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File: cvs.info,  Node: CVS commands,  Next: Invoking CVS,  Prev: Special Files,  Up: Top

Appendix A Guide to CVS commands
********************************

This appendix describes the overall structure of CVS commands, and
describes some commands in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a
quick reference to CVS commands, *note Invoking CVS::).

* Structure::                   Overall structure of CVS commands
* Exit status::                 Indicating CVS's success or failure
* ~/.cvsrc::                    Default options with the ~/.cvsrc file
* Global options::              Options you give to the left of cvs_command
* Common options::              Options you give to the right of cvs_command
* annotate::                    What revision modified each line of a file?
* checkout::                    Checkout sources for editing
* commit::                      Check files into the repository
* diff::                        Show differences between revisions
* export::                      Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
* history::                     Show status of files and users
* import::                      Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
* log::                         Show log messages for files
* rdiff::                       'patch' format diffs between releases
* release::                     Indicate that a directory is no longer in use
* remove::                      Remove files from active development
* update::                      Bring work tree in sync with repository

File: cvs.info,  Node: Structure,  Next: Exit status,  Up: CVS commands

A.1 Overall structure of CVS commands
=====================================

The overall format of all CVS commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

'cvs'
The name of the CVS program.

'cvs_options'
Some options that affect all sub-commands of CVS.  These are
described below.

'cvs_command'
One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have
aliases that can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the
reference manual for that command.  There are only two situations
where you may omit 'cvs_command': 'cvs -H' elicits a list of
available commands, and 'cvs -v' displays version information on
CVS itself.

'command_options'
Options that are specific for the command.

'command_args'
Arguments to the commands.

There is unfortunately some confusion between 'cvs_options' and
'command_options'.  When given as a 'cvs_option', some options only
affect some of the commands.  When given as a 'command_option' it may
have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In other
words, do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the

File: cvs.info,  Node: Exit status,  Next: ~/.cvsrc,  Prev: Structure,  Up: CVS commands

A.2 CVS's exit status
=====================

CVS can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or
failed by setting its "exit status".  The exact way of testing the exit
status will vary from one operating system to another.  For example in a
unix shell script the '$?' variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If CVS is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the 'cvs diff' command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that 'cvs diff' will be changed to behave like the other CVS commands. File: cvs.info, Node: ~/.cvsrc, Next: Global options, Prev: Exit status, Up: CVS commands A.3 Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file ========================================= There are some 'command_options' that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the '.cvsrc' support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the 'diff' command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The '~/.cvsrc' file is a way that you can add default options to 'cvs_commands' within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the '~/.cvsrc' file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the 'cvs_command' being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments _before_ any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., 'checkout' and 'co'), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's '~/.cvsrc' file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command 'cvs checkout foo' would have the '-P' option added to the arguments, as well as 'cvs co foo'. With the example file above, the output from 'cvs diff foobar' will be in unidiff format. 'cvs diff -c foobar' will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because 'diff' doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need 'cvs -f diff foobar'. In place of the command name you can use 'cvs' to specify global options (*note Global options::). For example the following line in '.cvsrc' cvs -z6 causes CVS to use compression level 6. File: cvs.info, Node: Global options, Next: Common options, Prev: ~/.cvsrc, Up: CVS commands A.4 Global options ================== The available 'cvs_options' (that are given to the left of 'cvs_command') are: '--allow-root=ROOTDIR' Specify legal CVSROOT directory. See *note Password authentication server::. '-a' Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the CVS client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (*note GSSAPI authenticated::). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active TCP connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. '-b BINDIR' In CVS 1.9.18 and older, this specified that RCS programs are in the BINDIR directory. Current versions of CVS do not run RCS programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. '-T TEMPDIR' Use TEMPDIR as the directory where temporary files are located. Overrides the setting of the '$TMPDIR' environment variable and any
precompiled directory.  This parameter should be specified as an
absolute pathname.  (When running client/server, '-T' affects only
the local process; specifying '-T' for the client has no effect on
the server and vice versa.)

'-d CVS_ROOT_DIRECTORY'
Use CVS_ROOT_DIRECTORY as the root directory pathname of the
repository.  Overrides the setting of the '$CVSROOT' environment variable. See *note Repository::. '-e EDITOR' Use EDITOR to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the '$CVSEDITOR' and '$EDITOR' environment variables. For more information, see *note Committing your changes::. '-f' Do not read the '~/.cvsrc' file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the CVS option set. For example, the 'cvs log' option '-N' (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have '-N' in the '~/.cvsrc' entry for 'log', you may need to use '-f' to show the tag names. '-H' '--help' Display usage information about the specified 'cvs_command' (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, 'cvs -H' displays overall help for CVS, including a list of other help options. '-n' Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the 'cvs_command', but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that CVS will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without '-n'. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases CVS will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. '-Q' Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. '-q' Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. '-r' Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the '$CVSREAD'
environment variable is set (*note Environment variables::).  The
default is to make working files writable, unless watches are on
(*note Watches::).

'-s VARIABLE=VALUE'
Set a user variable (*note Variables::).

'-t'
Trace program execution; display messages showing the steps of CVS
activity.  Particularly useful with '-n' to explore the potential
impact of an unfamiliar command.

'-v'
'--version'
Display version and copyright information for CVS.

'-w'
Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting of the
'$CVSREAD' environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless '$CVSREAD' is set or '-r' is given.

'-x'
Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  Only
has an effect on the CVS client.  As of this writing, this is only
implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (*note GSSAPI
authenticated::) or a Kerberos connection (*note Kerberos
authenticated::).  Enabling encryption implies that message traffic
is also authenticated.  Encryption support is not available by
default; it must be enabled using a special configure option,
'--enable-encryption', when you build CVS.

'-z GZIP-LEVEL'
Set the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low
compression) to 9 (low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable
compression (the default).  Only has an effect on the CVS client.

File: cvs.info,  Node: Common options,  Next: add,  Prev: Global options,  Up: CVS commands

A.5 Common command options
==========================

This section describes the 'command_options' that are available across
several CVS commands.  These options are always given to the right of
'cvs_command'.  Not all commands support all of these options; each
option is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  However,
when a command has one of these options you can almost always count on
the same behavior of the option as in other commands.  (Other command
options, which are listed with the individual commands, may have
different behavior from one CVS command to the other).

*The 'history' command is an exception; it supports many options that
conflict even with these standard options.*

'-D DATE_SPEC'
Use the most recent revision no later than DATE_SPEC.  DATE_SPEC is
a single argument, a date description specifying a date in the
past.

The specification is "sticky" when you use it to make a private
copy of a source file; that is, when you get a working file using
'-D', CVS records the date you specified, so that further updates
in the same directory will use the same date (for more information
on sticky tags/dates, *note Sticky tags::).

'-D' is available with the 'annotate', 'checkout', 'diff',
'export', 'history', 'rdiff', 'rtag', and 'update' commands.  (The
'history' command uses this option in a slightly different way;
*note history options::).

A wide variety of date formats are supported by CVS.  The most
standard ones are ISO8601 (from the International Standards
Organization) and the Internet e-mail standard (specified in RFC822
as amended by RFC1123).

ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

1972-09-24
1972-09-24 20:05

There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and CVS accepts many of
them, but you probably don't want to hear the _whole_ long story
:-).

In addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, CVS
also allows some of the fields to be omitted.  For example:

24 Sep 1972 20:05
24 Sep

The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a
specific timezone is specified.

These two date formats are preferred.  However, CVS currently
accepts a wide variety of other date formats.  They are
intentionally not documented here in any detail, and future
versions of CVS might not accept all of them.

One such format is 'MONTH/DAY/YEAR'.  This may confuse people who
are accustomed to having the month and day in the other order;
'1/4/96' is January 4, not April 1.

Remember to quote the argument to the '-D' flag so that your shell
doesn't interpret spaces as argument separators.  A command using
the '-D' flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo '-f' When you specify a particular date or tag to CVS commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the '-f' option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with '-f', a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that CVS will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. '-f' is available with these commands: 'annotate', 'checkout', 'export', 'rdiff', 'rtag', and 'update'. *WARNING: The 'commit' and 'remove' commands also have a '-f' option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See *note commit options::, and *note Removing files::.* '-k KFLAG' Alter the default processing of keywords. See *note Keyword substitution::, for the meaning of KFLAG. Your KFLAG specification is "sticky" when you use it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the 'checkout' or 'update' commands, CVS associates your selected KFLAG with the file, and continues to use it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise. The '-k' option is available with the 'add', 'checkout', 'diff', 'rdiff', 'import' and 'update' commands. '-l' Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirectories. Available with the following commands: 'annotate', 'checkout', 'commit', 'diff', 'edit', 'editors', 'export', 'log', 'rdiff', 'remove', 'rtag', 'status', 'tag', 'unedit', 'update', 'watch', and 'watchers'. '-m MESSAGE' Use MESSAGE as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: 'add', 'commit' and 'import'. '-n' Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (*note modules::); this option bypasses it). *This is not the same as the 'cvs -n' program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command!* Available with the 'checkout', 'export', and 'rtag' commands. '-P' Prune empty directories. See *note Removing directories::. '-p' Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the 'checkout' and 'update' commands. '-R' Process directories recursively. This is on by default. Available with the following commands: 'annotate', 'checkout', 'commit', 'diff', 'edit', 'editors', 'export', 'rdiff', 'remove', 'rtag', 'status', 'tag', 'unedit', 'update', 'watch', and 'watchers'. '-r TAG' Use the revision specified by the TAG argument instead of the default "head" revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the 'tag' or 'rtag' command, two special tags are always available: 'HEAD' refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and 'BASE' refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with 'checkout' or 'update' to make your own copy of a file: CVS remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, *note Sticky tags::). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in *note Tags::, or the name of a branch, as described in *note Branching and merging::. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the '-q' global option along with the '-r' command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the RCS file does not contain the specified tag. *This is not the same as the overall 'cvs -r' option, which you can specify to the left of a CVS command!* '-r' is available with the 'annotate', 'checkout', 'commit', 'diff', 'history', 'export', 'rdiff', 'rtag', and 'update' commands. '-W' Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the '.cvswrappers' file. Available with the following commands: 'import', and 'update'. File: cvs.info, Node: add, Next: admin, Prev: Common options, Up: CVS commands A.6 add--Add files and directories to the repository ==================================================== * Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files... * Requires: repository, working directory. * Changes: repository, working directory. The 'add' command is used to present new files and directories for addition into the CVS repository. When 'add' is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the repository immediately. When used on a file, only the working directory is updated. Changes to the repository are not made until the 'commit' command is used on the newly added file. The 'add' command also resurrects files that have been previously removed. This can be done before or after the 'commit' command is used to finalize the removal of files. Resurrected files are restored into the working directory at the time the 'add' command is executed. * Menu: * add options:: add options * add examples:: add examples File: cvs.info, Node: add options, Next: add examples, Up: add A.6.1 add options ----------------- These standard options are supported by 'add' (*note Common options::, for a complete description of them): '-k KFLAG' Process keywords according to KFLAG. See *note Keyword substitution::. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same KFLAG. The 'status' command can be viewed to see the sticky options. For more information on the 'status' command, *Note Invoking CVS::. '-m MESSAGE' Use MESSAGE as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. File: cvs.info, Node: add examples, Prev: add options, Up: add A.6.2 add examples ------------------ A.6.2.1 Adding a directory ..........................$ mkdir doc
$cvs add doc Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository A.6.2.2 Adding a file .....................$ >TODO
$cvs add TODO cvs add: scheduling file TODO' for addition cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently A.6.2.3 Undoing a 'remove' command ..................................$ rm -f makefile
$cvs remove makefile cvs remove: scheduling makefile' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add makefile
U makefile
cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected

=========================

* Requires: repository, working directory.
* Changes: repository.
* Synonym: rcs

This is the CVS interface to assorted administrative facilities.
Some of them have questionable usefulness for CVS but exist for
historical purposes.  Some of the questionable options are likely to
disappear in the future.  This command _does_ work recursively, so
extreme care should be used.

On unix, if there is a group named 'cvsadmin', only members of that
group can run 'cvs admin' (except for the 'cvs admin -k' command, which
can be run by anybody).  This group should exist on the server, or any
system running the non-client/server CVS.  To disallow 'cvs admin' for
all users, create a group with no users in it.  On NT, the 'cvsadmin'
feature does not exist and all users can run 'cvs admin'.

-------------------

Some of these options have questionable usefulness for CVS but exist for
historical purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use CVS until you
undo the effect!

'-AOLDFILE'
Might not work together with CVS.  Append the access list of
OLDFILE to the access list of the RCS file.

Might not work together with CVS.  Append the login names appearing
in the comma-separated list LOGINS to the access list of the RCS
file.

'-b[REV]'
Set the default branch to REV.  In CVS, you normally do not
manipulate default branches; sticky tags (*note Sticky tags::) are
a better way to decide which branch you want to work on.  There is
one reason to run 'cvs admin -b': to revert to the vendor's version
when using vendor branches (*note Reverting local changes::).
There can be no space between '-b' and its argument.

'-cSTRING'
Sets the comment leader to STRING.  The comment leader is not used
by current versions of CVS or RCS 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost
surely not worry about it.  See *note Keyword substitution::.

Might not work together with CVS.  Erase the login names appearing
in the comma-separated list LOGINS from the access list of the RCS
file.  If LOGINS is omitted, erase the entire access list.  There
can be no space between '-e' and its argument.

'-I'
Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.
This option does not work with the client/server CVS and is likely
to disappear in a future release of CVS.

'-i'
Useless with CVS.  This creates and initializes a new RCS file,
without depositing a revision.  With CVS, add files with the 'cvs

'-kSUBST'
Set the default keyword substitution to SUBST.  See *note Keyword
substitution::.  Giving an explicit '-k' option to 'cvs update',
'cvs export', or 'cvs checkout' overrides this default.

'-l[REV]'
Lock the revision with number REV.  If a branch is given, lock the
latest revision on that branch.  If REV is omitted, lock the latest
revision on the default branch.  There can be no space between '-l'
and its argument.

This can be used in conjunction with the 'rcslock.pl' script in the
'contrib' directory of the CVS source distribution to provide
reserved checkouts (where only one user can be editing a given file
at a time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the
unsupported nature of contrib).  According to comments in that
file, locking must set to strict (which is the default).

'-L'
Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an
RCS file is not exempt from locking for checkin.  For use with CVS,
strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the '-l'
option above.

'-mREV:MSG'
Replace the log message of revision REV with MSG.

'-NNAME[:[REV]]'
Act like '-n', except override any previous assignment of NAME.
For use with magic branches, see *note Magic branch numbers::.

'-nNAME[:[REV]]'
Associate the symbolic name NAME with the branch or revision REV.
It is normally better to use 'cvs tag' or 'cvs rtag' instead.
Delete the symbolic name if both ':' and REV are omitted;
otherwise, print an error message if NAME is already associated
with another number.  If REV is symbolic, it is expanded before
association.  A REV consisting of a branch number followed by a '.'
stands for the current latest revision in the branch.  A ':' with
an empty REV stands for the current latest revision on the default
branch, normally the trunk.  For example, 'cvs admin -nNAME:'
associates NAME with the current latest revision of all the RCS
files; this contrasts with 'cvs admin -nNAME:$' which associates NAME with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files. '-oRANGE' Deletes ("outdates") the revisions given by RANGE. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know _exactly_ what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the REV1:REV2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven forbid) a CVS bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify RANGE in one of the following ways: 'REV1::REV2' Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that CVS only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after '-o 1.3::1.5' one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: '-o 1.3::1.4' and '-o 1.3::1.3' have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove. '::REV' Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing REV and REV itself. The branchpoint and REV are left intact. For example, '-o ::1.3.2.6' deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact. 'REV::' Collapse revisions between REV and the end of the branch containing REV. Revision REV is left intact but the head revision is deleted. 'REV' Delete the revision REV. For example, '-o 1.3' is equivalent to '-o 1.2::1.4'. 'REV1:REV2' Delete the revisions from REV1 to REV2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve REV1 or REV2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command 'cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 .' is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have _the same_ numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify REV1::REV2 instead. ':REV' Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing REV up to and including REV. 'REV:' Delete revisions from revision REV, including REV itself, to the end of the branch containing REV. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the '::' syntaxes, then CVS will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with 'cvs tag -d', then run 'cvs admin -o'. If one specifies the non-'::' syntaxes, then CVS will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of CVS, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the '::' case. Due to the way CVS handles branches REV cannot be specified symbolically if it is a branch. See *note Magic branch numbers:: for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus change instead (*note Merging two revisions::). '-q' Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. '-sSTATE[:REV]' Useful with CVS. Set the state attribute of the revision REV to STATE. If REV is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If REV is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for STATE. A useful set of states is 'Exp' (for experimental), 'Stab' (for stable), and 'Rel' (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to 'Exp' when it is created. The state is visible in the output from CVS LOG (*note log::), and in the '$Log$' and '$State$' keywords (*note Keyword substitution::). Note that CVS uses the 'dead' state for its own purposes (*note Attic::); to take a file to or from the 'dead' state use commands like 'cvs remove' and 'cvs add' (*note Adding and removing::), not 'cvs admin -s'. '-t[FILE]' Useful with CVS. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named FILE into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The FILE pathname may not begin with '-'. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from 'cvs log' (*note log::). There can be no space between '-t' and its argument. If FILE is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing '.' by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see '-I'. '-t-STRING' Similar to '-tFILE'. Write descriptive text from the STRING into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between '-t' and its argument. '-U' Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with CVS, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the '-l' option above. '-u[REV]' See the option '-l' above, for a discussion of using this option with CVS. Unlock the revision with number REV. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If REV is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a 'commit' notification (*note Getting Notified::). There can be no space between '-u' and its argument. '-VN' In previous versions of CVS, this option meant to write an RCS file which would be acceptable to RCS version N, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. '-xSUFFIXES' In previous versions of CVS, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the RCS files. However, CVS has always required that the RCS files used by CVS end in ',v', so this option has never done anything useful. File: cvs.info, Node: annotate, Next: checkout, Prev: admin, Up: CVS commands A.8 annotate--What revision modified each line of a file? ========================================================= * Synopsis: annotate [options] files... * Requires: repository. * Synonym: blame * Changes: nothing. For each file in FILES, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line. * Menu: * annotate options:: annotate options * annotate example:: annotate example File: cvs.info, Node: annotate options, Next: annotate example, Up: annotate A.8.1 annotate options ---------------------- These standard options are supported by 'annotate' (*note Common options:: for a complete description of them): '-l' Local directory only, no recursion. '-R' Process directories recursively. '-f' Use head revision if tag/date not found. '-F' Annotate binary files. '-r REVISION' Annotate file as of specified revision/tag. '-D DATE' Annotate file as of specified date. File: cvs.info, Node: annotate example, Prev: annotate options, Up: annotate A.8.2 annotate example ---------------------- For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file 'ssfile' currently contains two lines.  The 'ssfile line 1'
line was checked in by 'mary' on March 27.  Then, on March 28, 'joe'
added a line 'ssfile line 2', without modifying the 'ssfile line 1'
line.  This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been
deleted or replaced; you need to use 'cvs diff' for that (*note diff::).

The options to 'cvs annotate' are listed in *note Invoking CVS::, and
can be used to select the files and revisions to annotate.  The options
are described in more detail there and in *note Common options::.

File: cvs.info,  Node: checkout,  Next: commit,  Prev: annotate,  Up: CVS commands

A.9 checkout--Check out sources for editing
===========================================

* Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...
* Requires: repository.
* Changes: working directory.
* Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source
files specified by MODULES.  You must execute 'checkout' before using
most of the other CVS commands, since most of them operate on your
working directory.

The MODULES are either symbolic names for some collection of source
directories and files, or paths to directories or files in the
repository.  The symbolic names are defined in the 'modules' file.  See
*note modules::.

Depending on the modules you specify, 'checkout' may recursively
create directories and populate them with the appropriate source files.
You can then edit these source files at any time (regardless of whether
other software developers are editing their own copies of the sources);
update them to include new changes applied by others to the source
repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source
repository.

Note that 'checkout' is used to create directories.  The top-level
directory created is always added to the directory where 'checkout' is
invoked, and usually has the same name as the specified module.  In the
case of a module alias, the created sub-directory may have a different
name, but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that
'checkout' will show the relative path leading to each file as it is
extracted into your private work area (unless you specify the '-Q'
global option).

The files created by 'checkout' are created read-write, unless the
'-r' option to CVS (*note Global options::) is specified, the 'CVSREAD'
environment variable is specified (*note Environment variables::), or a
watch is in effect for that file (*note Watches::).

Note that running 'checkout' on a directory that was already built by
a prior 'checkout' is also permitted.  This is similar to specifying the
'-d' option to the 'update' command in the sense that new directories
that have been created in the repository will appear in your work area.
However, 'checkout' takes a module name whereas 'update' takes a
directory name.  Also to use 'checkout' this way it must be run from the
top level directory (where you originally ran 'checkout' from), so
before you run 'checkout' to update an existing directory, don't forget
to change your directory to the top level directory.

For the output produced by the 'checkout' command, *Note update
output::.

* checkout options::            checkout options
* checkout examples::           checkout examples

File: cvs.info,  Node: checkout options,  Next: checkout examples,  Up: checkout

A.9.1 checkout options
----------------------

These standard options are supported by 'checkout' (*note Common
options:: for a complete description of them):

'-D DATE'
Use the most recent revision no later than DATE.  This option is
sticky, and implies '-P'.  See *note Sticky tags:: for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

'-f'
Only useful with the '-D DATE' or '-r TAG' flags.  If no matching
revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of
ignoring the file).

'-k KFLAG'
Process keywords according to KFLAG.  See *note Keyword
substitution::.  This option is sticky; future updates of this file
in this working directory will use the same KFLAG.  The 'status'
command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See *note

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.

'-n'
Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the '-o' option
in the modules file; *note modules::).

'-P'
Prune empty directories.  See *note Moving directories::.

'-p'
Pipe files to the standard output.

'-R'
Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

'-r TAG'
Use revision TAG.  This option is sticky, and implies '-P'.  See

In addition to those, you can use these special command options with
'checkout':

'-A'
Reset any sticky tags, dates, or '-k' options.  Does not reset
sticky '-k' options on modified files.  See *note Sticky tags:: for

'-c'
Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of
creating or modifying any files or directories in your working
directory.

'-d DIR'
Create a directory called DIR for the working files, instead of
using the module name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent
to using 'mkdir DIR; cd DIR' followed by the checkout command
without the '-d' flag.

There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient
when checking out a single item to have the output appear in a
directory that doesn't contain empty intermediate directories.  In
this case _only_, CVS tries to "shorten" pathnames to avoid those
empty directories.

For example, given a module 'foo' that contains the file 'bar.c',
the command 'cvs co -d dir foo' will create directory 'dir' and
place 'bar.c' inside.  Similarly, given a module 'bar' which has
subdirectory 'baz' wherein there is a file 'quux.c', the command
'cvs co -d dir bar/baz' will create directory 'dir' and place
'quux.c' inside.

Using the '-N' flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same
module definitions above, 'cvs co -N -d dir foo' will create
directories 'dir/foo' and place 'bar.c' inside, while 'cvs co -N -d
dir bar/baz' will create directories 'dir/bar/baz' and place
'quux.c' inside.

'-j TAG'
With two '-j' options, merge changes from the revision specified
with the first '-j' option to the revision specified with the
second 'j' option, into the working directory.

With one '-j' option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to
the revision specified with the '-j' option, into the working
directory.  The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the
revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision
specified in the '-j' option.

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date
specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen
revision to one within a specific date.  An optional date is
specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag:
'-jSYMBOLIC_TAG:DATE_SPECIFIER'.

See *note Branching and merging::.

'-N'
Only useful together with '-d DIR'.  With this option, CVS will not
"shorten" module paths in your working directory when you check out
a single module.  See the '-d' flag for examples and a discussion.

'-s'
Like '-c', but include the status of all modules, and sort it by
the status string.  See *note modules::, for info about the '-s'
option that is used inside the modules file to set the module
status.

File: cvs.info,  Node: checkout examples,  Prev: checkout options,  Up: checkout

A.9.2 checkout examples
-----------------------

Get a copy of the module 'tc':

$cvs checkout tc Get a copy of the module 'tc' as it looked one day ago:$ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

File: cvs.info,  Node: commit,  Next: diff,  Prev: checkout,  Up: CVS commands

A.10 commit--Check files into the repository
============================================

* Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision]
[files...]
* Requires: working directory, repository.
* Changes: repository.
* Synonym: ci

Use 'commit' when you want to incorporate changes from your working
source files into the source repository.

If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in
your working current directory are examined.  'commit' is careful to
change in the repository only those files that you have really changed.
By default (or if you explicitly specify the '-R' option), files in
subdirectories are also examined and committed if they have changed; you
can use the '-l' option to limit 'commit' to the current directory only.

'commit' verifies that the selected files are up to date with the
current revisions in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit
without committing, if any of the specified files must be made current
first with 'update' (*note update::).  'commit' does not call the
'update' command for you, but rather leaves that for you to do when the
time is right.

When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log
message that will be written to one or more logging programs (*note
modules::, and *note loginfo::) and placed in the RCS file inside the
repository.  This log message can be retrieved with the 'log' command;
*Note log::.  You can specify the log message on the command line with
the '-m MESSAGE' option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use
the '-F FILE' option to specify that the argument file contains the log
message.

* commit options::              commit options
* commit examples::             commit examples

File: cvs.info,  Node: commit options,  Next: commit examples,  Up: commit

A.10.1 commit options
---------------------

These standard options are supported by 'commit' (*note Common options::
for a complete description of them):

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.

'-R'
Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

'-r REVISION'
Commit to REVISION.  REVISION must be either a branch, or a
revision on the main trunk that is higher than any existing
revision number (*note Assigning revisions::).  You cannot commit
to a specific revision on a branch.

'commit' also supports these options:

'-F FILE'

'-f'
Note that this is not the standard behavior of the '-f' option as
defined in *note Common options::.

Force CVS to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any
changes to the file.  If the current revision of FILE is 1.7, then
the following two commands are equivalent:

$cvs commit -f FILE$ cvs commit -r 1.8 FILE

The '-f' option disables recursion (i.e., it implies '-l').  To
force CVS to commit a new revision for all files in all
subdirectories, you must use '-f -R'.

'-m MESSAGE'
Use MESSAGE as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

File: cvs.info,  Node: commit examples,  Prev: commit options,  Up: commit

A.10.2 commit examples
----------------------

A.10.2.1 Committing to a branch
...............................

You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of
dots) with the '-r' option.  To create a branch revision, use the '-b'
option of the 'rtag' or 'tag' commands (*note Branching and merging::).
Then, either 'checkout' or 'update' can be used to base your sources on
the newly created branch.  From that point on, all 'commit' changes made
within these working sources will be automatically added to a branch
revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way.  For
example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the product,
even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:

$cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cd product_module [[ hack away ]]$ cvs commit

This works automatically since the '-r' option is sticky.

A.10.2.2 Creating the branch after editing
..........................................

Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based
on whatever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If others in
your group would like to work on this software with you, but without
disturbing main-line development, you could commit your change to a new
branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize
the full benefit of CVS conflict resolution.  The scenario might look
like:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs update -r EXPR1
$cvs commit The 'update' command will make the '-r EXPR1' option sticky on all files. Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the 'update' command. The 'commit' will automatically commit to the correct branch, because the '-r' is sticky. You could also do like this: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs commit -r EXPR1 but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the '-r EXPR1' sticky flag. If you hack away, and commit without specifying the '-r EXPR1' flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk. To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do$ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

File: cvs.info,  Node: diff,  Next: export,  Prev: commit,  Up: CVS commands

A.11 diff--Show differences between revisions
=============================================

* Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [[-r rev1 | -D
date1] [-r rev2 | -D date2]] [files...]
* Requires: working directory, repository.
* Changes: nothing.

The 'diff' command is used to compare different revisions of files.
The default action is to compare your working files with the revisions
they were based on, and report any differences that are found.

If any file names are given, only those files are compared.  If any
directories are given, all files under them will be compared.

The exit status for diff is different than for other CVS commands;
for details *Note Exit status::.

* diff options::                diff options
* diff examples::               diff examples

File: cvs.info,  Node: diff options,  Next: diff examples,  Up: diff

A.11.1 diff options
-------------------

These standard options are supported by 'diff' (*note Common options::
for a complete description of them):

'-D DATE'
Use the most recent revision no later than DATE.  See '-r' for how
this affects the comparison.

'-k KFLAG'
Process keywords according to KFLAG.  See *note Keyword
substitution::.

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.

'-R'
Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

'-r TAG'
Compare with revision TAG.  Zero, one or two '-r' options can be
present.  With no '-r' option, the working file will be compared
with the revision it was based on.  With one '-r', that revision
will be compared to your current working file.  With two '-r'
options those two revisions will be compared (and your working file
will not affect the outcome in any way).

One or both '-r' options can be replaced by a '-D DATE' option,
described above.

The following options specify the format of the output.  They have
the same meaning as in GNU diff.  Most options have two equivalent
names, one of which is a single letter preceded by '-', and the other of
which is a long name preceded by '--'.

'-LINES'
Show LINES (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not
specify an output format by itself; it has no effect unless it is
combined with '-c' or '-u'.  This option is obsolete.  For proper
operation, 'patch' typically needs at least two lines of context.

'-a'
Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not seem to be text.

'-b'
Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

'-B'
Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

'--binary'
Read and write data in binary mode.

'--brief'
Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the
differences.

'-c'
Use the context output format.

'-C LINES'
'--context[=LINES]'
Use the context output format, showing LINES (an integer) lines of
context, or three if LINES is not given.  For proper operation,
'patch' typically needs at least two lines of context.

'--changed-group-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a line group containing differing lines from
both files in if-then-else format.  See *note Line group formats::.

'-d'
Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.
This makes 'diff' slower (sometimes much slower).

'-e'
'--ed'
Make output that is a valid 'ed' script.

'--expand-tabs'
Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of
tabs in the input files.

'-f'
Make output that looks vaguely like an 'ed' script but has changes
in the order they appear in the file.

'-F REGEXP'
In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show
some of the last preceding line that matches REGEXP.

'--forward-ed'
Make output that looks vaguely like an 'ed' script but has changes
in the order they appear in the file.

'-H'
Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

'--horizon-lines=LINES'
Do not discard the last LINES lines of the common prefix and the
first LINES lines of the common suffix.

'-i'
Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters
equivalent.

'-I REGEXP'
Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match REGEXP.

'--ifdef=NAME'
Make merged if-then-else output using NAME.

'--ignore-all-space'
Ignore white space when comparing lines.

'--ignore-blank-lines'
Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

'--ignore-case'
Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the
same.

'--ignore-matching-lines=REGEXP'
Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match REGEXP.

'--ignore-space-change'
Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one
or more white space characters to be equivalent.

'--initial-tab'
Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in
normal or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the
line to look normal.

'-L LABEL'
Use LABEL instead of the file name in the context format and

'--label=LABEL'
Use LABEL instead of the file name in the context format and

'--left-column'
Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side
format.

'--line-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output all input lines in if-then-else format.  See
*note Line formats::.

'--minimal'
Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.
This makes 'diff' slower (sometimes much slower).

'-n'
Output RCS-format diffs; like '-f' except that each command
specifies the number of lines affected.

'-N'
'--new-file'
In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory,
treat it as present but empty in the other directory.

'--new-group-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a group of lines taken from just the second
file in if-then-else format.  See *note Line group formats::.

'--new-line-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a line taken from just the second file in
if-then-else format.  See *note Line formats::.

'--old-group-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a group of lines taken from just the first
file in if-then-else format.  See *note Line group formats::.

'--old-line-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a line taken from just the first file in
if-then-else format.  See *note Line formats::.

'-p'
Show which C function each change is in.

'--rcs'
Output RCS-format diffs; like '-f' except that each command
specifies the number of lines affected.

'--report-identical-files'
'-s'
Report when two files are the same.

'--show-c-function'
Show which C function each change is in.

'--show-function-line=REGEXP'
In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show
some of the last preceding line that matches REGEXP.

'--side-by-side'
Use the side by side output format.

'--speed-large-files'
Use heuristics to speed handling of large files that have numerous
scattered small changes.

'--suppress-common-lines'
Do not print common lines in side by side format.

'-t'
Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment of
tabs in the input files.

'-T'
Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in
normal or context format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the
line to look normal.

'--text'
Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they
do not appear to be text.

'-u'
Use the unified output format.

'--unchanged-group-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a group of common lines taken from both files
in if-then-else format.  *Note Line group formats::.

'--unchanged-line-format=FORMAT'
Use FORMAT to output a line common to both files in if-then-else
format.  *Note Line formats::.

'-U LINES'
'--unified[=LINES]'
Use the unified output format, showing LINES (an integer) lines of
context, or three if LINES is not given.  For proper operation,
'patch' typically needs at least two lines of context.

'-w'
Ignore white space when comparing lines.

'-W COLUMNS'
'--width=COLUMNS'
Use an output width of COLUMNS in side by side format.

'-y'
Use the side by side output format.

* Line group formats::          Line group formats
* Line formats::                Line formats

File: cvs.info,  Node: Line group formats,  Next: Line formats,  Up: diff options

A.11.1.1 Line group formats
...........................

Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many
applications that allow if-then-else input, including programming
languages and text formatting languages.  A line group format specifies
the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

For example, the following command compares the TeX file 'myfile'
with the original version from the repository, and outputs a merged file
in which old regions are surrounded by '\begin{em}'-'\end{em}' lines,
and new regions are surrounded by '\begin{bf}'-'\end{bf}' lines.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a
little more verbose, because it spells out the default line group
formats.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
--unchanged-group-format='%=' \
--changed-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with
headers containing line numbers in a "plain English" style.

cvs diff \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \
--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \
--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \
myfile

To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below.
You can specify up to four line group formats, one for each kind of line
group.  You should quote FORMAT, because it typically contains shell
metacharacters.

'--old-group-format=FORMAT'
These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first
file.  The default old group format is the same as the changed
group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that
outputs the line group as-is.

'--new-group-format=FORMAT'
These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second
file.  The default new group format is same as the changed group
format if it is specified; otherwise it is a format that outputs
the line group as-is.

'--changed-group-format=FORMAT'
These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files.  The
default changed group format is the concatenation of the old and
new group formats.

'--unchanged-group-format=FORMAT'
These line groups contain lines common to both files.  The default
unchanged group format is a format that outputs the line group
as-is.

In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves;
forms.

'%<'
stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the old line format
(*note Line formats::).

'%>'
stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the new line format.

'%='
stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing
newline.  Each line is formatted according to the unchanged line
format.

'%%'
stands for '%'.

'%c'C''
where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a
backslash or an apostrophe.  For example, '%c':'' stands for a
colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else format, which a
colon would normally terminate.

'%c'\O''
where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the
character with octal code O.  For example, '%c'\0'' stands for a
null character.

'FN'
where F is a 'printf' conversion specification and N is one of the
following letters, stands for N's value formatted with F.

'e'
The line number of the line just before the group in the old
file.

'f'
The line number of the first line in the group in the old
file; equals E + 1.

'l'
The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

'm'
The line number of the line just after the group in the old
file; equals L + 1.

'n'
The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals L - F
+ 1.

'E, F, L, M, N'
Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The 'printf' conversion specification can be '%d', '%o', '%x', or
'%X', specifying decimal, octal, lower case hexadecimal, or upper
case hexadecimal output respectively.  After the '%' the following
options can appear in sequence: a '-' specifying
left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field width;
and a period followed by an optional integer specifying the minimum
number of digits.  For example, '%5dN' prints the number of new
lines in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the
'printf' format '"%5d"'.

'(A=B?T:E)'
If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal
constant or a single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec
is equivalent to T if A's value equals B's; otherwise it is
equivalent to E.

For example, '%(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s)' is equivalent to 'no
lines' if N (the number of lines in the group in the new file) is
0, to '1 line' if N is 1, and to '%dN lines' otherwise.

File: cvs.info,  Node: Line formats,  Prev: Line group formats,  Up: diff options

A.11.1.2 Line formats
.....................

Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as
part of a line group in if-then-else format.

For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column
change indicator to the left of the text.  The first column of output is
'-' for deleted lines, '|' for added lines, and a space for unchanged
lines.  The formats contain newline characters where newlines are
desired on output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='-%l
' \
--new-line-format='|%l
' \
--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \
myfile

To specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You
should quote FORMAT, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

'--old-line-format=FORMAT'
formats lines just from the first file.

'--new-line-format=FORMAT'
formats lines just from the second file.

'--unchanged-line-format=FORMAT'
formats lines common to both files.

'--line-format=FORMAT'
formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options
simultaneously.

In a line format, ordinary characters represent themselves;
forms.

'%l'
stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing
newline (if any).  This format ignores whether the line is
incomplete.

'%L'
stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline
(if any).  If a line is incomplete, this format preserves its
incompleteness.

'%%'
stands for '%'.

'%c'C''
where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a
backslash or an apostrophe.  For example, '%c':'' stands for a
colon.

'%c'\O''
where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the
character with octal code O.  For example, '%c'\0'' stands for a
null character.

'Fn'
where F is a 'printf' conversion specification, stands for the line
number formatted with F.  For example, '%.5dn' prints the line
number using the 'printf' format '"%.5d"'.  *Note Line group
formats::, for more about printf conversion specifications.

The default line format is '%l' followed by a newline character.

If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they
line up on output, you should ensure that '%l' or '%L' in a line format
is just after a tab stop (e.g. by preceding '%l' or '%L' with a tab
character), or you should use the '-t' or '--expand-tabs' option.

Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many
different formats.  For example, the following command uses a format
similar to 'diff''s normal format.  You can tailor this command to get
fine control over 'diff''s output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='< %l
' \
--new-line-format='> %l
' \
--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \
--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \
--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<---
%>' \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
myfile

File: cvs.info,  Node: diff examples,  Prev: diff options,  Up: diff

A.11.2 diff examples
--------------------

The following line produces a Unidiff ('-u' flag) between revision 1.14
and 1.19 of 'backend.c'.  Due to the '-kk' flag no keywords are
substituted, so differences that only depend on keyword substitution are
ignored.

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two
releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifications that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less

File: cvs.info,  Node: export,  Next: history,  Prev: diff,  Up: CVS commands

A.12 export--Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
=========================================================

* Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d dir]
module...
* Requires: repository.
* Changes: current directory.

This command is a variant of 'checkout'; use it when you want a copy
of the source for module without the CVS administrative directories.
For example, you might use 'export' to prepare source for shipment
off-site.  This command requires that you specify a date or tag (with
'-D' or '-r'), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship
to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One often would like to use '-kv' with 'cvs export'.  This causes any
keywords to be expanded such that an import done at some other site will
not lose the keyword revision information.  But be aware that doesn't
handle an export containing binary files correctly.  Also be aware that
after having used '-kv', one can no longer use the 'ident' command
(which is part of the RCS suite--see ident(1)) which looks for keyword
strings.  If you want to be able to use 'ident' you must not use '-kv'.

* export options::              export options

File: cvs.info,  Node: export options,  Up: export

A.12.1 export options
---------------------

These standard options are supported by 'export' (*note Common
options::, for a complete description of them):

'-D DATE'
Use the most recent revision no later than DATE.

'-f'
If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.

'-n'
Do not run any checkout program.

'-R'
Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

'-r TAG'
Use revision TAG.

In addition, these options (that are common to 'checkout' and
'export') are also supported:

'-d DIR'
Create a directory called DIR for the working files, instead of
using the module name.  See *note checkout options:: for complete
details on how CVS handles this flag.

'-k SUBST'
Set keyword expansion mode (*note Substitution modes::).

'-N'
Only useful together with '-d DIR'.  See *note checkout options::
for complete details on how CVS handles this flag.

File: cvs.info,  Node: history,  Next: import,  Prev: export,  Up: CVS commands

A.13 history--Show status of files and users
============================================

* Synopsis: history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]
* Requires: the file '$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history' * Changes: nothing. CVS can keep a history file that tracks each use of the 'checkout', 'commit', 'rtag', 'update', and 'release' commands. You can use 'history' to display this information in various formats. Logging must be enabled by creating the file '$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history'.

*'history' uses '-f', '-l', '-n', and '-p' in ways that conflict with
the normal use inside CVS (*note Common options::).*

* history options::             history options

File: cvs.info,  Node: history options,  Up: history

A.13.1 history options
----------------------

Several options (shown above as '-report') control what kind of report
is generated:

'-c'
Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository
was modified).

'-e'
Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying '-x' with
all record types.  Of course, '-e' will also include record types
which are added in a future version of CVS; if you are writing a
script which can only handle certain record types, you'll want to
specify '-x'.

'-m MODULE'
Report on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully use '-m' more
than once on the command line.)

'-o'
Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.

'-T'
Report on all tags.

'-x TYPE'
Extract a particular set of record types TYPE from the CVS history.
The types are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in
combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

'F'
release
'O'
checkout
'E'
export
'T'
rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

'C'
A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring
manual merging).
'G'
A merge was necessary and it succeeded.
'U'
A working file was copied from the repository.
'P'
A working file was patched to match the repository.
'W'
The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because
it was gone from the repository).

One of three record types results from commit:

'A'
A file was added for the first time.
'M'
A file was modified.
'R'
A file was removed.

The options shown as '-flags' constrain or expand the report without
requiring option arguments:

'-a'
Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the
user executing 'history').

'-l'
Show last modification only.

'-w'
Show only the records for modifications done from the same working
directory where 'history' is executing.

The options shown as '-options ARGS' constrain the report based on an
argument:

'-b STR'
Show data back to a record containing the string STR in either the
module name, the file name, or the repository path.

'-D DATE'
Show data since DATE.  This is slightly different from the normal
use of '-D DATE', which selects the newest revision older than
DATE.

'-f FILE'
Show data for a particular file (you can specify several '-f'
options on the same command line).  This is equivalent to
specifying the file on the command line.

'-n MODULE'
Show data for a particular module (you can specify several '-n'
options on the same command line).

'-p REPOSITORY'
Show data for a particular source repository (you can specify
several '-p' options on the same command line).

'-r REV'
Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named
REV appears in individual RCS files.  Each RCS file is searched for
the revision or tag.

'-t TAG'
Show records since tag TAG was last added to the history file.
This differs from the '-r' flag above in that it reads only the
history file, not the RCS files, and is much faster.

'-u NAME'
Show records for user NAME.

'-z TIMEZONE'
Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone

File: cvs.info,  Node: import,  Next: log,  Prev: history,  Up: CVS commands

A.14 import--Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
===========================================================

* Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...
* Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.
* Changes: repository.

Use 'import' to incorporate an entire source distribution from an
outside source (e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository
directory.  You can use this command both for initial creation of a
repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the outside
source.  See *note Tracking sources:: for a discussion on this subject.

The REPOSITORY argument gives a directory name (or a path to a
directory) under the CVS root directory for repositories; if the
directory did not exist, import creates it.

When you use import for updates to source that has been modified in
your source repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any
files that conflict in the two branches of development; use 'checkout
-j' to reconcile the differences, as import instructs you to do.

If CVS decides a file should be ignored (*note cvsignore::), it does
not import it and prints 'I ' followed by the filename (*note import
output:: for a complete description of the output).

If the file '$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers' exists, any file whose names match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be performed on the file/directory before being imported. See *note Wrappers::. The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1. Updates are leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on. At least three arguments are required. REPOSITORY is needed to identify the collection of source. VENDORTAG is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1). You must also specify at least one RELEASETAG to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each time you execute 'import'. The RELEASETAG should be new, not previously existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release, Note that 'import' does _not_ change the directory in which you invoke it. In particular, it does not set up that directory as a CVS working directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first and then check them out into a different directory (*note Getting the source::). * Menu: * import options:: import options * import output:: import output * import examples:: import examples File: cvs.info, Node: import options, Next: import output, Up: import A.14.1 import options --------------------- This standard option is supported by 'import' (*note Common options:: for a complete description): '-m MESSAGE' Use MESSAGE as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. '-b BRANCH' See *note Multiple vendor branches::. '-d' Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time. '-k SUBST' Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files created during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See *note Substitution modes:: for a list of valid '-k' settings. '-I NAME' Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify '-I !'. NAME can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the '.cvsignore' file. See *note cvsignore::. '-W SPEC' Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. SPEC can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the '.cvswrappers' file. *Note Wrappers::. File: cvs.info, Node: import output, Next: import examples, Prev: import options, Up: import A.14.2 import output -------------------- 'import' keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file: 'U FILE' The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary). 'N FILE' The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. 'C FILE' The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have to merge the changes. 'I FILE' The file is being ignored (*note cvsignore::). 'L FILE' The file is a symbolic link; 'cvs import' ignores symbolic links. People periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent. (Various options in the 'modules' file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; *note modules::.) File: cvs.info, Node: import examples, Prev: import output, Up: import A.14.3 import examples ---------------------- See *note Tracking sources::, and *note From files::. File: cvs.info, Node: log, Next: rdiff, Prev: import, Up: CVS commands A.15 log--Print out log information for files ============================================= * Synopsis: log [options] [files...] * Requires: repository, working directory. * Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. 'log' used to call the RCS utility 'rlog'. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other CVS commands. The output includes the location of the RCS file, the "head" revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are printed. All times are displayed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Other parts of CVS print times in the local timezone). *'log' uses '-R' in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside CVS (*note Common options::).* * Menu: * log options:: log options * log examples:: log examples File: cvs.info, Node: log options, Next: log examples, Up: log A.15.1 log options ------------------ By default, 'log' prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options ('-b', '-d', '-r', '-s', and '-w') have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only 'log' header fields ('-h', '-R', and '-t') unless the '-S' option is also specified. '-b' Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. '-d DATES' Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the '-D' option to many other CVS commands (*note Common options::). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: 'D1<D2' 'D2>D1' Select the revisions that were deposited between D1 and D2. '<D' 'D>' Select all revisions dated D or earlier. 'D<' '>D' Select all revisions dated D or later. 'D' Select the single, latest revision dated D or earlier. The '>' or '<' characters may be followed by '=' to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). '-h' Print only the name of the RCS file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. '-l' Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). '-N' Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. '-n' Print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your '.cvsrc' file has a 'log -N' entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags. '-R' Print only the name of the RCS file. '-rREVISIONS' Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list REVISIONS of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: 'REV1:REV2' Revisions REV1 to REV2 (which must be on the same branch). 'REV1::REV2' The same, but excluding REV1. ':REV' '::REV' Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including REV. 'REV:' Revisions starting with REV to the end of the branch containing REV. 'REV::' Revisions starting just after REV to the end of the branch containing REV. 'BRANCH' An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. 'BRANCH1:BRANCH2' 'BRANCH1::BRANCH2' A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. 'BRANCH.' The latest revision in BRANCH. A bare '-r' with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the '-r' option and its argument. '-S' Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. '-s STATES' Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list STATES. Individual states may be any text string, though CVS commonly only uses two states, 'Exp' and 'dead'. See *note admin options:: for more information. '-t' Print the same as '-h', plus the descriptive text. '-wLOGINS' Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list LOGINS. If LOGINS is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the '-w' option and its argument. 'log' prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options '-d', '-s', and '-w', intersected with the union of the revisions selected by '-b' and '-r'. File: cvs.info, Node: log examples, Prev: log options, Up: log A.15.2 log examples ------------------- Contributed examples are gratefully accepted. File: cvs.info, Node: rdiff, Next: release, Prev: log, Up: CVS commands A.16 rdiff--'patch' format diffs between releases ================================================= * rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules... * Requires: repository. * Changes: nothing. * Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the 'patch' program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few CVS commands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard '-r' and '-D' options) any combination of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the current head revisions in the RCS file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the '-p' option to the 'patch' command when patching the old sources, so that 'patch' is able to find the files that are located in other directories. * Menu: * rdiff options:: rdiff options * rdiff examples:: rdiff examples File: cvs.info, Node: rdiff options, Next: rdiff examples, Up: rdiff A.16.1 rdiff options -------------------- These standard options are supported by 'rdiff' (*note Common options:: for a complete description of them): '-D DATE' Use the most recent revision no later than DATE. '-f' If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). '-k KFLAG' Process keywords according to KFLAG. See *note Keyword substitution::. '-l' Local; don't descend subdirectories. '-R' Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. '-r TAG' Use revision TAG. In addition to the above, these options are available: '-c' Use the context diff format. This is the default format. '-s' Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. '-t' A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. '-u' Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old versions of the 'patch' program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use '-u'. '-V VN' Expand keywords according to the rules current in RCS version VN (the expansion format changed with RCS version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. CVS will always expand keywords the way that RCS version 5 does. File: cvs.info, Node: rdiff examples, Prev: rdiff options, Up: rdiff A.16.2 rdiff examples --------------------- Suppose you receive mail from foo AT example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with CVS that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
> Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo AT example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch called
'R_1_3fix' for bug fixes.  'R_1_3_1' corresponds to release 1.3.1, which
was made some time ago.  Now, you want to see how much development has
been done on the branch.  This command can be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 File: cvs.info, Node: release, Next: remove, Prev: rdiff, Up: CVS commands A.17 release--Indicate that a Module is no longer in use ======================================================== * release [-d] directories... * Requires: Working directory. * Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of 'cvs checkout'. Since CVS doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the CVS history file (*note history file::) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use 'cvs release' to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from immediately above a CVS working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, 'cvs release' leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the CVS history log. * Menu: * release options:: release options * release output:: release output * release examples:: release examples File: cvs.info, Node: release options, Next: release output, Up: release A.17.1 release options ---------------------- The 'release' command supports one command option: '-d' Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working directory. *WARNING: The 'release' command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any directory created inside checked-out sources, and not added to the repository (using the 'add' command; *note Adding files::) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty!* File: cvs.info, Node: release output, Next: release examples, Prev: release options, Up: release A.17.2 release output --------------------- Before 'release' releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. 'U FILE' 'P FILE' There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file ('U' and 'P' mean the same thing). 'A FILE' The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. 'R FILE' The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See *note commit::. 'M FILE' The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. '? FILE' FILE is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for CVS to ignore (see the description of the '-I' option, and *note cvsignore::). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. File: cvs.info, Node: release examples, Prev: release output, Up: release A.17.3 release examples ----------------------- Release the 'tc' directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.$ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the
# sources when you issue 'cvs release'.
$cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$

File: cvs.info,  Node: remove,  Next: update,  Prev: release,  Up: CVS commands

A.18 remove--Remove files from active use
=========================================

* Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]
* Requires: repository, working directory.
* Changes: working directory.

The 'remove' command is used to remove unwanted files from active
use.  The user normally deletes the files from the working directory
prior to invocation of the 'remove' command.  Only the working directory
is updated.  Changes to the repository are not made until the 'commit'
command is run.

The 'remove' command does not delete files from from the repository.
CVS keeps all historical data in the repository so that it is possible
to reconstruct previous states of the projects under revision control.

To undo CVS 'remove' or to resurrect files that were previously

* remove options::             remove options
* remove examples::            remove examples

File: cvs.info,  Node: remove options,  Next: remove examples,  Up: remove

A.18.1 remove options
---------------------

These standard options are supported by 'remove' (*note Common options::
for a complete description of them):

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.  See *note Recursive
behavior::.

'-R'
Process directories recursively.  See *note Recursive behavior::.

In addition, these options are also supported:

'-f'
Note that this is not the standard behavior of the '-f' option as
defined in *note Common options::.

Delete files before removing them.

Entire directory hierarchies are easily removed using '-f', but
take note that it is not as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies
as it is to remove them.

File: cvs.info,  Node: remove examples,  Prev: remove options,  Up: remove

A.18.2 remove examples
----------------------

A.18.2.1 Removing a file
........................

$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: file remove.me' still in working directory cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first$ rm -f remove.me
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: scheduling remove.me' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ ls remove.it
remove.it
$cvs remove -f remove.it cvs remove: scheduling remove.it' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently A.18.2.2 Removing entire directories ....................................$ tree -d a
a
|-- CVS
-- b
-- CVS

3 directories
\$ cvs remove -f a
cvs remove: Removing a
cvs remove: Removing a/b
cvs remove: scheduling a/b/c' for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

File: cvs.info,  Node: update,  Prev: remove,  Up: CVS commands

A.19 update--Bring work tree in sync with repository
====================================================

* update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r
tag|-D date] [-W spec] files...
* Requires: repository, working directory.
* Changes: working directory.

After you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from
the common repository, other developers will continue changing the
central source.  From time to time, when it is convenient in your
development process, you can use the 'update' command from within your
working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied to
the source repository since your last checkout or update.

* update options::              update options
* update output::               update output

File: cvs.info,  Node: update options,  Next: update output,  Up: update

A.19.1 update options
---------------------

These standard options are available with 'update' (*note Common
options:: for a complete description of them):

'-D date'
Use the most recent revision no later than DATE.  This option is
sticky, and implies '-P'.  See *note Sticky tags:: for more
information on sticky tags/dates.

'-f'
Only useful with the '-D DATE' or '-r TAG' flags.  If no matching
revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of
ignoring the file).

'-k KFLAG'
Process keywords according to KFLAG.  See *note Keyword
substitution::.  This option is sticky; future updates of this file
in this working directory will use the same KFLAG.  The 'status'
command can be viewed to see the sticky options.  See *note

'-l'
Local; run only in current working directory.  See *note Recursive
behavior::.

'-P'
Prune empty directories.  See *note Moving directories::.

'-p'
Pipe files to the standard output.

'-R'
Update directories recursively (default).  See *note Recursive
behavior::.

'-r rev'
Retrieve revision/tag REV.  This option is sticky, and implies
tags/dates.

These special options are also available with 'update'.

'-A'
Reset any sticky tags, dates, or '-k' options.  Does not reset
sticky '-k' options on modified files.  See *note Sticky tags:: for

'-C'
Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from the
repository (the modified file is saved in '.#FILE.REVISION',
however).

'-d'
Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're
missing from the working directory.  Normally, 'update' acts only
directory.

This is useful for updating directories that were created in the
repository since the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate
side effect.  If you deliberately avoided certain directories in
the repository when you created your working directory (either
through use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files and
directories you wanted on the command line), then updating with
'-d' will create those directories, which may not be what you want.

'-I NAME'
Ignore files whose names match NAME (in your working directory)
during the update.  You can specify '-I' more than once on the
command line to specify several files to ignore.  Use '-I !' to
avoid ignoring any files at all.  See *note cvsignore:: for other
ways to make CVS ignore some files.

'-WSPEC'
Specify file names that should be filtered during update.  You can
use this option repeatedly.

SPEC can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can
specify in the '.cvswrappers' file.  See *note Wrappers::.

'-jREVISION'
With two '-j' options, merge changes from the revision specified
with the first '-j' option to the revision specified with the
second 'j' option, into the working directory.

With one '-j' option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to
the revision specified with the '-j' option, into the working
directory.  The ancestor revision is the common ancestor of the
revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision
specified in the '-j' option.

Note that using a single '-j TAGNAME' option rather than '-j
BRANCHNAME' to merge changes from a branch will often not remove
files which were removed on the branch.  See *note Merging adds and

In addition, each '-j' option can contain an optional date
specification which, when used with branches, can limit the chosen
revision to one within a specific date.  An optional date is
specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag:
'-jSYMBOLIC_TAG:DATE_SPECIFIER'.

See *note Branching and merging::.

File: cvs.info,  Node: update output,  Prev: update options,  Up: update

A.19.2 update output
--------------------

'update' and 'checkout' keep you informed of their progress by printing
a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of
the file:

'U FILE'
The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.
This is done for any file that exists in the repository but not in
your working directory, and for files that you haven't changed but

'P FILE'
Like 'U', but the CVS server sends a patch instead of an entire
file.  This accomplishes the same thing as 'U' using less
bandwidth.

'A FILE'
The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and
will be added to the source repository when you run 'commit' on the
file.  This is a reminder to you that the file needs to be
committed.

'R FILE'
The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,
and will be removed from the source repository when you run
'commit' on the file.  This is a reminder to you that the file
needs to be committed.

'M FILE'
The file is modified in your working directory.

'M' can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on:
either there were no modifications to the same file in the
repository, so that your file remains as you last saw it; or there
were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but
they were merged successfully, without conflict, in your working
directory.

CVS will print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup
copy of your working file (as it looked before you ran 'update')
will be made.  The exact name of that file is printed while
'update' runs.

'C FILE'
A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to FILE
with changes from the source repository.  FILE (the copy in your
working directory) is now the result of attempting to merge the two
revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your working
directory, with the name '.#FILE.REVISION' where REVISION is the
revision that your modified file started from.  Resolve the
conflict as described in *note Conflicts example::.  (Note that
some systems automatically purge files that begin with '.#' if they
have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a
copy of your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)
Under VMS, the file name starts with '__' rather than '.#'.

'? FILE'
FILE is in your working directory, but does not correspond to
anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files
for CVS to ignore (see the description of the '-I' option, and
*note cvsignore::).

`