude.m4', you must use autoconf and automake programs to
produce the first versions of the generated files.  This is done by
executing the following sequence of commands.

     aclocal
     autoconf
     autoheader
     automake

   The `aclocal' and `automake' commands are part of the automake
package, and the `autoconf' and `autoheader' commands are part of the
autoconf package.

   If you are using a `m4' subdirectory for your macros, you will need
to use the `-I m4' option when you run `aclocal'.

   If you are not using the Cygnus tree, use the `-a' option when
running `automake' command in order to copy the required support files
into your source directory.

   If you are using libtool, you must build and install the libtool
package with the same `--prefix' and `--exec-prefix' options as you
used with the autoconf and automake packages.  You must do this before
running any of the above commands.  If you are not using the Cygnus
tree, you will need to run the `libtoolize' program to copy the libtool
support files into your directory.

   Once you have managed to run these commands without getting any
errors, you should create a new empty directory, and run the `configure'
script which will have been created by `autoconf' with the
`--enable-maintainer-mode' option.  This will give you a set of
Makefiles which will include rules to automatically rebuild all the
generated files.

   After doing that, whenever you have changed some of the input files
and want to regenerated the other files, go to your object directory
and run `make'.  Doing this is more reliable than trying to rebuild the
files manually, because there are complex order dependencies and it is
easy to forget something.

File: configure.info,  Node: Getting Started Example,  Prev: Generate files,  Up: Getting Started

2.5 Example
===========

Let's consider a trivial example.

   Suppose we want to write a simple version of `touch'.  Our program,
which we will call `poke', will take a single file name argument, and
use the `utime' system call to set the modification and access times of
the file to the current time.  We want this program to be highly
portable.

   We'll first see what this looks like without using autoconf and
automake, and then see what it looks like with them.

* Menu:

* Getting Started Example 1::		First Try.
* Getting Started Example 2::		Second Try.
* Getting Started Example 3::		Third Try.
* Generate Files in Example::		Generate Files.

File: configure.info,  Node: Getting Started Example 1,  Next: Getting Started Example 2,  Up: Getting Started Example

2.5.1 First Try
---------------

Here is our first try at `poke.c'.  Note that we've written it without
ANSI/ISO C prototypes, since we want it to be highly portable.

     #include <stdio.h>
     #include <stdlib.h>
     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <utime.h>

     int
     main (argc, argv)
          int argc;
          char **argv;
     {
       if (argc != 2)
         {
           fprintf (stderr, "Usage: poke file\n");
           exit (1);
         }

       if (utime (argv[1], NULL) < 0)
         {
           perror ("utime");
           exit (1);
         }

       exit (0);
     }

   We also write a simple `Makefile'.

     CC = gcc
     CFLAGS = -g -O2

     all: poke

     poke: poke.o
     	$(CC) -o poke $(CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) poke.o

   So far, so good.

   Unfortunately, there are a few problems.

   On older Unix systems derived from BSD 4.3, the `utime' system call
does not accept a second argument of `NULL'.  On those systems, we need
to pass a pointer to `struct utimbuf' structure.  Unfortunately, even
older systems don't define that structure; on those systems, we need to
pass an array of two `long' values.

   The header file `stdlib.h' was invented by ANSI C, and older systems
don't have a copy.  We included it above to get a declaration of `exit'.

   We can find some of these portability problems by running
`autoscan', which will create a `configure.scan' file which we can use
as a prototype for our `configure.in' file.  I won't show the output,
but it will notice the potential problems with `utime' and `stdlib.h'.

   In our `Makefile', we don't provide any way to install the program.
This doesn't matter much for such a simple example, but a real program
will need an `install' target.  For that matter, we will also want a
`clean' target.

File: configure.info,  Node: Getting Started Example 2,  Next: Getting Started Example 3,  Prev: Getting Started Example 1,  Up: Getting Started Example

2.5.2 Second Try
----------------

Here is our second try at this program.

   We modify `poke.c' to use preprocessor macros to control what
features are available.  (I've cheated a bit by using the same macro
names which autoconf will use).

     #include <stdio.h>

     #ifdef STDC_HEADERS
     #include <stdlib.h>
     #endif

     #include <sys/types.h>

     #ifdef HAVE_UTIME_H
     #include <utime.h>
     #endif

     #ifndef HAVE_UTIME_NULL

     #include <time.h>

     #ifndef HAVE_STRUCT_UTIMBUF

     struct utimbuf
     {
       long actime;
       long modtime;
     };

     #endif

     static int
     utime_now (file)
          char *file;
     {
       struct utimbuf now;

       now.actime = now.modtime = time (NULL);
       return utime (file, &now);
     }

     #define utime(f, p) utime_now (f)

     #endif /* HAVE_UTIME_NULL  */

     int
     main (argc, argv)
          int argc;
          char **argv;
     {
       if (argc != 2)
         {
           fprintf (stderr, "Usage: poke file\n");
           exit (1);
         }

       if (utime (argv[1], NULL) < 0)
         {
           perror ("utime");
           exit (1);
         }

       exit (0);
     }

   Here is the associated `Makefile'.  We've added support for the
preprocessor flags we use.  We've also added `install' and `clean'
targets.

     # Set this to your installation directory.
     bindir = /usr/local/bin

     # Uncomment this if you have the standard ANSI/ISO C header files.
     # STDC_HDRS = -DSTDC_HEADERS

     # Uncomment this if you have utime.h.
     # UTIME_H = -DHAVE_UTIME_H

     # Uncomment this if utime (FILE, NULL) works on your system.
     # UTIME_NULL = -DHAVE_UTIME_NULL

     # Uncomment this if struct utimbuf is defined in utime.h.
     # UTIMBUF = -DHAVE_STRUCT_UTIMBUF

     CC = gcc
     CFLAGS = -g -O2

     ALL_CFLAGS = $(STDC_HDRS) $(UTIME_H) $(UTIME_NULL) $(UTIMBUF) $(CFLAGS)

     all: poke

     poke: poke.o
     	$(CC) -o poke $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(LDFLAGS) poke.o

     .c.o:
     	$(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) poke.c

     install: poke
     	cp poke $(bindir)/poke

     clean:
     	rm poke poke.o

   Some problems with this approach should be clear.

   Users who want to compile poke will have to know how `utime' works
on their systems, so that they can uncomment the `Makefile' correctly.

   The installation is done using `cp', but many systems have an
`install' program which may be used, and which supports optional
features such as stripping debugging information out of the installed
binary.

   The use of `Makefile' variables like `CC', `CFLAGS' and `LDFLAGS'
follows the requirements of the GNU standards.  This is convenient for
all packages, since it reduces surprises for users.  However, it is
easy to get the details wrong, and wind up with a slightly nonstandard
distribution.

File: configure.info,  Node: Getting Started Example 3,  Next: Generate Files in Example,  Prev: Getting Started Example 2,  Up: Getting Started Example

2.5.3 Third Try
---------------

For our third try at this program, we will write a `configure.in'
script to discover the configuration features on the host system, rather
than requiring the user to edit the `Makefile'.  We will also write a
`Makefile.am' rather than a `Makefile'.

   The only change to `poke.c' is to add a line at the start of the
file:
     #include "config.h"

   The new `configure.in' file is as follows.

     AC_INIT(poke.c)
     AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE(poke, 1.0)
     AM_CONFIG_HEADER(config.h:config.in)
     AC_PROG_CC
     AC_HEADER_STDC
     AC_CHECK_HEADERS(utime.h)
     AC_EGREP_HEADER(utimbuf, utime.h, AC_DEFINE(HAVE_STRUCT_UTIMBUF))
     AC_FUNC_UTIME_NULL
     AC_OUTPUT(Makefile)

   The first four macros in this file, and the last one, were described
above; see *note Write configure.in::.  If we omit these macros, then
when we run `automake' we will get a reminder that we need them.

   The other macros are standard autoconf macros.

`AC_HEADER_STDC'
     Check for standard C headers.

`AC_CHECK_HEADERS'
     Check whether a particular header file exists.

`AC_EGREP_HEADER'
     Check for a particular string in a particular header file, in this
     case checking for `utimbuf' in `utime.h'.

`AC_FUNC_UTIME_NULL'
     Check whether `utime' accepts a NULL second argument to set the
     file change time to the current time.

   See the autoconf manual for a more complete description.

   The new `Makefile.am' file is as follows.  Note how simple this is
compared to our earlier `Makefile'.

     bin_PROGRAMS = poke

     poke_SOURCES = poke.c

   This means that we should build a single program name `poke'.  It
should be installed in the binary directory, which we called `bindir'
earlier.  The program `poke' is built from the source file `poke.c'.

   We must also write a `acconfig.h' file.  Besides `PACKAGE' and
`VERSION', which must be mentioned for all packages which use automake,
we must include `HAVE_STRUCT_UTIMBUF', since we mentioned it in an
`AC_DEFINE'.

     /* Name of package.  */
     #undef PACKAGE

     /* Version of package.  */
     #undef VERSION

     /* Whether utime.h defines struct utimbuf.  */
     #undef HAVE_STRUCT_UTIMBUF

File: configure.info,  Node: Generate Files in Example,  Prev: Getting Started Example 3,  Up: Getting Started Example

2.5.4 Generate Files
--------------------

We must now generate the other files, using the following commands.

     aclocal
     autoconf
     autoheader
     automake

   When we run `autoheader', it will remind us of any macros we forgot
to add to `acconfig.h'.

   When we run `automake', it will want to add some files to our
distribution.  It will add them automatically if we use the
`--add-missing' option.

   By default, `automake' will run in GNU mode, which means that it
will want us to create certain additional files; as of this writing, it
will want `NEWS', `README', `AUTHORS', and `ChangeLog', all of which
are files which should appear in a standard GNU distribution.  We can
either add those files, or run `automake' with the `--foreign' option.

   Running these tools will generate the following files, all of which
are described in the next chapter.

   * `aclocal.m4'

   * `configure'

   * `config.in'

   * `Makefile.in'

   * `stamp-h.in'

File: configure.info,  Node: Files,  Next: Configuration Names,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

3 Files
*******

As was seen in the previous chapter, the GNU configure and build system
uses a number of different files.  The developer must write a few files.
The others are generated by various tools.

   The system is rather flexible, and can be used in many different
ways.  In describing the files that it uses, I will describe the common
case, and mention some other cases that may arise.

* Menu:

* Developer Files::		Developer Files.
* Build Files::			Build Files.
* Support Files::		Support Files.

File: configure.info,  Node: Developer Files,  Next: Build Files,  Up: Files

3.1 Developer Files
===================

This section describes the files written or generated by the developer
of a package.

* Menu:

* Developer Files Picture::	Developer Files Picture.
* Written Developer Files::	Written Developer Files.
* Generated Developer Files::	Generated Developer Files.

File: configure.info,  Node: Developer Files Picture,  Next: Written Developer Files,  Up: Developer Files

3.1.1 Developer Files Picture
-----------------------------

Here is a picture of the files which are written by the developer, the
generated files which would be included with a complete source
distribution, and the tools which create those files.  The file names
are plain text and the tool names are enclosed by `*' characters (e.g.,
`autoheader' is the name of a tool, not the name of a file).

   acconfig.h       configure.in                 Makefile.am
       |                |                           |
       |  --------------+----------------------     |
       |  |             |                     |     |
       v  v             |    acinclude.m4     |     |
   *autoheader*         |         |           v     v
       |                |         v      --->*automake*
       v                |--->*aclocal*   |       |
   config.in            |         |      |       v
                        |         v      |   Makefile.in
                        |    aclocal.m4---
                        |     |
                        v     v
                       *autoconf*
                           |
                           v
                       configure

File: configure.info,  Node: Written Developer Files,  Next: Generated Developer Files,  Prev: Developer Files Picture,  Up: Developer Files

3.1.2 Written Developer Files
-----------------------------

The following files would be written by the developer.

`configure.in'
     This is the configuration script.  This script contains
     invocations of autoconf macros.  It may also contain ordinary
     shell script code.  This file will contain feature tests for
     portability issues.  The last thing in the file will normally be
     an `AC_OUTPUT' macro listing which files to create when the
     builder runs the configure script.  This file is always required
     when using the GNU configure system.  *Note Write configure.in::.

`Makefile.am'
     This is the automake input file.  It describes how the code should
     be built.  It consists of definitions of automake variables.  It
     may also contain ordinary Makefile targets.  This file is only
     needed when using automake (newer tools normally use automake, but
     there are still older tools which have not been converted, in
     which the developer writes `Makefile.in' directly).  *Note Write
     Makefile.am::.

`acconfig.h'
     When the configure script creates a portability header file, by
     using `AM_CONFIG_HEADER' (or, if not using automake,
     `AC_CONFIG_HEADER'), this file is used to describe macros which are
     not recognized by the `autoheader' command.  This is normally a
     fairly uninteresting file, consisting of a collection of `#undef'
     lines with comments.  Normally any call to `AC_DEFINE' in
     `configure.in' will require a line in this file. *Note Write
     acconfig.h::.

`acinclude.m4'
     This file is not always required.  It defines local autoconf
     macros.  These macros may then be used in `configure.in'.  If you
     don't need any local autoconf macros, then you don't need this
     file at all.  In fact, in general, you never need local autoconf
     macros, since you can put everything in `configure.in', but
     sometimes a local macro is convenient.

     Newer tools may omit `acinclude.m4', and instead use a
     subdirectory, typically named `m4', and define `ACLOCAL_AMFLAGS =
     -I m4' in `Makefile.am' to force `aclocal' to look there for macro
     definitions.  The macro definitions are then placed in separate
     files in that directory.

     The `acinclude.m4' file is only used when using automake; in older
     tools, the developer writes `aclocal.m4' directly, if it is needed.

File: configure.info,  Node: Generated Developer Files,  Prev: Written Developer Files,  Up: Developer Files

3.1.3 Generated Developer Files
-------------------------------

The following files would be generated by the developer.

   When using automake, these files are normally not generated manually
after the first time.  Instead, the generated `Makefile' contains rules
to automatically rebuild the files as required.  When
`AM_MAINTAINER_MODE' is used in `configure.in' (the normal case in
Cygnus code), the automatic rebuilding rules will only be defined if
you configure using the `--enable-maintainer-mode' option.

   When using automatic rebuilding, it is important to ensure that all
the various tools have been built and installed on your `PATH'.  Using
automatic rebuilding is highly recommended, so much so that I'm not
going to explain what you have to do if you don't use it.

`configure'
     This is the configure script which will be run when building the
     package.  This is generated by `autoconf' from `configure.in' and
     `aclocal.m4'.  This is a shell script.

`Makefile.in'
     This is the file which the configure script will turn into the
     `Makefile' at build time.  This file is generated by `automake'
     from `Makefile.am'.  If you aren't using automake, you must write
     this file yourself.  This file is pretty much a normal `Makefile',
     with some configure substitutions for certain variables.

`aclocal.m4'
     This file is created by the `aclocal' program, based on the
     contents of `configure.in' and `acinclude.m4' (or, as noted in the
     description of `acinclude.m4' above, on the contents of an `m4'
     subdirectory).  This file contains definitions of autoconf macros
     which `autoconf' will use when generating the file `configure'.
     These autoconf macros may be defined by you in `acinclude.m4' or
     they may be defined by other packages such as automake, libtool or
     gettext.  If you aren't using automake, you will normally write
     this file yourself; in that case, if `configure.in' uses only
     standard autoconf macros, this file will not be needed at all.

`config.in'
     This file is created by `autoheader' based on `acconfig.h' and
     `configure.in'.  At build time, the configure script will define
     some of the macros in it to create `config.h', which may then be
     included by your program.  This permits your C code to use
     preprocessor conditionals to change its behaviour based on the
     characteristics of the host system.  This file may also be called
     `config.h.in'.

`stamp.h-in'
     This rather uninteresting file, which I omitted from the picture,
     is generated by `automake'.  It always contains the string
     `timestamp'.  It is used as a timestamp file indicating whether
     `config.in' is up to date.  Using a timestamp file means that
     `config.in' can be marked as up to date without actually changing
     its modification time.  This is useful since `config.in' depends
     upon `configure.in', but it is easy to change `configure.in' in a
     way which does not affect `config.in'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Build Files,  Next: Support Files,  Prev: Developer Files,  Up: Files

3.2 Build Files
===============

This section describes the files which are created at configure and
build time.  These are the files which somebody who builds the package
will see.

   Of course, the developer will also build the package.  The
distinction between developer files and build files is not that the
developer does not see the build files, but that somebody who only
builds the package does not have to worry about the developer files.

* Menu:

* Build Files Picture::		Build Files Picture.
* Build Files Description::	Build Files Description.

File: configure.info,  Node: Build Files Picture,  Next: Build Files Description,  Up: Build Files

3.2.1 Build Files Picture
-------------------------

Here is a picture of the files which will be created at build time.
`config.status' is both a created file and a shell script which is run
to create other files, and the picture attempts to show that.

   config.in        *configure*      Makefile.in
      |                  |               |
      |                  v               |
      |             config.status        |
      |                  |               |
   *config.status*<======+==========>*config.status*
      |                                  |
      v                                  v
   config.h                          Makefile

File: configure.info,  Node: Build Files Description,  Prev: Build Files Picture,  Up: Build Files

3.2.2 Build Files Description
-----------------------------

This is a description of the files which are created at build time.

`config.status'
     The first step in building a package is to run the `configure'
     script.  The `configure' script will create the file
     `config.status', which is itself a shell script.  When you first
     run `configure', it will automatically run `config.status'.  An
     `Makefile' derived from an automake generated `Makefile.in' will
     contain rules to automatically run `config.status' again when
     necessary to recreate certain files if their inputs change.

`Makefile'
     This is the file which make will read to build the program.  The
     `config.status' script will transform `Makefile.in' into
     `Makefile'.

`config.h'
     This file defines C preprocessor macros which C code can use to
     adjust its behaviour on different systems.  The `config.status'
     script will transform `config.in' into `config.h'.

`config.cache'
     This file did not fit neatly into the picture, and I omitted it.
     It is used by the `configure' script to cache results between
     runs.  This can be an important speedup.  If you modify
     `configure.in' in such a way that the results of old tests should
     change (perhaps you have added a new library to `LDFLAGS'), then
     you will have to remove `config.cache' to force the tests to be
     rerun.

     The autoconf manual explains how to set up a site specific cache
     file.  This can speed up running `configure' scripts on your
     system.

`stamp.h'
     This file, which I omitted from the picture, is similar to
     `stamp-h.in'.  It is used as a timestamp file indicating whether
     `config.h' is up to date.  This is useful since `config.h' depends
     upon `config.status', but it is easy for `config.status' to change
     in a way which does not affect `config.h'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Support Files,  Prev: Build Files,  Up: Files

3.3 Support Files
=================

The GNU configure and build system requires several support files to be
included with your distribution.  You do not normally need to concern
yourself with these.  If you are using the Cygnus tree, most are already
present.  Otherwise, they will be installed with your source by
`automake' (with the `--add-missing' option) and `libtoolize'.

   You don't have to put the support files in the top level directory.
You can put them in a subdirectory, and use the `AC_CONFIG_AUX_DIR'
macro in `configure.in' to tell `automake' and the `configure' script
where they are.

   In this section, I describe the support files, so that you can know
what they are and why they are there.

`ABOUT-NLS'
     Added by automake if you are using gettext.  This is a
     documentation file about the gettext project.

`ansi2knr.c'
     Used by an automake generated `Makefile' if you put `ansi2knr' in
     `AUTOMAKE_OPTIONS' in `Makefile.am'.  This permits compiling ANSI
     C code with a K&R C compiler.

`ansi2knr.1'
     The man page which goes with `ansi2knr.c'.

`config.guess'
     A shell script which determines the configuration name for the
     system on which it is run.

`config.sub'
     A shell script which canonicalizes a configuration name entered by
     a user.

`elisp-comp'
     Used to compile Emacs LISP files.

`install-sh'
     A shell script which installs a program.  This is used if the
     configure script can not find an install binary.

`ltconfig'
     Used by libtool.  This is a shell script which configures libtool
     for the particular system on which it is used.

`ltmain.sh'
     Used by libtool.  This is the actual libtool script which is used,
     after it is configured by `ltconfig' to build a library.

`mdate-sh'
     A shell script used by an automake generated `Makefile' to pretty
     print the modification time of a file.  This is used to maintain
     version numbers for texinfo files.

`missing'
     A shell script used if some tool is missing entirely.  This is
     used by an automake generated `Makefile' to avoid certain sorts of
     timestamp problems.

`mkinstalldirs'
     A shell script which creates a directory, including all parent
     directories.  This is used by an automake generated `Makefile'
     during installation.

`texinfo.tex'
     Required if you have any texinfo files.  This is used when
     converting Texinfo files into DVI using `texi2dvi' and TeX.

`ylwrap'
     A shell script used by an automake generated `Makefile' to run
     programs like `bison', `yacc', `flex', and `lex'.  These programs
     default to producing output files with a fixed name, and the
     `ylwrap' script runs them in a subdirectory to avoid file name
     conflicts when using a parallel make program.

File: configure.info,  Node: Configuration Names,  Next: Cross Compilation Tools,  Prev: Files,  Up: Top

4 Configuration Names
*********************

The GNU configure system names all systems using a "configuration
name".  All such names used to be triplets (they may now contain four
parts in certain cases), and the term "configuration triplet" is still
seen.

* Menu:

* Configuration Name Definition::	Configuration Name Definition.
* Using Configuration Names::		Using Configuration Names.

File: configure.info,  Node: Configuration Name Definition,  Next: Using Configuration Names,  Up: Configuration Names

4.1 Configuration Name Definition
=================================

This is a string of the form CPU-MANUFACTURER-OPERATING_SYSTEM.  In
some cases, this is extended to a four part form:
CPU-MANUFACTURER-KERNEL-OPERATING_SYSTEM.

   When using a configuration name in a configure option, it is normally
not necessary to specify an entire name.  In particular, the
MANUFACTURER field is often omitted, leading to strings such as
`i386-linux' or `sparc-sunos'.  The shell script `config.sub' will
translate these shortened strings into the canonical form.  autoconf
will arrange for `config.sub' to be run automatically when it is needed.

   The fields of a configuration name are as follows:

CPU
     The type of processor.  This is typically something like `i386' or
     `sparc'.  More specific variants are used as well, such as
     `mipsel' to indicate a little endian MIPS processor.

MANUFACTURER
     A somewhat freeform field which indicates the manufacturer of the
     system.  This is often simply `unknown'.  Other common strings are
     `pc' for an IBM PC compatible system, or the name of a workstation
     vendor, such as `sun'.

OPERATING_SYSTEM
     The name of the operating system which is run on the system.  This
     will be something like `solaris2.5' or `irix6.3'.  There is no
     particular restriction on the version number, and strings like
     `aix4.1.4.0' are seen.  For an embedded system, which has no
     operating system, this field normally indicates the type of object
     file format, such as `elf' or `coff'.

KERNEL
     This is used mainly for GNU/Linux.  A typical GNU/Linux
     configuration name is `i586-pc-linux-gnulibc1'.  In this case the
     kernel, `linux', is separated from the operating system,
     `gnulibc1'.

   The shell script `config.guess' will normally print the correct
configuration name for the system on which it is run.  It does by
running `uname' and by examining other characteristics of the system.

   Because `config.guess' can normally determine the configuration name
for a machine, it is normally only necessary to specify a configuration
name when building a cross-compiler or when building using a
cross-compiler.

File: configure.info,  Node: Using Configuration Names,  Prev: Configuration Name Definition,  Up: Configuration Names

4.2 Using Configuration Names
=============================

A configure script will sometimes have to make a decision based on a
configuration name.  You will need to do this if you have to compile
code differently based on something which can not be tested using a
standard autoconf feature test.

   It is normally better to test for particular features, rather than to
test for a particular system.  This is because as Unix evolves,
different systems copy features from one another.  Even if you need to
determine whether the feature is supported based on a configuration
name, you should define a macro which describes the feature, rather than
defining a macro which describes the particular system you are on.

   Testing for a particular system is normally done using a case
statement in `configure.in'.  The case statement might look something
like the following, assuming that `host' is a shell variable holding a
canonical configuration name (which will be the case if `configure.in'
uses the `AC_CANONICAL_HOST' or `AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM' macro).

     case "${host}" in
     i[34567]86-*-linux-gnu*) do something ;;
     sparc*-sun-solaris2.[56789]*) do something ;;
     sparc*-sun-solaris*) do something ;;
     mips*-*-elf*) do something ;;
     esac

   It is particularly important to use `*' after the operating system
field, in order to match the version number which will be generated by
`config.guess'.

   In most cases you must be careful to match a range of processor
types.  For most processor families, a trailing `*' suffices, as in
`mips*' above.  For the i386 family, something along the lines of
`i[34567]86' suffices at present.  For the m68k family, you will need
something like `m68*'.  Of course, if you do not need to match on the
processor, it is simpler to just replace the entire field by a `*', as
in `*-*-irix*'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cross Compilation Tools,  Next: Canadian Cross,  Prev: Configuration Names,  Up: Top

5 Cross Compilation Tools
*************************

The GNU configure and build system can be used to build "cross
compilation" tools.  A cross compilation tool is a tool which runs on
one system and produces code which runs on another system.

* Menu:

* Cross Compilation Concepts::		Cross Compilation Concepts.
* Host and Target::			Host and Target.
* Using the Host Type::			Using the Host Type.
* Specifying the Target::       	Specifying the Target.
* Using the Target Type::		Using the Target Type.
* Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree::	Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree

File: configure.info,  Node: Cross Compilation Concepts,  Next: Host and Target,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.1 Cross Compilation Concepts
==============================

A compiler which produces programs which run on a different system is a
cross compilation compiler, or simply a "cross compiler".  Similarly,
we speak of cross assemblers, cross linkers, etc.

   In the normal case, a compiler produces code which runs on the same
system as the one on which the compiler runs.  When it is necessary to
distinguish this case from the cross compilation case, such a compiler
is called a "native compiler".  Similarly, we speak of native
assemblers, etc.

   Although the debugger is not strictly speaking a compilation tool,
it is nevertheless meaningful to speak of a cross debugger: a debugger
which is used to debug code which runs on another system.  Everything
that is said below about configuring cross compilation tools applies to
the debugger as well.

File: configure.info,  Node: Host and Target,  Next: Using the Host Type,  Prev: Cross Compilation Concepts,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.2 Host and Target
===================

When building cross compilation tools, there are two different systems
involved: the system on which the tools will run, and the system for
which the tools generate code.

   The system on which the tools will run is called the "host" system.

   The system for which the tools generate code is called the "target"
system.

   For example, suppose you have a compiler which runs on a GNU/Linux
system and generates ELF programs for a MIPS embedded system.  In this
case the GNU/Linux system is the host, and the MIPS ELF system is the
target.  Such a compiler could be called a GNU/Linux cross MIPS ELF
compiler, or, equivalently, a `i386-linux-gnu' cross `mips-elf'
compiler.

   Naturally, most programs are not cross compilation tools.  For those
programs, it does not make sense to speak of a target.  It only makes
sense to speak of a target for tools like `gcc' or the `binutils' which
actually produce running code.  For example, it does not make sense to
speak of the target of a tool like `bison' or `make'.

   Most cross compilation tools can also serve as native tools.  For a
native compilation tool, it is still meaningful to speak of a target.
For a native tool, the target is the same as the host.  For example, for
a GNU/Linux native compiler, the host is GNU/Linux, and the target is
also GNU/Linux.

File: configure.info,  Node: Using the Host Type,  Next: Specifying the Target,  Prev: Host and Target,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.3 Using the Host Type
=======================

In almost all cases the host system is the system on which you run the
`configure' script, and on which you build the tools (for the case when
they differ, *note Canadian Cross::).

   If your configure script needs to know the configuration name of the
host system, and the package is not a cross compilation tool and
therefore does not have a target, put `AC_CANONICAL_HOST' in
`configure.in'.  This macro will arrange to define a few shell
variables when the `configure' script is run.

`host'
     The canonical configuration name of the host.  This will normally
     be determined by running the `config.guess' shell script, although
     the user is permitted to override this by using an explicit
     `--host' option.

`host_alias'
     In the unusual case that the user used an explicit `--host' option,
     this will be the argument to `--host'.  In the normal case, this
     will be the same as the `host' variable.

`host_cpu'
`host_vendor'
`host_os'
     The first three parts of the canonical configuration name.

   The shell variables may be used by putting shell code in
`configure.in'.  For an example, see *note Using Configuration Names::.

File: configure.info,  Node: Specifying the Target,  Next: Using the Target Type,  Prev: Using the Host Type,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.4 Specifying the Target
=========================

By default, the `configure' script will assume that the target is the
same as the host.  This is the more common case; for example, it leads
to a native compiler rather than a cross compiler.

   If you want to build a cross compilation tool, you must specify the
target explicitly by using the `--target' option when you run
`configure'.  The argument to `--target' is the configuration name of
the system for which you wish to generate code.  *Note Configuration
Names::.

   For example, to build tools which generate code for a MIPS ELF
embedded system, you would use `--target mips-elf'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Using the Target Type,  Next: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree,  Prev: Specifying the Target,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.5 Using the Target Type
=========================

When writing `configure.in' for a cross compilation tool, you will need
to use information about the target.  To do this, put
`AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM' in `configure.in'.

   `AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM' will look for a `--target' option and
canonicalize it using the `config.sub' shell script.  It will also run
`AC_CANONICAL_HOST' (*note Using the Host Type::).

   The target type will be recorded in the following shell variables.
Note that the host versions of these variables will also be defined by
`AC_CANONICAL_HOST'.

`target'
     The canonical configuration name of the target.

`target_alias'
     The argument to the `--target' option.  If the user did not specify
     a `--target' option, this will be the same as `host_alias'.

`target_cpu'
`target_vendor'
`target_os'
     The first three parts of the canonical target configuration name.

   Note that if `host' and `target' are the same string, you can assume
a native configuration.  If they are different, you can assume a cross
configuration.

   It is arguably possible for `host' and `target' to represent the
same system, but for the strings to not be identical.  For example, if
`config.guess' returns `sparc-sun-sunos4.1.4', and somebody configures
with `--target sparc-sun-sunos4.1', then the slight differences between
the two versions of SunOS may be unimportant for your tool.  However,
in the general case it can be quite difficult to determine whether the
differences between two configuration names are significant or not.
Therefore, by convention, if the user specifies a `--target' option
without specifying a `--host' option, it is assumed that the user wants
to configure a cross compilation tool.

   The variables `target' and `target_alias' should be handled
differently.

   In general, whenever the user may actually see a string,
`target_alias' should be used.  This includes anything which may appear
in the file system, such as a directory name or part of a tool name.
It also includes any tool output, unless it is clearly labelled as the
canonical target configuration name.  This permits the user to use the
`--target' option to specify how the tool will appear to the outside
world.

   On the other hand, when checking for characteristics of the target
system, `target' should be used.  This is because a wide variety of
`--target' options may map into the same canonical configuration name.
You should not attempt to duplicate the canonicalization done by
`config.sub' in your own code.

   By convention, cross tools are installed with a prefix of the
argument used with the `--target' option, also known as `target_alias'
(*note Using the Target Type::).  If the user does not use the
`--target' option, and thus is building a native tool, no prefix is
used.

   For example, if gcc is configured with `--target mips-elf', then the
installed binary will be named `mips-elf-gcc'.  If gcc is configured
without a `--target' option, then the installed binary will be named
`gcc'.

   The autoconf macro `AC_ARG_PROGRAM' will handle this for you.  If
you are using automake, no more need be done; the programs will
automatically be installed with the correct prefixes.  Otherwise, see
the autoconf documentation for `AC_ARG_PROGRAM'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree,  Prev: Using the Target Type,  Up: Cross Compilation Tools

5.6 Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree
==================================

The Cygnus tree is used for various packages including gdb, the GNU
binutils, and egcs.  It is also, of course, used for Cygnus releases.

   In the Cygnus tree, the top level `configure' script uses the old
Cygnus configure system, not autoconf.  The top level `Makefile.in' is
written to build packages based on what is in the source tree, and
supports building a large number of tools in a single
`configure'/`make' step.

   The Cygnus tree may be configured with a `--target' option.  The
`--target' option applies recursively to every subdirectory, and
permits building an entire set of cross tools at once.

* Menu:

* Host and Target Libraries::		Host and Target Libraries.
* Target Library Configure Scripts::	Target Library Configure Scripts.
* Make Targets in Cygnus Tree::         Make Targets in Cygnus Tree.
* Target libiberty::			Target libiberty

File: configure.info,  Node: Host and Target Libraries,  Next: Target Library Configure Scripts,  Up: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree

5.6.1 Host and Target Libraries
-------------------------------

The Cygnus tree distinguishes host libraries from target libraries.

   Host libraries are built with the compiler used to build the programs
which run on the host, which is called the host compiler.  This includes
libraries such as `bfd' and `tcl'.  These libraries are built with the
host compiler, and are linked into programs like the binutils or gcc
which run on the host.

   Target libraries are built with the target compiler.  If gcc is
present in the source tree, then the target compiler is the gcc that is
built using the host compiler.  Target libraries are libraries such as
`newlib' and `libstdc++'.  These libraries are not linked into the host
programs, but are instead made available for use with programs built
with the target compiler.

   For the rest of this section, assume that gcc is present in the
source tree, so that it will be used to build the target libraries.

   There is a complication here.  The configure process needs to know
which compiler you are going to use to build a tool; otherwise, the
feature tests will not work correctly.  The Cygnus tree handles this by
not configuring the target libraries until the target compiler is
built.  In order to permit everything to build using a single
`configure'/`make', the configuration of the target libraries is
actually triggered during the make step.

   When the target libraries are configured, the `--target' option is
not used.  Instead, the `--host' option is used with the argument of
the `--target' option for the overall configuration.  If no `--target'
option was used for the overall configuration, the `--host' option will
be passed with the output of the `config.guess' shell script.  Any
`--build' option is passed down unchanged.

   This translation of configuration options is done because since the
target libraries are compiled with the target compiler, they are being
built in order to run on the target of the overall configuration.  By
the definition of host, this means that their host system is the same as
the target system of the overall configuration.

   The same process is used for both a native configuration and a cross
configuration.  Even when using a native configuration, the target
libraries will be configured and built using the newly built compiler.
This is particularly important for the C++ libraries, since there is no
reason to assume that the C++ compiler used to build the host tools (if
there even is one) uses the same ABI as the g++ compiler which will be
used to build the target libraries.

   There is one difference between a native configuration and a cross
configuration.  In a native configuration, the target libraries are
normally configured and built as siblings of the host tools.  In a cross
configuration, the target libraries are normally built in a subdirectory
whose name is the argument to `--target'.  This is mainly for
historical reasons.

   To summarize, running `configure' in the Cygnus tree configures all
the host libraries and tools, but does not configure any of the target
libraries.  Running `make' then does the following steps:

   * Build the host libraries.

   * Build the host programs, including gcc.  Note that we call gcc
     both a host program (since it runs on the host) and a target
     compiler (since it generates code for the target).

   * Using the newly built target compiler, configure the target
     libraries.

   * Build the target libraries.

   The steps need not be done in precisely this order, since they are
actually controlled by `Makefile' targets.

File: configure.info,  Node: Target Library Configure Scripts,  Next: Make Targets in Cygnus Tree,  Prev: Host and Target Libraries,  Up: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree

5.6.2 Target Library Configure Scripts
--------------------------------------

There are a few things you must know in order to write a configure
script for a target library.  This is just a quick sketch, and beginners
shouldn't worry if they don't follow everything here.

   The target libraries are configured and built using a newly built
target compiler.  There may not be any startup files or libraries for
this target compiler.  In fact, those files will probably be built as
part of some target library, which naturally means that they will not
exist when your target library is configured.

   This means that the configure script for a target library may not use
any test which requires doing a link.  This unfortunately includes many
useful autoconf macros, such as `AC_CHECK_FUNCS'.  autoconf macros
which do a compile but not a link, such as `AC_CHECK_HEADERS', may be
used.

   This is a severe restriction, but normally not a fatal one, as target
libraries can often assume the presence of other target libraries, and
thus know which functions will be available.

   As of this writing, the autoconf macro `AC_PROG_CC' does a link to
make sure that the compiler works.  This may fail in a target library,
so target libraries must use a different set of macros to locate the
compiler.  See the `configure.in' file in a directory like `libiberty'
or `libgloss' for an example.

   As noted in the previous section, target libraries are sometimes
built in directories which are siblings to the host tools, and are
sometimes built in a subdirectory.  The `--with-target-subdir' configure
option will be passed when the library is configured.  Its value will be
an empty string if the target library is a sibling.  Its value will be
the name of the subdirectory if the target library is in a subdirectory.

   If the overall build is not a native build (i.e., the overall
configure used the `--target' option), then the library will be
configured with the `--with-cross-host' option.  The value of this
option will be the host system of the overall build.  Recall that the
host system of the library will be the target of the overall build.  If
the overall build is a native build, the `--with-cross-host' option
will not be used.

   A library which can be built both standalone and as a target library
may want to install itself into different directories depending upon the
case.  When built standalone, or when built native, the library should
be installed in `$(libdir)'.  When built as a target library which is
not native, the library should be installed in `$(tooldir)/lib'.  The
`--with-cross-host' option may be used to distinguish these cases.

   This same test of `--with-cross-host' may be used to see whether it
is OK to use link tests in the configure script.  If the
`--with-cross-host' option is not used, then the library is being built
either standalone or native, and a link should work.

File: configure.info,  Node: Make Targets in Cygnus Tree,  Next: Target libiberty,  Prev: Target Library Configure Scripts,  Up: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree

5.6.3 Make Targets in Cygnus Tree
---------------------------------

The top level `Makefile' in the Cygnus tree defines targets for every
known subdirectory.

   For every subdirectory DIR which holds a host library or program,
the `Makefile' target `all-DIR' will build that library or program.

   There are dependencies among host tools.  For example, building gcc
requires first building gas, because the gcc build process invokes the
target assembler.  These dependencies are reflected in the top level
`Makefile'.

   For every subdirectory DIR which holds a target library, the
`Makefile' target `configure-target-DIR' will configure that library.
The `Makefile' target `all-target-DIR' will build that library.

   Every `configure-target-DIR' target depends upon `all-gcc', since
gcc, the target compiler, is required to configure the tool.  Every
`all-target-DIR' target depends upon the corresponding
`configure-target-DIR' target.

   There are several other targets which may be of interest for each
directory: `install-DIR', `clean-DIR', and `check-DIR'.  There are also
corresponding `target' versions of these for the target libraries ,
such as `install-target-DIR'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Target libiberty,  Prev: Make Targets in Cygnus Tree,  Up: Cross Tools in the Cygnus Tree

5.6.4 Target libiberty
----------------------

The `libiberty' subdirectory is currently a special case, in that it is
the only directory which is built both using the host compiler and
using the target compiler.

   This is because the files in `libiberty' are used when building the
host tools, and they are also incorporated into the `libstdc++' target
library as support code.

   This duality does not pose any particular difficulties.  It means
that there are targets for both `all-libiberty' and
`all-target-libiberty'.

   In a native configuration, when target libraries are not built in a
subdirectory, the same objects are normally used as both the host build
and the target build.  This is normally OK, since libiberty contains
only C code, and in a native configuration the results of the host
compiler and the target compiler are normally interoperable.

   Irix 6 is again an exception here, since the SGI native compiler
defaults to using the `O32' ABI, and gcc defaults to using the `N32'
ABI.  On Irix 6, the target libraries are built in a subdirectory even
for a native configuration, avoiding this problem.

   There are currently no other libraries built for both the host and
the target, but there is no conceptual problem with adding more.

File: configure.info,  Node: Canadian Cross,  Next: Cygnus Configure,  Prev: Cross Compilation Tools,  Up: Top

6 Canadian Cross
****************

It is possible to use the GNU configure and build system to build a
program which will run on a system which is different from the system on
which the tools are built.  In other words, it is possible to build
programs using a cross compiler.

   This is referred to as a "Canadian Cross".

* Menu:

* Canadian Cross Example::		Canadian Cross Example.
* Canadian Cross Concepts::		Canadian Cross Concepts.
* Build Cross Host Tools::		Build Cross Host Tools.
* Build and Host Options::		Build and Host Options.
* CCross not in Cygnus Tree::		Canadian Cross not in Cygnus Tree.
* CCross in Cygnus Tree::		Canadian Cross in Cygnus Tree.
* Supporting Canadian Cross::		Supporting Canadian Cross.

File: configure.info,  Node: Canadian Cross Example,  Next: Canadian Cross Concepts,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.1 Canadian Cross Example
==========================

Here is an example of a Canadian Cross.

   While running on a GNU/Linux, you can build a program which will run
on a Solaris system.  You would use a GNU/Linux cross Solaris compiler
to build the program.

   Of course, you could not run the resulting program on your GNU/Linux
system.  You would have to copy it over to a Solaris system before you
would run it.

   Of course, you could also simply build the programs on the Solaris
system in the first place.  However, perhaps the Solaris system is not
available for some reason; perhaps you actually don't have one, but you
want to build the tools for somebody else to use.  Or perhaps your
GNU/Linux system is much faster than your Solaris system.

   A Canadian Cross build is most frequently used when building
programs to run on a non-Unix system, such as DOS or Windows.  It may
be simpler to configure and build on a Unix system than to support the
configuration machinery on a non-Unix system.

File: configure.info,  Node: Canadian Cross Concepts,  Next: Build Cross Host Tools,  Prev: Canadian Cross Example,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.2 Canadian Cross Concepts
===========================

When building a Canadian Cross, there are at least two different systems
involved: the system on which the tools are being built, and the system
on which the tools will run.

   The system on which the tools are being built is called the "build"
system.

   The system on which the tools will run is called the host system.

   For example, if you are building a Solaris program on a GNU/Linux
system, as in the previous section, the build system would be GNU/Linux,
and the host system would be Solaris.

   It is, of course, possible to build a cross compiler using a Canadian
Cross (i.e., build a cross compiler using a cross compiler).  In this
case, the system for which the resulting cross compiler generates code
is called the target system.  (For a more complete discussion of host
and target systems, *note Host and Target::).

   An example of building a cross compiler using a Canadian Cross would
be building a Windows cross MIPS ELF compiler on a GNU/Linux system.  In
this case the build system would be GNU/Linux, the host system would be
Windows, and the target system would be MIPS ELF.

   The name Canadian Cross comes from the case when the build, host, and
target systems are all different.  At the time that these issues were
all being hashed out, Canada had three national political parties.

File: configure.info,  Node: Build Cross Host Tools,  Next: Build and Host Options,  Prev: Canadian Cross Concepts,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.3 Build Cross Host Tools
==========================

In order to configure a program for a Canadian Cross build, you must
first build and install the set of cross tools you will use to build the
program.

   These tools will be build cross host tools.  That is, they will run
on the build system, and will produce code that runs on the host system.

   It is easy to confuse the meaning of build and host here.  Always
remember that the build system is where you are doing the build, and the
host system is where the resulting program will run.  Therefore, you
need a build cross host compiler.

   In general, you must have a complete cross environment in order to do
the build.  This normally means a cross compiler, cross assembler, and
so forth, as well as libraries and include files for the host system.

File: configure.info,  Node: Build and Host Options,  Next: CCross not in Cygnus Tree,  Prev: Build Cross Host Tools,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.4 Build and Host Options
==========================

When you run `configure', you must use both the `--build' and `--host'
options.

   The `--build' option is used to specify the configuration name of
the build system.  This can normally be the result of running the
`config.guess' shell script, and it is reasonable to use
`--build=`config.guess`'.

   The `--host' option is used to specify the configuration name of the
host system.

   As we explained earlier, `config.guess' is used to set the default
value for the `--host' option (*note Using the Host Type::).  We can
now see that since `config.guess' returns the type of system on which
it is run, it really identifies the build system.  Since the host
system is normally the same as the build system (i.e., people do not
normally build using a cross compiler), it is reasonable to use the
result of `config.guess' as the default for the host system when the
`--host' option is not used.

   It might seem that if the `--host' option were used without the
`--build' option that the configure script could run `config.guess' to
determine the build system, and presume a Canadian Cross if the result
of `config.guess' differed from the `--host' option.  However, for
historical reasons, some configure scripts are routinely run using an
explicit `--host' option, rather than using the default from
`config.guess'.  As noted earlier, it is difficult or impossible to
reliably compare configuration names (*note Using the Target Type::).
Therefore, by convention, if the `--host' option is used, but the
`--build' option is not used, then the build system defaults to the
host system.

File: configure.info,  Node: CCross not in Cygnus Tree,  Next: CCross in Cygnus Tree,  Prev: Build and Host Options,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.5 Canadian Cross not in Cygnus Tree.
======================================

If you are not using the Cygnus tree, you must explicitly specify the
cross tools which you want to use to build the program.  This is done by
setting environment variables before running the `configure' script.

   You must normally set at least the environment variables `CC', `AR',
and `RANLIB' to the cross tools which you want to use to build.

   For some programs, you must set additional cross tools as well, such
as `AS', `LD', or `NM'.

   You would set these environment variables to the build cross tools
which you are going to use.

   For example, if you are building a Solaris program on a GNU/Linux
system, and your GNU/Linux cross Solaris compiler were named
`solaris-gcc', then you would set the environment variable `CC' to
`solaris-gcc'.

File: configure.info,  Node: CCross in Cygnus Tree,  Next: Supporting Canadian Cross,  Prev: CCross not in Cygnus Tree,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.6 Canadian Cross in Cygnus Tree
=================================

This section describes configuring and building a Canadian Cross when
using the Cygnus tree.

* Menu:

* Standard Cygnus CCross::	Building a Normal Program.
* Cross Cygnus CCross::		Building a Cross Program.

File: configure.info,  Node: Standard Cygnus CCross,  Next: Cross Cygnus CCross,  Up: CCross in Cygnus Tree

6.6.1 Building a Normal Program
-------------------------------

When configuring a Canadian Cross in the Cygnus tree, all the
appropriate environment variables are automatically set to `HOST-TOOL',
where HOST is the value used for the `--host' option, and TOOL is the
name of the tool (e.g., `gcc', `as', etc.).  These tools must be on
your `PATH'.

   Adding a prefix of HOST will give the usual name for the build cross
host tools.  To see this, consider that when these cross tools were
built, they were configured to run on the build system and to produce
code for the host system.  That is, they were configured with a
`--target' option that is the same as the system which we are now
calling the host.  Recall that the default name for installed cross
tools uses the target system as a prefix (*note Using the Target
Type::).  Since that is the system which we are now calling the host,
HOST is the right prefix to use.

   For example, if you configure with `--build=i386-linux-gnu' and
`--host=solaris', then the Cygnus tree will automatically default to
using the compiler `solaris-gcc'.  You must have previously built and
installed this compiler, probably by doing a build with no `--host'
option and with a `--target' option of `solaris'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cross Cygnus CCross,  Prev: Standard Cygnus CCross,  Up: CCross in Cygnus Tree

6.6.2 Building a Cross Program
------------------------------

There are additional considerations if you want to build a cross
compiler, rather than a native compiler, in the Cygnus tree using a
Canadian Cross.

   When you build a cross compiler using the Cygnus tree, then the
target libraries will normally be built with the newly built target
compiler (*note Host and Target Libraries::).  However, this will not
work when building with a Canadian Cross.  This is because the newly
built target compiler will be a program which runs on the host system,
and therefore will not be able to run on the build system.

   Therefore, when building a cross compiler with the Cygnus tree, you
must first install a set of build cross target tools.  These tools will
be used when building the target libraries.

   Note that this is not a requirement of a Canadian Cross in general.
For example, it would be possible to build just the host cross target
tools on the build system, to copy the tools to the host system, and to
build the target libraries on the host system.  The requirement for
build cross target tools is imposed by the Cygnus tree, which expects
to be able to build both host programs and target libraries in a single
`configure'/`make' step.  Because it builds these in a single step, it
expects to be able to build the target libraries on the build system,
which means that it must use a build cross target toolchain.

   For example, suppose you want to build a Windows cross MIPS ELF
compiler on a GNU/Linux system.  You must have previously installed
both a GNU/Linux cross Windows compiler and a GNU/Linux cross MIPS ELF
compiler.

   In order to build the Windows (configuration name `i386-cygwin32')
cross MIPS ELF (configure name `mips-elf') compiler, you might execute
the following commands (long command lines are broken across lines with
a trailing backslash as a continuation character).

     mkdir linux-x-cygwin32
     cd linux-x-cygwin32
     SRCDIR/configure --target i386-cygwin32 --prefix=INSTALLDIR \
       --exec-prefix=INSTALLDIR/H-i386-linux
     make
     make install
     cd ..
     mkdir linux-x-mips-elf
     cd linux-x-mips-elf
     SRCDIR/configure --target mips-elf --prefix=INSTALLDIR \
       --exec-prefix=INSTALLDIR/H-i386-linux
     make
     make install
     cd ..
     mkdir cygwin32-x-mips-elf
     cd cygwin32-x-mips-elf
     SRCDIR/configure --build=i386-linux-gnu --host=i386-cygwin32 \
       --target=mips-elf --prefix=WININSTALLDIR \
       --exec-prefix=WININSTALLDIR/H-i386-cygwin32
     make
     make install

   You would then copy the contents of WININSTALLDIR over to the
Windows machine, and run the resulting programs.

File: configure.info,  Node: Supporting Canadian Cross,  Prev: CCross in Cygnus Tree,  Up: Canadian Cross

6.7 Supporting Canadian Cross
=============================

If you want to make it possible to build a program you are developing
using a Canadian Cross, you must take some care when writing your
configure and make rules.  Simple cases will normally work correctly.
However, it is not hard to write configure and make tests which will
fail in a Canadian Cross.

* Menu:

* CCross in Configure::		Supporting Canadian Cross in Configure Scripts.
* CCross in Make::		Supporting Canadian Cross in Makefiles.

File: configure.info,  Node: CCross in Configure,  Next: CCross in Make,  Up: Supporting Canadian Cross

6.7.1 Supporting Canadian Cross in Configure Scripts
----------------------------------------------------

In a `configure.in' file, after calling `AC_PROG_CC', you can find out
whether this is a Canadian Cross configure by examining the shell
variable `cross_compiling'.  In a Canadian Cross, which means that the
compiler is a cross compiler, `cross_compiling' will be `yes'.  In a
normal configuration, `cross_compiling' will be `no'.

   You ordinarily do not need to know the type of the build system in a
configure script.  However, if you do need that information, you can get
it by using the macro `AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM', the same macro that is
used to determine the target system.  This macro will set the variables
`build', `build_alias', `build_cpu', `build_vendor', and `build_os',
which correspond to the similar `target' and `host' variables, except
that they describe the build system.

   When writing tests in `configure.in', you must remember that you
want to test the host environment, not the build environment.

   Macros like `AC_CHECK_FUNCS' which use the compiler will test the
host environment.  That is because the tests will be done by running the
compiler, which is actually a build cross host compiler.  If the
compiler can find the function, that means that the function is present
in the host environment.

   Tests like `test -f /dev/ptyp0', on the other hand, will test the
build environment.  Remember that the configure script is running on the
build system, not the host system.  If your configure scripts examines
files, those files will be on the build system.  Whatever you determine
based on those files may or may not be the case on the host system.

   Most autoconf macros will work correctly for a Canadian Cross.  The
main exception is `AC_TRY_RUN'.  This macro tries to compile and run a
test program.  This will fail in a Canadian Cross, because the program
will be compiled for the host system, which means that it will not run
on the build system.

   The `AC_TRY_RUN' macro provides an optional argument to tell the
configure script what to do in a Canadian Cross.  If that argument is
not present, you will get a warning when you run `autoconf':
     warning: AC_TRY_RUN called without default to allow cross compiling
   This tells you that the resulting `configure' script will not work
with a Canadian Cross.

   In some cases while it may better to perform a test at configure
time, it is also possible to perform the test at run time.  In such a
case you can use the cross compiling argument to `AC_TRY_RUN' to tell
your program that the test could not be performed at configure time.

   There are a few other autoconf macros which will not work correctly
with a Canadian Cross: a partial list is `AC_FUNC_GETPGRP',
`AC_FUNC_SETPGRP', `AC_FUNC_SETVBUF_REVERSED', and
`AC_SYS_RESTARTABLE_SYSCALLS'.  The `AC_CHECK_SIZEOF' macro is
generally not very useful with a Canadian Cross; it permits an optional
argument indicating the default size, but there is no way to know what
the correct default should be.

File: configure.info,  Node: CCross in Make,  Prev: CCross in Configure,  Up: Supporting Canadian Cross

6.7.2 Supporting Canadian Cross in Makefiles.
---------------------------------------------

The main Canadian Cross issue in a `Makefile' arises when you want to
use a subsidiary program to generate code or data which you will then
include in your real program.

   If you compile this subsidiary program using `$(CC)' in the usual
way, you will not be able to run it.  This is because `$(CC)' will
build a program for the host system, but the program is being built on
the build system.

   You must instead use a compiler for the build system, rather than the
host system.  In the Cygnus tree, this make variable `$(CC_FOR_BUILD)'
will hold a compiler for the build system.

   Note that you should not include `config.h' in a file you are
compiling with `$(CC_FOR_BUILD)'.  The `configure' script will build
`config.h' with information for the host system.  However, you are
compiling the file using a compiler for the build system (a native
compiler).  Subsidiary programs are normally simple filters which do no
user interaction, and it is normally possible to write them in a highly
portable fashion so that the absence of `config.h' is not crucial.

   The gcc `Makefile.in' shows a complex situation in which certain
files, such as `rtl.c', must be compiled into both subsidiary programs
run on the build system and into the final program.  This approach may
be of interest for advanced build system hackers.  Note that the build
system compiler is rather confusingly called `HOST_CC'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cygnus Configure,  Next: Multilibs,  Prev: Canadian Cross,  Up: Top

7 Cygnus Configure
******************

The Cygnus configure script predates autoconf.  All of its interesting
features have been incorporated into autoconf.  No new programs should
be written to use the Cygnus configure script.

   However, the Cygnus configure script is still used in a few places:
at the top of the Cygnus tree and in a few target libraries in the
Cygnus tree.  Until those uses have been replaced with autoconf, some
brief notes are appropriate here.  This is not complete documentation,
but it should be possible to use this as a guide while examining the
scripts themselves.

* Menu:

* Cygnus Configure Basics::		Cygnus Configure Basics.
* Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries::	Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cygnus Configure Basics,  Next: Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries,  Up: Cygnus Configure

7.1 Cygnus Configure Basics
===========================

Cygnus configure does not use any generated files; there is no program
corresponding to `autoconf'.  Instead, there is a single shell script
named `configure' which may be found at the top of the Cygnus tree.
This shell script was written by hand; it was not generated by
autoconf, and it is incorrect, and indeed harmful, to run `autoconf' in
the top level of a Cygnus tree.

   Cygnus configure works in a particular directory by examining the
file `configure.in' in that directory.  That file is broken into four
separate shell scripts.

   The first is the contents of `configure.in' up to a line that starts
with `# per-host:'.  This is the common part.

   The second is the rest of `configure.in' up to a line that starts
with `# per-target:'.  This is the per host part.

   The third is the rest of `configure.in' up to a line that starts
with `# post-target:'.  This is the per target part.

   The fourth is the remainder of `configure.in'.  This is the post
target part.

   If any of these comment lines are missing, the corresponding shell
script is empty.

   Cygnus configure will first execute the common part.  This must set
the shell variable `srctrigger' to the name of a source file, to
confirm that Cygnus configure is looking at the right directory.  This
may set the shell variables `package_makefile_frag' and
`package_makefile_rules_frag'.

   Cygnus configure will next set the `build' and `host' shell
variables, and execute the per host part.  This may set the shell
variable `host_makefile_frag'.

   Cygnus configure will next set the `target' variable, and execute
the per target part.  This may set the shell variable
`target_makefile_frag'.

   Any of these scripts may set the `subdirs' shell variable.  This
variable is a list of subdirectories where a `Makefile.in' file may be
found.  Cygnus configure will automatically look for a `Makefile.in'
file in the current directory.  The `subdirs' shell variable is not
normally used, and I believe that the only directory which uses it at
present is `newlib'.

   For each `Makefile.in', Cygnus configure will automatically create a
`Makefile' by adding definitions for `make' variables such as `host'
and `target', and automatically editing the values of `make' variables
such as `prefix' if they are present.

   Also, if any of the `makefile_frag' shell variables are set, Cygnus
configure will interpret them as file names relative to either the
working directory or the source directory, and will read the contents of
the file into the generated `Makefile'.  The file contents will be read
in after the first line in `Makefile.in' which starts with `####'.

   These `Makefile' fragments are used to customize behaviour for a
particular host or target.  They serve to select particular files to
compile, and to define particular preprocessor macros by providing
values for `make' variables which are then used during compilation.
Cygnus configure, unlike autoconf, normally does not do feature tests,
and normally requires support to be added manually for each new host.

   The `Makefile' fragment support is similar to the autoconf
`AC_SUBST_FILE' macro.

   After creating each `Makefile', the post target script will be run
(i.e., it may be run several times).  This script may further customize
the `Makefile'.  When it is run, the shell variable `Makefile' will
hold the name of the `Makefile', including the appropriate directory
component.

   Like an autoconf generated `configure' script, Cygnus configure will
create a file named `config.status' which, when run, will automatically
recreate the configuration.  The `config.status' file will simply
execute the Cygnus configure script again with the appropriate
arguments.

   Any of the parts of `configure.in' may set the shell variables
`files' and `links'.  Cygnus configure will set up symlinks from the
names in `links' to the files named in `files'.  This is similar to the
autoconf `AC_LINK_FILES' macro.

   Finally, any of the parts of `configure.in' may set the shell
variable `configdirs' to a set of subdirectories.  If it is set, Cygnus
configure will recursively run the configure process in each
subdirectory.  If the subdirectory uses Cygnus configure, it will
contain a `configure.in' file but no `configure' file, in which case
Cygnus configure will invoke itself recursively.  If the subdirectory
has a `configure' file, Cygnus configure assumes that it is an autoconf
generated `configure' script, and simply invokes it directly.

File: configure.info,  Node: Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries,  Prev: Cygnus Configure Basics,  Up: Cygnus Configure

7.2 Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries
=====================================

The C++ library configure system, written by Per Bothner, deserves
special mention.  It uses Cygnus configure, but it does feature testing
like that done by autoconf generated `configure' scripts.  This
approach is used in the libraries `libio', `libstdc++', and `libg++'.

   Most of the `Makefile' information is written out by the shell
script `libio/config.shared'.  Each `configure.in' file sets certain
shell variables, and then invokes `config.shared' to create two package
`Makefile' fragments.  These fragments are then incorporated into the
resulting `Makefile' by the Cygnus configure script.

   The file `_G_config.h' is created in the `libio' object directory by
running the shell script `libio/gen-params'.  This shell script uses
feature tests to define macros and typedefs in `_G_config.h'.

File: configure.info,  Node: Multilibs,  Next: FAQ,  Prev: Cygnus Configure,  Up: Top

8 Multilibs
***********

For some targets gcc may have different processor requirements depending
upon command line options.  An obvious example is the `-msoft-float'
option supported on several processors.  This option means that the
floating point registers are not available, which means that floating
point operations must be done by calling an emulation subroutine rather
than by using machine instructions.

   For such options, gcc is often configured to compile target libraries
twice: once with `-msoft-float' and once without.  When gcc compiles
target libraries more than once, the resulting libraries are called
"multilibs".

   Multilibs are not really part of the GNU configure and build system,
but we discuss them here since they require support in the `configure'
scripts and `Makefile's used for target libraries.

* Menu:

* Multilibs in gcc::		        Multilibs in gcc.
* Multilibs in Target Libraries::	Multilibs in Target Libraries.

File: configure.info,  Node: Multilibs in gcc,  Next: Multilibs in Target Libraries,  Up: Multilibs

8.1 Multilibs in gcc
====================

In gcc, multilibs are defined by setting the variable
`MULTILIB_OPTIONS' in the target `Makefile' fragment.  Several other
`MULTILIB' variables may also be defined there.  *Note The Target
Makefile Fragment: (gcc)Target Fragment.

   If you have built gcc, you can see what multilibs it uses by running
it with the `-print-multi-lib' option.  The output `.;' means that no
multilibs are used.  In general, the output is a sequence of lines, one
per multilib.  The first part of each line, up to the `;', is the name
of the multilib directory.  The second part is a list of compiler
options separated by `@' characters.

   Multilibs are built in a tree of directories.  The top of the tree,
represented by `.' in the list of multilib directories, is the default
library to use when no special compiler options are used.  The
subdirectories of the tree hold versions of the library to use when
particular compiler options are used.

File: configure.info,  Node: Multilibs in Target Libraries,  Prev: Multilibs in gcc,  Up: Multilibs

8.2 Multilibs in Target Libraries
=================================

The target libraries in the Cygnus tree are automatically built with
multilibs.  That means that each library is built multiple times.

   This default is set in the top level `configure.in' file, by adding
`--enable-multilib' to the list of arguments passed to configure when
it is run for the target libraries (*note Host and Target Libraries::).

   Each target library uses the shell script `config-ml.in', written by
Doug Evans, to prepare to build target libraries.  This shell script is
invoked after the `Makefile' has been created by the `configure'
script.  If multilibs are not enabled, it does nothing, otherwise it
modifies the `Makefile' to support multilibs.

   The `config-ml.in' script makes one copy of the `Makefile' for each
multilib in the appropriate subdirectory.  When configuring in the
source directory (which is not recommended), it will build a symlink
tree of the sources in each subdirectory.

   The `config-ml.in' script sets several variables in the various
`Makefile's.  The `Makefile.in' must have definitions for these
variables already; `config-ml.in' simply changes the existing values.
The `Makefile' should use default values for these variables which will
do the right thing in the subdirectories.

`MULTISRCTOP'
     `config-ml.in' will set this to a sequence of `../' strings, where
     the number of strings is the number of multilib levels in the
     source tree.  The default value should be the empty string.

`MULTIBUILDTOP'
     `config-ml.in' will set this to a sequence of `../' strings, where
     the number of strings is number of multilib levels in the object
     directory.  The default value should be the empty string.  This
     will differ from `MULTISRCTOP' when configuring in the source tree
     (which is not recommended).

`MULTIDIRS'
     In the top level `Makefile' only, `config-ml.in' will set this to
     the list of multilib subdirectories.  The default value should be
     the empty string.

`MULTISUBDIR'
     `config-ml.in' will set this to the installed subdirectory name to
     use for this subdirectory, with a leading `/'.  The default value
     shold be the empty string.

`MULTIDO'
`MULTICLEAN'
     In the top level `Makefile' only, `config-ml.in' will set these
     variables to commands to use when doing a recursive make.  These
     variables should both default to the string `true', so that by
     default nothing happens.

   All references to the parent of the source directory should use the
variable `MULTISRCTOP'.  Instead of writing `$(srcdir)/..', you must
write `$(srcdir)/$(MULTISRCTOP)..'.

   Similarly, references to the parent of the object directory should
use the variable `MULTIBUILDTOP'.

   In the installation target, the libraries should be installed in the
subdirectory `MULTISUBDIR'.  Instead of installing
`$(libdir)/libfoo.a', install `$(libdir)$(MULTISUBDIR)/libfoo.a'.

   The `config-ml.in' script also modifies the top level `Makefile' to
add `multi-do' and `multi-clean' targets which are used when building
multilibs.

   The default target of the `Makefile' should include the following
command:
     @$(MULTIDO) $(FLAGS_TO_PASS) DO=all multi-do
   This assumes that `$(FLAGS_TO_PASS)' is defined as a set of
variables to pass to a recursive invocation of `make'.  This will build
all the multilibs.  Note that the default value of `MULTIDO' is `true',
so by default this command will do nothing.  It will only do something
in the top level `Makefile' if multilibs were enabled.

   The `install' target of the `Makefile' should include the following
command:
     @$(MULTIDO) $(FLAGS_TO_PASS) DO=install multi-do

   In general, any operation, other than clean, which should be
performed on all the multilibs should use a `$(MULTIDO)' line, setting
the variable `DO' to the target of each recursive call to `make'.

   The `clean' targets (`clean', `mostlyclean', etc.) should use
`$(MULTICLEAN)'.  For example, the `clean' target should do this:
     @$(MULTICLEAN) DO=clean multi-clean

File: configure.info,  Node: FAQ,  Next: Index,  Prev: Multilibs,  Up: Top

9 Frequently Asked Questions
****************************

Which do I run first, `autoconf' or `automake'?
     Except when you first add autoconf or automake support to a
     package, you shouldn't run either by hand.  Instead, configure
     with the `--enable-maintainer-mode' option, and let `make' take
     care of it.

`autoconf' says something about undefined macros.
     This means that you have macros in your `configure.in' which are
     not defined by `autoconf'.  You may be using an old version of
     `autoconf'; try building and installing a newer one.  Make sure the
     newly installled `autoconf' is first on your `PATH'.  Also, see
     the next question.

My `configure' script has stuff like `CY_GNU_GETTEXT' in it.
     This means that you have macros in your `configure.in' which should
     be defined in your `aclocal.m4' file, but aren't.  This usually
     means that `aclocal' was not able to appropriate definitions of the
     macros.  Make sure that you have installed all the packages you
     need.  In particular, make sure that you have installed libtool
     (this is where `AM_PROG_LIBTOOL' is defined) and gettext (this is
     where `CY_GNU_GETTEXT' is defined, at least in the Cygnus version
     of gettext).

My `Makefile' has `@' characters in it.
     This may mean that you tried to use an autoconf substitution in
     your `Makefile.in' without adding the appropriate `AC_SUBST' call
     to your `configure' script.  Or it may just mean that you need to
     rebuild `Makefile' in your build directory.  To rebuild `Makefile'
     from `Makefile.in', run the shell script `config.status' with no
     arguments.  If you need to force `configure' to run again, first
     run `config.status --recheck'.  These runs are normally done
     automatically by `Makefile' targets, but if your `Makefile' has
     gotten messed up you'll need to help them along.

Why do I have to run both `config.status --recheck' and `config.status'?
     Normally, you don't; they will be run automatically by `Makefile'
     targets.  If you do need to run them, use `config.status --recheck'
     to run the `configure' script again with the same arguments as the
     first time you ran it.  Use `config.status' (with no arguments) to
     regenerate all files (`Makefile', `config.h', etc.) based on the
     results of the configure script.  The two cases are separate
     because it isn't always necessary to regenerate all the files
     after running `config.status --recheck'.  The `Makefile' targets
     generated by automake will use the environment variables
     `CONFIG_FILES' and `CONFIG_HEADERS' to only regenerate files as
     they are needed.

What is the Cygnus tree?
     The Cygnus tree is used for various packages including gdb, the GNU
     binutils, and egcs.  It is also, of course, used for Cygnus
     releases.  It is the build system which was developed at Cygnus,
     using the Cygnus configure script.  It permits building many
     different packages with a single configure and make.  The
     configure scripts in the tree are being converted to autoconf, but
     the general build structure remains intact.

Why do I have to keep rebuilding and reinstalling the tools?
     I know, it's a pain.  Unfortunately, there are bugs in the tools
     themselves which need to be fixed, and each time that happens
     everybody who uses the tools need to reinstall new versions of
     them.  I don't know if there is going to be a clever fix until the
     tools stabilize.

Why not just have a Cygnus tree `make' target to update the tools?
     The tools unfortunately need to be installed before they can be
     used.  That means that they must be built using an appropriate
     prefix, and it seems unwise to assume that every configuration
     uses an appropriate prefix.  It might be possible to make them
     work in place, or it might be possible to install them in some
     subdirectory; so far these approaches have not been implemented.

File: configure.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: FAQ,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* --build option:                        Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* --host option:                         Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* --target option:                       Specifying the Target.
                                                              (line  10)
* _GNU_SOURCE:                           Write configure.in.  (line 134)
* AC_CANONICAL_HOST:                     Using the Host Type. (line  10)
* AC_CANONICAL_SYSTEM:                   Using the Target Type.
                                                              (line   6)
* AC_CONFIG_HEADER:                      Write configure.in.  (line  66)
* AC_EXEEXT:                             Write configure.in.  (line  86)
* AC_INIT:                               Write configure.in.  (line  38)
* AC_OUTPUT:                             Write configure.in.  (line 142)
* AC_PREREQ:                             Write configure.in.  (line  42)
* AC_PROG_CC:                            Write configure.in.  (line 103)
* AC_PROG_CXX:                           Write configure.in.  (line 117)
* acconfig.h:                            Written Developer Files.
                                                              (line  27)
* acconfig.h, writing:                   Write acconfig.h.    (line   6)
* acinclude.m4:                          Written Developer Files.
                                                              (line  37)
* aclocal.m4:                            Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  33)
* AM_CONFIG_HEADER:                      Write configure.in.  (line  53)
* AM_DISABLE_SHARED:                     Write configure.in.  (line 127)
* AM_EXEEXT:                             Write configure.in.  (line  86)
* AM_INIT_AUTOMAKE:                      Write configure.in.  (line  48)
* AM_MAINTAINER_MODE:                    Write configure.in.  (line  70)
* AM_PROG_LIBTOOL:                       Write configure.in.  (line 122)
* AM_PROG_LIBTOOL in configure:          FAQ.                 (line  19)
* build option:                          Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* building with a cross compiler:        Canadian Cross.      (line   6)
* canadian cross:                        Canadian Cross.      (line   6)
* canadian cross in configure:           CCross in Configure. (line   6)
* canadian cross in cygnus tree:         CCross in Cygnus Tree.
                                                              (line   6)
* canadian cross in makefile:            CCross in Make.      (line   6)
* canadian cross, configuring:           Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line   6)
* canonical system names:                Configuration Names. (line   6)
* config.cache:                          Build Files Description.
                                                              (line  28)
* config.h:                              Build Files Description.
                                                              (line  23)
* config.h.in:                           Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  45)
* config.in:                             Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  45)
* config.status:                         Build Files Description.
                                                              (line   9)
* config.status --recheck:               FAQ.                 (line  40)
* configuration names:                   Configuration Names. (line   6)
* configuration triplets:                Configuration Names. (line   6)
* configure:                             Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  21)
* configure build system:                Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line   9)
* configure host:                        Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* configure target:                      Specifying the Target.
                                                              (line  10)
* configure.in:                          Written Developer Files.
                                                              (line   9)
* configure.in, writing:                 Write configure.in.  (line   6)
* configuring a canadian cross:          Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line   6)
* cross compiler:                        Cross Compilation Concepts.
                                                              (line   6)
* cross compiler, building with:         Canadian Cross.      (line   6)
* cross tools:                           Cross Compilation Tools.
                                                              (line   6)
* CY_GNU_GETTEXT in configure:           FAQ.                 (line  19)
* cygnus configure:                      Cygnus Configure.    (line   6)
* goals:                                 Goals.               (line   6)
* history:                               History.             (line   6)
* host names:                            Configuration Names. (line   6)
* host option:                           Build and Host Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* host system:                           Host and Target.     (line   6)
* host triplets:                         Configuration Names. (line   6)
* HOST_CC:                               CCross in Make.      (line  27)
* libg++ configure:                      Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* libio configure:                       Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* libstdc++ configure:                   Cygnus Configure in C++ Libraries.
                                                              (line   6)
* Makefile:                              Build Files Description.
                                                              (line  18)
* Makefile, garbage characters:          FAQ.                 (line  29)
* Makefile.am:                           Written Developer Files.
                                                              (line  18)
* Makefile.am, writing:                  Write Makefile.am.   (line   6)
* Makefile.in:                           Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  26)
* multilibs:                             Multilibs.           (line   6)
* stamp-h:                               Build Files Description.
                                                              (line  41)
* stamp-h.in:                            Generated Developer Files.
                                                              (line  54)
* system names:                          Configuration Names. (line   6)
* system types:                          Configuration Names. (line   6)
* target option:                         Specifying the Target.
                                                              (line  10)
* target system:                         Host and Target.     (line   6)
* triplets:                              Configuration Names. (line   6)
* undefined macros:                      FAQ.                 (line  12)



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