gnupg - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Installation,  Up: (dir)

Using the GNU Privacy Guard
***************************

This is the `The GNU Privacy Guard Manual' (version 2.0.14,
December 2009).

   Copyright (C) 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation,
Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
     published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the
     License, or (at your option) any later version. The text of the
     license can be found in the section entitled "Copying".

   This manual documents how to use the GNU Privacy Guard system as
well as the administration and the architecture.

* Menu:

* Installation::        A short installation guide.

* Invoking GPG-AGENT::  How to launch the secret key daemon.
* Invoking GPG::        Using the OpenPGP protocol.
* Invoking GPGSM::      Using the S/MIME protocol.
* Invoking SCDAEMON::   How to handle Smartcards.
* Specify a User ID::   How to Specify a User Id.

* Helper Tools::        Description of small helper tools

* Howtos::              How to do certain things.
* System Notes::        Notes pertaining to certain OSes.
* Debugging::           How to solve problems

* Copying::             GNU General Public License says
                        how you can copy and share GnuPG
* Contributors::        People who have contributed to GnuPG.

* Glossary::            Short description of terms used.
* Option Index::        Index to command line options.
* Index::	        Index of concepts and symbol names.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Installation,  Next: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 A short installation guide.
*****************************

Unfortunately the installation guide has not been finished in time.
Instead of delaying the release of GnuPG 2.0 even further, I decided to
release without that guide.  The chapter on gpg-agent and gpgsm do
include brief information on how to set up the whole thing.  Please
watch the GnuPG website for updates of the documentation.  In the
meantime you may search the GnuPG mailing list archives or ask on the
gnupg-users mailing listsfor advise on how to solve problems or how to
get that whole thing up and running.

   Such questions may also help to write a proper installation guide.

   [to be written]

   XXX Tell how to setup the system, install certificates, how dirmngr
relates to GnuPG etc.

   ** Explain how to setup a root CA key as trusted

   X.509 is based on a hierarchical key infrastructure.  At the root of
the tree a trusted anchor (root certificate) is required.  There are
usually no other means of verifying whether this root certificate is
trustworthy than looking it up in a list. GnuPG uses a file
(`trustlist.txt') to keep track of all root certificates it knows
about.  There are 3 ways to get certificates into this list:

   * Use the list which comes with GnuPG. However this list only
     contains a few root certificates.  Most installations will need
     more.

   * Let `gpgsm' ask you whether you want to insert a new root
     certificate.  To enable this feature you need to set the option
     `allow-mark-trusted' into `gpg-agent.conf'.  In general it is not
     a good idea to do it this way.  Checking whether a root
     certificate is really trustworthy requires decisions, which casual
     users are not up to.  Thus, by default this option is not enabled.

   * Manually maintain the list of trusted root certificates. For a
     multi user installation this can be done once for all users on a
     machine.  Specific changes on a per-user base are also possible.

   XXX decribe how to maintain trustlist.txt and
/etc/gnupg/trustlist.txt.

   ** How to get the ssh support running

   XXX How to use the ssh support.

1.1 Installation Overview
=========================

XXXX

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Next: Invoking GPG,  Prev: Installation,  Up: Top

2 Invoking GPG-AGENT
********************

`gpg-agent' is a daemon to manage secret (private) keys independently
from any protocol.  It is used as a backend for `gpg' and `gpgsm' as
well as for a couple of other utilities.

The usual way to run the agent is from the `~/.xsession' file:

     eval $(gpg-agent --daemon)

If you don't use an X server, you can also put this into your regular
startup file `~/.profile' or `.bash_profile'.  It is best not to run
multiple instance of the `gpg-agent', so you should make sure that only
one is running: `gpg-agent' uses an environment variable to inform
clients about the communication parameters. You can write the content
of this environment variable to a file so that you can test for a
running agent.  Here is an example using Bourne shell syntax:

     gpg-agent --daemon --enable-ssh-support \
               --write-env-file "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info"

   This code should only be run once per user session to initially fire
up the agent.  In the example the optional support for the included
Secure Shell agent is enabled and the information about the agent is
written to a file in the HOME directory.  Note that by running
gpg-agent without arguments you may test whether an agent is already
running; however such a test may lead to a race condition, thus it is
not suggested.

The second script needs to be run for each interactive session:

     if [ -f "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info" ]; then
       . "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info"
       export GPG_AGENT_INFO
       export SSH_AUTH_SOCK
       export SSH_AGENT_PID
     fi

It reads the data out of the file and exports the variables.  If you
don't use Secure Shell, you don't need the last two export statements.

You should always add the following lines to your `.bashrc' or whatever
initialization file is used for all shell invocations:

     GPG_TTY=$(tty)
     export GPG_TTY

It is important that this environment variable always reflects the
output of the `tty' command.  For W32 systems this option is not
required.

   Please make sure that a proper pinentry program has been installed
under the default filename (which is system dependant) or use the
option `pinentry-program' to specify the full name of that program.  It
is often useful to install a symbolic link from the actual used
pinentry (e.g. `/usr/bin/pinentry-gtk') to the expected one (e.g.
`/usr/bin/pinentry').

*Note Option Index::,for an index to `GPG-AGENT''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* Agent Commands::      List of all commands.
* Agent Options::       List of all options.
* Agent Configuration:: Configuration files.
* Agent Signals::       Use of some signals.
* Agent Examples::      Some usage examples.
* Agent Protocol::      The protocol the agent uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Commands,  Next: Agent Options,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

`--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Not that you
     can abbreviate this command.

`--help'
`-h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Not that you can abbreviate this command.

`--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Not that you
     can abbreviate this command.

`--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the `stdin'.  The
     default mode is to create a socket and listen for commands there.

`--daemon [COMMAND LINE]'
     Start the gpg-agent as a daemon; that is, detach it from the
     console and run it in the background.  Because `gpg-agent' prints
     out important information required for further use, a common way of
     invoking gpg-agent is: `eval $(gpg-agent --daemon)' to setup the
     environment variables.  The option `--write-env-file' is another
     way commonly used to do this.  Yet another way is creating a new
     process as a child of gpg-agent: `gpg-agent --daemon /bin/sh'.
     This way you get a new shell with the environment setup properly;
     if you exit from this shell, gpg-agent terminates as well.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Options,  Next: Agent Configuration,  Prev: Agent Commands,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.2 Option Summary
==================

`--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     `gpg-agent.conf' and expected in the `.gnupg' directory directly
     below the home directory of the user.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`-v'

`--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase
     the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to `gpgsm', such
     as `-vv'.

`-q'

`--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

`--batch'
     Don't invoke a pinentry or do any other thing requiring human
     interaction.

`--faked-system-time EPOCH'
     This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
     back or forth to EPOCH which is the number of seconds elapsed
     since the year 1970.

`--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems. LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or a keyword:

    `none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.

    `basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

`--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
     change at any time without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may
     be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently defined bits are:

    `0  (1)'
          X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

    `1  (2)'
          values of big number integers

    `2  (4)'
          low level crypto operations

    `5  (32)'
          memory allocation

    `6  (64)'
          caching

    `7  (128)'
          show memory statistics.

    `9  (512)'
          write hashed data to files named `dbgmd-000*'

    `10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol

    `12 (4096)'
          bypass all certificate validation

`--debug-all'
     Same as `--debug=0xffffffff'

`--debug-wait N'
     When running in server mode, wait N seconds before entering the
     actual processing loop and print the pid.  This gives time to
     attach a debugger.

`--no-detach'
     Don't detach the process from the console.  This is mainly useful
     for debugging.

`-s'
`--sh'
`-c'
`--csh'
     Format the info output in daemon mode for use with the standard
     Bourne shell or the C-shell respectively.  The default is to guess
     it based on the environment variable `SHELL' which is correct in
     almost all cases.

`--write-env-file FILE'
     Often it is required to connect to the agent from a process not
     being an inferior of `gpg-agent' and thus the environment variable
     with the socket name is not available.  To help setting up those
     variables in other sessions, this option may be used to write the
     information into FILE.  If FILE is not specified the default name
     `${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info' will be used.  The format is suitable to
     be evaluated by a Bourne shell like in this simple example:

          eval $(cat FILE)
          eval $(cut -d= -f 1 < FILE | xargs echo export)

`--no-grab'
     Tell the pinentry not to grab the keyboard and mouse.  This option
     should in general not be used to avoid X-sniffing attacks.

`--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  This is very helpful in seeing
     what the agent actually does.

`--allow-mark-trusted'
     Allow clients to mark keys as trusted, i.e. put them into the
     `trustlist.txt' file.  This is by default not allowed to make it
     harder for users to inadvertently accept Root-CA keys.

`--ignore-cache-for-signing'
     This option will let `gpg-agent' bypass the passphrase cache for
     all signing operation.  Note that there is also a per-session
     option to control this behaviour but this command line option
     takes precedence.

`--default-cache-ttl N'
     Set the time a cache entry is valid to N seconds.  The default is
     600 seconds.

`--default-cache-ttl-ssh N'
     Set the time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to N
     seconds.  The default is 1800 seconds.

`--max-cache-ttl N'
     Set the maximum time a cache entry is valid to N seconds.  After
     this time a cache entry will be expired even if it has been
     accessed recently.  The default is 2 hours (7200 seconds).

`--max-cache-ttl-ssh N'
     Set the maximum time a cache entry used for SSH keys is valid to N
     seconds.  After this time a cache entry will be expired even if it
     has been accessed recently.  The default is 2 hours (7200 seconds).

`--enforce-passphrase-constraints'
     Enforce the passphrase constraints by not allowing the user to
     bypass them using the "Take it anyway" button.

`--min-passphrase-len N'
     Set the minimal length of a passphrase.  When entering a new
     passphrase shorter than this value a warning will be displayed.
     Defaults to 8.

`--min-passphrase-nonalpha N'
     Set the minimal number of digits or special characters required in
     a passphrase.  When entering a new passphrase with less than this
     number of digits or special characters a warning will be
     displayed.  Defaults to 1.

`--check-passphrase-pattern FILE'
     Check the passphrase against the pattern given in FILE.  When
     entering a new passphrase matching one of these pattern a warning
     will be displayed. FILE should be an absolute filename.  The
     default is not to use any pattern file.

     Security note: It is known that checking a passphrase against a
     list of pattern or even against a complete dictionary is not very
     effective to enforce good passphrases.  Users will soon figure up
     ways to bypass such a policy.  A better policy is to educate users
     on good security behavior and optionally to run a passphrase
     cracker regularly on all users passphrases to catch the very
     simple ones.

`--max-passphrase-days N'
     Ask the user to change the passphrase if N days have passed since
     the last change.  With `--enforce-passphrase-constraints' set the
     user may not bypass this check.

`--enable-passphrase-history'
     This option does nothing yet.

`--pinentry-program FILENAME'
     Use program FILENAME as the PIN entry.  The default is installation
     dependent and can be shown with the `--version' command.

`--pinentry-touch-file FILENAME'
     By default the filename of the socket gpg-agent is listening for
     requests is passed to Pinentry, so that it can touch that file
     before exiting (it does this only in curses mode).  This option
     changes the file passed to Pinentry to FILENAME.  The special name
     `/dev/null' may be used to completely disable this feature.  Note
     that Pinentry will not create that file, it will only change the
     modification and access time.

`--scdaemon-program FILENAME'
     Use program FILENAME as the Smartcard daemon.  The default is
     installation dependent and can be shown with the `--version'
     command.

`--disable-scdaemon'
     Do not make use of the scdaemon tool.  This option has the effect
     of disabling the ability to do smartcard operations.  Note, that
     enabling this option at runtime does not kill an already forked
     scdaemon.

`--use-standard-socket'
`--no-use-standard-socket'
     By enabling this option `gpg-agent' will listen on the socket
     named `S.gpg-agent', located in the home directory, and not create
     a random socket below a temporary directory.  Tools connecting to
     `gpg-agent' should first try to connect to the socket given in
     environment variable GPG_AGENT_INFO and then fall back to this
     socket.  This option may not be used if the home directory is
     mounted as a remote file system.  Note, that
     `--use-standard-socket' is the default on Windows systems.

`--display STRING'
`--ttyname STRING'
`--ttytype STRING'
`--lc-ctype STRING'
`--lc-messages STRING'
`--xauthority STRING'
     These options are used with the server mode to pass localization
     information.

`--keep-tty'
`--keep-display'
     Ignore requests to change the current `tty' or X window system's
     `DISPLAY' variable respectively.  This is useful to lock the
     pinentry to pop up at the `tty' or display you started the agent.

`--enable-ssh-support'
     Enable emulation of the OpenSSH Agent protocol.

     In this mode of operation, the agent does not only implement the
     gpg-agent protocol, but also the agent protocol used by OpenSSH
     (through a separate socket).  Consequently, it should be possible
     to use the gpg-agent as a drop-in replacement for the well known
     ssh-agent.

     SSH Keys, which are to be used through the agent, need to be added
     to the gpg-agent initially through the ssh-add utility.  When a
     key is added, ssh-add will ask for the password of the provided
     key file and send the unprotected key material to the agent; this
     causes the gpg-agent to ask for a passphrase, which is to be used
     for encrypting the newly received key and storing it in a
     gpg-agent specific directory.

     Once a key has been added to the gpg-agent this way, the gpg-agent
     will be ready to use the key.

     Note: in case the gpg-agent receives a signature request, the user
     might need to be prompted for a passphrase, which is necessary for
     decrypting the stored key.  Since the ssh-agent protocol does not
     contain a mechanism for telling the agent on which
     display/terminal it is running, gpg-agent's ssh-support will use
     the TTY or X display where gpg-agent has been started.  To switch
     this display to the current one, the following command may be used:

          echo UPDATESTARTUPTTY | gpg-connect-agent


   All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Configuration,  Next: Agent Signals,  Prev: Agent Options,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.3 Configuration
=================

There are a few configuration files needed for the operation of the
agent. By default they may all be found in the current home directory
(*note option --homedir::).

`gpg-agent.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by `gpg-agent' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading   two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This file is also read after a `SIGHUP' however only a few
     options will actually have an effect.  This default name may be
     changed on the command line (*note option --options::).    You
     should backup this file.

`trustlist.txt'
     This is the list of trusted keys.  You should backup this file.

     Comment lines, indicated by a leading hash mark, as well as empty
     lines are ignored.  To mark a key as trusted you need to enter its
      fingerprint followed by a space and a capital letter `S'.  Colons
      may optionally be used to separate the bytes of a fingerprint;
     this   allows to cut and paste the fingerprint from a key listing
     output.  If   the line is prefixed with a `!' the key is
     explicitly marked as   not trusted.

     Here is an example where two keys are marked as ultimately trusted
      and one as not trusted:

            # CN=Wurzel ZS 3,O=Intevation GmbH,C=DE
            A6935DD34EF3087973C706FC311AA2CCF733765B S

            # CN=PCA-1-Verwaltung-02/O=PKI-1-Verwaltung/C=DE
            DC:BD:69:25:48:BD:BB:7E:31:6E:BB:80:D3:00:80:35:D4:F8:A6:CD S

            # CN=Root-CA/O=Schlapphuete/L=Pullach/C=DE
            !14:56:98:D3:FE:9C:CA:5A:31:6E:BC:81:D3:11:4E:00:90:A3:44:C2 S

     Before entering a key into this file, you need to ensure its
     authenticity.  How to do this depends on your organisation; your
     administrator might have already entered those keys which are
     deemed trustworthy enough into this file.  Places where to look
     for the fingerprint of a root certificate are letters received
     from the CA or the website of the CA (after making 100% sure that
     this is indeed the website of that CA).  You may want to consider
     allowing interactive updates of this file by using the *Note
     option --allow-mark-trusted::.  This is however not as secure as
     maintaining this file manually.  It is even advisable to change
     the permissions to read-only so that this file can't be changed
     inadvertently.

     As a special feature a line `include-default' will include a global
     list of trusted certificates (e.g. `/etc/gnupg/trustlist.txt').
     This global list is also used if the local list is not available.

     It is possible to add further flags after the `S' for use by the
     caller:

    `relax'
          Relax checking of some root certificate requirements.  This
          is for example required if the certificate is missing the
          basicConstraints attribute (despite that it is a MUST for CA
          certificates).

    `cm'
          If validation of a certificate finally issued by a CA with
          this flag set fails, try again using the chain validation
          model.


`sshcontrol'
     This file is used when support for the secure shell agent protocol
     has been enabled (*note option --enable-ssh-support::). Only keys
     present in this file are used in the SSH protocol.  You should
     backup this file.

     The `ssh-add' tool may be used to add new entries to this file;
     you may also add them manually.  Comment lines, indicated by a
     leading hash mark, as well as empty lines are ignored.  An entry
     starts with optional whitespace, followed by the keygrip of the
     key given as 40 hex digits, optionally followed by the caching TTL
     in seconds and another optional field for arbitrary flags.  A
     non-zero TTL overrides the global default as set by
     `--default-cache-ttl-ssh'.

     The keygrip may be prefixed with a `!' to disable an entry entry.

     The following example lists exactly one key.  Note that keys
     available through a OpenPGP smartcard in the active smartcard
     reader are implicitly added to this list; i.e. there is no need to
     list them.

            # Key added on 2005-02-25 15:08:29
            5A6592BF45DC73BD876874A28FD4639282E29B52 0

`private-keys-v1.d/'
     This is the directory where gpg-agent stores the private keys.
     Each   key is stored in a file with the name made up of the
     keygrip and the   suffix `key'.  You should backup all files in
     this directory   and take great care to keep this backup closed
     away.


   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created
users start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the a
small helper script is provided to create these files (*note
addgnupghome::).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Signals,  Next: Agent Examples,  Prev: Agent Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.4 Use of some signals.
========================

A running `gpg-agent' may be controlled by signals, i.e. using the
`kill' command to send a signal to the process.

   Here is a list of supported signals:

`SIGHUP'
     This signal flushes all cached passphrases and if the program has
     been started with a configuration file, the configuration file is
     read again.  Only certain options are honored: `quiet', `verbose',
     `debug', `debug-all', `debug-level', `no-grab',
     `pinentry-program', `default-cache-ttl', `max-cache-ttl',
     `ignore-cache-for-signing', `allow-mark-trusted' and
     `disable-scdaemon'.  `scdaemon-program' is also supported but due
     to the current implementation, which calls the scdaemon only once,
     it is not of much use unless you manually kill the scdaemon.

`SIGTERM'
     Shuts down the process but waits until all current requests are
     fulfilled.  If the process has received 3 of these signals and
     requests are still pending, a shutdown is forced.

`SIGINT'
     Shuts down the process immediately.

`SIGUSR1'
     Dump internal information to the log file.

`SIGUSR2'
     This signal is used for internal purposes.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Examples,  Next: Agent Protocol,  Prev: Agent Signals,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.5 Examples
============

The usual way to invoke `gpg-agent' is

     $ eval $(gpg-agent --daemon)

   An alternative way is by replacing `ssh-agent' with `gpg-agent'.  If
for example `ssh-agent' is started as part of the Xsession
initialization, you may simply replace `ssh-agent' by a script like:

     #!/bin/sh

     exec /usr/local/bin/gpg-agent --enable-ssh-support --daemon \
           --write-env-file ${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info "$@"

and add something like (for Bourne shells)

       if [ -f "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info" ]; then
         . "${HOME}/.gpg-agent-info"
         export GPG_AGENT_INFO
         export SSH_AUTH_SOCK
         export SSH_AGENT_PID
       fi

to your shell initialization file (e.g. `~/.bashrc').

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent Protocol,  Prev: Agent Examples,  Up: Invoking GPG-AGENT

2.6 Agent's Assuan Protocol
===========================

Note: this section does only document the protocol, which is used by
GnuPG components; it does not deal with the ssh-agent protocol.

   The `gpg-agent' should be started by the login shell and set an
environment variable to tell clients about the socket to be used.
Clients should deny to access an agent with a socket name which does
not match its own configuration.  An application may choose to start an
instance of the gpgagent if it does not figure that any has been
started; it should not do this if a gpgagent is running but not usable.
Because `gpg-agent' can only be used in background mode, no special
command line option is required to activate the use of the protocol.

   To identify a key we use a thing called keygrip which is the SHA-1
hash of an canonical encoded S-Expression of the public key as used in
Libgcrypt.  For the purpose of this interface the keygrip is given as a
hex string.  The advantage of using this and not the hash of a
certificate is that it will be possible to use the same keypair for
different protocols, thereby saving space on the token used to keep the
secret keys.

* Menu:

* Agent PKDECRYPT::       Decrypting a session key
* Agent PKSIGN::          Signing a Hash
* Agent GENKEY::          Generating a Key
* Agent IMPORT::          Importing a Secret Key
* Agent EXPORT::          Exporting a Secret Key
* Agent ISTRUSTED::       Importing a Root Certificate
* Agent GET_PASSPHRASE::  Ask for a passphrase
* Agent GET_CONFIRMATION:: Ask for confirmation
* Agent HAVEKEY::         Check whether a key is available
* Agent LEARN::           Register a smartcard
* Agent PASSWD::          Change a Passphrase
* Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY:: Change the Standard Display
* Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER:: Get the Event Counters
* Agent GETINFO::         Return information about the process

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PKDECRYPT,  Next: Agent PKSIGN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.1 Decrypting a session key
------------------------------

The client asks the server to decrypt a session key.  The encrypted
session key should have all information needed to select the
appropriate secret key or to delegate it to a smartcard.

       SETKEY <keyGrip>

   Tell the server about the key to be used for decryption.  If this is
not used, `gpg-agent' may try to figure out the key by trying to
decrypt the message with each key available.

       PKDECRYPT

   The agent checks whether this command is allowed and then does an
INQUIRY to get the ciphertext the client should then send the cipher
text.

         S: INQUIRE CIPHERTEXT
         C: D (xxxxxx
         C: D xxxx)
         C: END

   Please note that the server may send status info lines while reading
the data lines from the client.  The data send is a SPKI like S-Exp with
this structure:

          (enc-val
            (<algo>
              (<param_name1> <mpi>)
      	   ...
              (<param_namen> <mpi>)))

   Where algo is a string with the name of the algorithm; see the
libgcrypt documentation for a list of valid algorithms.  The number and
names of the parameters depend on the algorithm.  The agent does return
an error if there is an inconsistency.

   If the decryption was successful the decrypted data is returned by
means of "D" lines.

   Here is an example session:

        C: PKDECRYPT
        S: INQUIRE CIPHERTEXT
        C: D (enc-val elg (a 349324324)
        C: D    (b 3F444677CA)))
        C: END
        S: # session key follows
        S: D (value 1234567890ABCDEF0)
        S: OK descryption successful

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PKSIGN,  Next: Agent GENKEY,  Prev: Agent PKDECRYPT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.2 Signing a Hash
--------------------

The client ask the agent to sign a given hash value.  A default key
will be chosen if no key has been set.  To set a key a client first
uses:

        SIGKEY <keyGrip>

   This can be used multiple times to create multiple signature, the
list of keys is reset with the next PKSIGN command or a RESET.  The
server test whether the key is a valid key to sign something and
responds with okay.

        SETHASH --hash=<name>|<algo> <hexstring>

   The client can use this command to tell the server about the data
<hexstring> (which usually is a hash) to be signed. <algo> is the
decimal encoded hash algorithm number as used by Libgcrypt.  Either
<algo> or -hash=<name> must be given.  Valid names for <name> are:

`sha1'

`sha256'

`rmd160'

`md5'

`tls-md5sha1'

The actual signing is done using

        PKSIGN <options>

   Options are not yet defined, but my later be used to choose among
different algorithms.  The agent does then some checks, asks for the
passphrase and as a result the server returns the signature as an SPKI
like S-expression in "D" lines:

          (sig-val
            (<algo>
              (<param_name1> <mpi>)
      	   ...
              (<param_namen> <mpi>)))

   The operation is affected by the option

        OPTION use-cache-for-signing=0|1

   The default of `1' uses the cache.  Setting this option to `0' will
lead `gpg-agent' to ignore the passphrase cache.  Note, that there is
also a global command line option for `gpg-agent' to globally disable
the caching.

   Here is an example session:

        C: SIGKEY <keyGrip>
        S: OK key available
        C: SIGKEY <keyGrip>
        S: OK key available
        C: PKSIGN
        S: # I did ask the user whether he really wants to sign
        S: # I did ask the user for the passphrase
        S: INQUIRE HASHVAL
        C: D ABCDEF012345678901234
        C: END
        S: # signature follows
        S: D (sig-val rsa (s 45435453654612121212))
        S: OK

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GENKEY,  Next: Agent IMPORT,  Prev: Agent PKSIGN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.3 Generating a Key
----------------------

This is used to create a new keypair and store the secret key inside the
active PSE -- which is in most cases a Soft-PSE.  An not yet defined
option allows to choose the storage location.  To get the secret key out
of the PSE, a special export tool has to be used.

        GENKEY

   Invokes the key generation process and the server will then inquire
on the generation parameters, like:

        S: INQUIRE KEYPARM
        C: D (genkey (rsa (nbits  1024)))
        C: END

   The format of the key parameters which depends on the algorithm is of
the form:

         (genkey
           (algo
             (parameter_name_1 ....)
               ....
             (parameter_name_n ....)))

   If everything succeeds, the server returns the *public key* in a SPKI
like S-Expression like this:

          (public-key
            (rsa
      	 (n <mpi>)
      	 (e <mpi>)))

   Here is an example session:

        C: GENKEY
        S: INQUIRE KEYPARM
        C: D (genkey (rsa (nbits  1024)))
        C: END
        S: D (public-key
        S: D   (rsa (n 326487324683264) (e 10001)))
        S  OK key created

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent IMPORT,  Next: Agent EXPORT,  Prev: Agent GENKEY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.4 Importing a Secret Key
----------------------------

This operation is not yet supported by GpgAgent.  Specialized tools are
to be used for this.

   There is no actual need because we can expect that secret keys
created by a 3rd party are stored on a smartcard.  If we have generated
the key ourself, we do not need to import it.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent EXPORT,  Next: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Prev: Agent IMPORT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.5 Export a Secret Key
-------------------------

Not implemented.

   Should be done by an extra tool.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Next: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Prev: Agent EXPORT,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.6 Importing a Root Certificate
----------------------------------

Actually we do not import a Root Cert but provide a way to validate any
piece of data by storing its Hash along with a description and an
identifier in the PSE.  Here is the interface description:

         ISTRUSTED <fingerprint>

   Check whether the OpenPGP primary key or the X.509 certificate with
the given fingerprint is an ultimately trusted key or a trusted Root CA
certificate.  The fingerprint should be given as a hexstring (without
any blanks or colons or whatever in between) and may be left padded with
00 in case of an MD5 fingerprint.  GPGAgent will answer with:

         OK

   The key is in the table of trusted keys.

         ERR 304 (Not Trusted)

   The key is not in this table.

   Gpg needs the entire list of trusted keys to maintain the web of
trust; the following command is therefore quite helpful:

         LISTTRUSTED

   GpgAgent returns a list of trusted keys line by line:

         S: D 000000001234454556565656677878AF2F1ECCFF P
         S: D 340387563485634856435645634856438576457A P
         S: D FEDC6532453745367FD83474357495743757435D S
         S: OK

   The first item on a line is the hexified fingerprint where MD5
fingerprints are `00' padded to the left and the second item is a flag
to indicate the type of key (so that gpg is able to only take care of
PGP keys).  P = OpenPGP, S = S/MIME.  A client should ignore the rest
of the line, so that we can extend the format in the future.

   Finally a client should be able to mark a key as trusted:

        MARKTRUSTED FINGERPRINT "P"|"S"

   The server will then pop up a window to ask the user whether she
really trusts this key. For this it will probably ask for a text to be
displayed like this:

        S: INQUIRE TRUSTDESC
        C: D Do you trust the key with the fingerprint @FPR@
        C: D bla fasel blurb.
        C: END
        S: OK

   Known sequences with the pattern @foo@ are replaced according to this
table:

`@FPR16@'
     Format the fingerprint according to gpg rules for a v3 keys.

`@FPR20@'
     Format the fingerprint according to gpg rules for a v4 keys.

`@FPR@'
     Choose an appropriate format to format the fingerprint.

`@@'
     Replaced by a single `@'

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Next: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Prev: Agent ISTRUSTED,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.7 Ask for a passphrase
--------------------------

This function is usually used to ask for a passphrase to be used for
conventional encryption, but may also be used by programs which need
special handling of passphrases.  This command uses a syntax which helps
clients to use the agent with minimum effort.

       GET_PASSPHRASE [--data] [--check] [--no-ask] [--repeat[=N]] [--qualitybar] CACHE_ID [ERROR_MESSAGE PROMPT DESCRIPTION]

   CACHE_ID is expected to be a string used to identify a cached
passphrase.  Use a `X' to bypass the cache.  With no other arguments
the agent returns a cached passphrase or an error.  By convention
either the hexified fingerprint of the key shall be used for CACHE_ID
or an arbitrary string prefixed with the name of the calling
application and a colon: Like `gpg:somestring'.

   ERROR_MESSAGE is either a single `X' for no error message or a
string to be shown as an error message like (e.g. "invalid
passphrase").  Blanks must be percent escaped or replaced by `+''.

   PROMPT is either a single `X' for a default prompt or the text to be
shown as the prompt.  Blanks must be percent escaped or replaced by `+'.

   DESCRIPTION is a text shown above the entry field.  Blanks must be
percent escaped or replaced by `+'.

   The agent either returns with an error or with a OK followed by the
hex encoded passphrase.  Note that the length of the strings is
implicitly limited by the maximum length of a command.  If the option
`--data' is used, the passphrase is not returned on the OK line but by
regular data lines; this is the preferred method.

   If the option `--check' is used, the standard passphrase constraints
checks are applied.  A check is not done if the passphrase has been
found in the cache.

   If the option `--no-ask' is used and the passphrase is not in the
cache the user will not be asked to enter a passphrase but the error
code `GPG_ERR_NO_DATA' is returned.

   If the option `--qualitybar' is used and a minimum passphrase length
has been configured, a visual indication of the entered passphrase
quality is shown.

       CLEAR_PASSPHRASE CACHE_ID

   may be used to invalidate the cache entry for a passphrase.  The
function returns with OK even when there is no cached passphrase.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Next: Agent HAVEKEY,  Prev: Agent GET_PASSPHRASE,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.8 Ask for confirmation
--------------------------

This command may be used to ask for a simple confirmation by presenting
a text and 2 buttons: Okay and Cancel.

       GET_CONFIRMATION DESCRIPTION

   DESCRIPTIONis displayed along with a Okay and Cancel button. Blanks
must be percent escaped or replaced by `+'.  A `X' may be used to
display confirmation dialog with a default text.

   The agent either returns with an error or with a OK.  Note, that the
length of DESCRIPTION is implicitly limited by the maximum length of a
command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent HAVEKEY,  Next: Agent LEARN,  Prev: Agent GET_CONFIRMATION,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.9 Check whether a key is available
--------------------------------------

This can be used to see whether a secret key is available.  It does not
return any information on whether the key is somehow protected.

       HAVEKEY KEYGRIP

   The Agent answers either with OK or `No_Secret_Key' (208).  The
caller may want to check for other error codes as well.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent LEARN,  Next: Agent PASSWD,  Prev: Agent HAVEKEY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.10 Register a smartcard
---------------------------

       LEARN [--send]

   This command is used to register a smartcard.  With the -send option
given the certificates are send back.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent PASSWD,  Next: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Prev: Agent LEARN,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.11 Change a Passphrase
--------------------------

       PASSWD KEYGRIP

   This command is used to interactively change the passphrase of the
key identified by the hex string KEYGRIP.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Next: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Prev: Agent PASSWD,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.12 Change the standard display
----------------------------------

       UPDATESTARTUPTTY

   Set the startup TTY and X-DISPLAY variables to the values of this
session.  This command is useful to direct future pinentry invocations
to another screen.  It is only required because there is no way in the
ssh-agent protocol to convey this information.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Next: Agent GETINFO,  Prev: Agent UPDATESTARTUPTTY,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.13 Get the Event Counters
-----------------------------

       GETEVENTCOUNTER

   This function return one status line with the current values of the
event counters.  The event counters are useful to avoid polling by
delaying a poll until something has changed.  The values are decimal
numbers in the range `0' to `UINT_MAX' and wrapping around to 0.  The
actual values should not be relied upon; they shall only be used to
detect a change.

   The currently defined counters are are:
`ANY'
     Incremented with any change of any of the other counters.

`KEY'
     Incremented for added or removed private keys.

`CARD'
     Incremented for changes of the card readers stati.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Agent GETINFO,  Prev: Agent GETEVENTCOUNTER,  Up: Agent Protocol

2.6.14 Return information about the process
-------------------------------------------

This is a multipurpose function to return a variety of information.

     GETINFO WHAT

   The value of WHAT specifies the kind of information returned:
`version'
     Return the version of the program.

`pid'
     Return the process id of the process.

`socket_name'
     Return the name of the socket used to connect the agent.

`ssh_socket_name'
     Return the name of the socket used for SSH connections.  If SSH
     support has not been enabled the error `GPG_ERR_NO_DATA' will be
     returned.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPG,  Next: Invoking GPGSM,  Prev: Invoking GPG-AGENT,  Up: Top

3 Invoking GPG
**************

`gpg2' is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a
tool to provide digital encryption and signing services using the
OpenPGP standard. `gpg2' features complete key management and all bells
and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

   In contrast to the standalone version `gpg', which is more suited
for server and embedded platforms, this version is installed under the
name `gpg2' and more targeted to the desktop as it requires several
other modules to be installed.  The standalone version will be kept
maintained and it is possible to install both versions on the same
system.  If you need to use different configuration files, you should
make use of something like `gpg.conf-2' instead of just `gpg.conf'.

   Documentation for the old standard `gpg' is available as a man page
and at *note GnuPG 1: (gpg)Top.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to `gpg2''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* GPG Commands::        List of all commands.
* GPG Options::         List of all options.
* GPG Configuration::   Configuration files.
* GPG Examples::        Some usage examples.

Developer information:

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Commands,  Next: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

3.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

   `gpg2' may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a
reasonable action depending on the type of file it is given as input
(an encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified, a file
containing keys is listed).

   Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon
as a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by
using the special option `--'.

* Menu:

* General GPG Commands::        Commands not specific to the functionality.
* Operational GPG Commands::    Commands to select the type of operation.
* OpenPGP Key Management::      How to manage your keys.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: General GPG Commands,  Next: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

3.1.1 Commands not specific to the function
-------------------------------------------

`--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

`--help'
`-h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

`--warranty'
     Print warranty information.

`--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Operational GPG Commands,  Next: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: General GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

3.1.2 Commands to select the type of operation
----------------------------------------------

`--sign'
`-s'
     Make a signature. This command may be combined with `--encrypt'
     (for a signed and encrypted message), `--symmetric' (for a signed
     and symmetrically encrypted message), or `--encrypt' and
     `--symmetric' together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
     via a secret key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing
     is chosen by default or can be set with the `--local-user' and
     `--default-key' options.

`--clearsign'
     Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text
     signature is readable without any special software. OpenPGP
     software is only needed to verify the signature.  Clear text
     signatures may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform
     independence and are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be
     used for signing is chosen by default or can be set with the
     `--local-user' and `--default-key' options.

`--detach-sign'
`-b'
     Make a detached signature.

`--encrypt'
`-e'
     Encrypt data. This option may be combined with `--sign' (for a
     signed and encrypted message), `--symmetric' (for a message that
     may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase), or `--sign'
     and `--symmetric' together (for a signed message that may be
     decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

`--symmetric'
`-c'
     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default
     symmetric cipher used is CAST5, but may be chosen with the
     `--cipher-algo' option. This option may be combined with `--sign'
     (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), `--encrypt'
     (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a
     passphrase), or `--sign' and `--encrypt' together (for a signed
     message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

`--store'
     Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

`--decrypt'
`-d'
     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file is
     specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
     `--output'). If the decrypted file is signed, the signature is also
     verified. This command differs from the default operation, as it
     never writes to the filename which is included in the file and it
     rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted message.

`--verify'
     Assume that the first argument is a signed file or a detached
     signature and verify it without generating any output. With no
     arguments, the signature packet is read from STDIN. If only a
     sigfile is given, it may be a complete signature or a detached
     signature, in which case the signed stuff is expected in a file
     without the ".sig" or ".asc" extension.  With more than 1
     argument, the first should be a detached signature and the
     remaining files are the signed stuff. To read the signed stuff
     from STDIN, use `-' as the second filename.  For security reasons
     a detached signature cannot read the signed material from STDIN
     without denoting it in the above way.

`--multifile'
     This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files for
     processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
     filename on a separate line. This allows for many files to be
     processed at once. `--multifile' may currently be used along with
     `--verify', `--encrypt', and `--decrypt'. Note that `--multifile
     --verify' may not be used with detached signatures.

`--verify-files'
     Identical to `--multifile --verify'.

`--encrypt-files'
     Identical to `--multifile --encrypt'.

`--decrypt-files'
     Identical to `--multifile --decrypt'.

`--list-keys'
`-k'
`--list-public-keys'
     List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given on
     the command line.

     Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other
     programs as it is likely to change as GnuPG changes. See
     `--with-colons' for a machine-parseable key listing command that
     is appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

`--list-secret-keys'
`-K'
     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given on
     the command line. A `#' after the letters `sec' means that the
     secret key is not usable (for example, if it was created via
     `--export-secret-subkeys').

`--list-sigs'
     Same as `--list-keys', but the signatures are listed too.  This
     command has the same effect as using `--list-keys' with
     `--with-sig-list'.

     For each signature listed, there are several flags in between the
     "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information about
     each signature. From left to right, they are the numbers 1-3 for
     certificate check level (see `--ask-cert-level'), "L" for a local
     or non-exportable signature (see `--lsign-key'), "R" for a
     nonRevocable signature (see the `--edit-key' command "nrsign"),
     "P" for a signature that contains a policy URL (see
     `--cert-policy-url'), "N" for a signature that contains a notation
     (see `--cert-notation'), "X" for an eXpired signature (see
     `--ask-cert-expire'), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above
     to indicate trust signature levels (see the `--edit-key' command
     "tsign").

`--check-sigs'
     Same as `--list-sigs', but the signatures are verified.  Note that
     for performance reasons the revocation status of a signing key is
     not shown.  This command has the same effect as using
     `--list-keys' with `--with-sig-check'.

     The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
     following the "sig" tag (and thus before the flags described above
     for `--list-sigs').  A "!" indicates that the signature has been
     successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a "%" is
     used if an error occurred while checking the signature (e.g. a non
     supported algorithm).

`--locate-keys'
     Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
     the same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption or
     signing and may thus be used to see what keys `gpg2' might use.  In
     particular external methods as defined by `--auto-key-locate' may
     be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

`--fingerprint'
     List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their
     fingerprints. This is the same output as `--list-keys' but with
     the additional output of a line with the fingerprint. May also be
     combined with `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs'.  If this command is
     given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed too.

`--list-packets'
     List only the sequence of packets. This is mainly useful for
     debugging.

`--card-edit'
     Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
     provides an overview on available commands. For a detailed
     description, please see the Card HOWTO at
     http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

`--card-status'
     Show the content of the smart card.

`--change-pin'
     Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
     functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with the
     `--card-edit' command.

`--delete-key `name''
     Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode either `--yes' is
     required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is a
     safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

`--delete-secret-key `name''
     Remove key from the secret and public keyring. In batch mode the
     key must be specified by fingerprint.

`--delete-secret-and-public-key `name''
     Same as `--delete-key', but if a secret key exists, it will be
     removed first. In batch mode the key must be specified by
     fingerprint.

`--export'
     Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and
     those registered via option `--keyring'), or if at least one name
     is given, those of the given name. The new keyring is written to
     STDOUT or to the file given with option `--output'. Use together
     with `--armor' to mail those keys.

`--send-keys `key IDs''
     Similar to `--export' but sends the keys to a keyserver.
     Fingerprints may be used instead of key IDs. Option `--keyserver'
     must be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your
     complete keyring to a keyserver -- select only those keys which
     are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, `gpg' does
     nothing.

`--export-secret-keys'
`--export-secret-subkeys'
     Same as `--export', but exports the secret keys instead.  This is
     normally not very useful and a security risk.  The second form of
     the command has the special property to render the secret part of
     the primary key useless; this is a GNU extension to OpenPGP and
     other implementations can not be expected to successfully import
     such a key.  See the option `--simple-sk-checksum' if you want to
     import such an exported key with an older OpenPGP implementation.

`--import'
`--fast-import'
     Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring. The
     fast version is currently just a synonym.

     There are a few other options which control how this command works.
     Most notable here is the `--import-options merge-only' option
     which does not insert new keys but does only the merging of new
     signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

`--recv-keys `key IDs''
     Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option
     `--keyserver' must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

`--refresh-keys'
     Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on the
     local keyring. This is useful for updating a key with the latest
     signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments will
     refresh the entire keyring. Option `--keyserver' must be used to
     give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
     preferred keyservers set (see `--keyserver-options
     honor-keyserver-url').

`--search-keys `names''
     Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
     here will be joined together to create the search string for the
     keyserver.  Option `--keyserver' must be used to give the name of
     this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search methods
     allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user ID"
     below. Note that different keyserver types support different
     search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

`--fetch-keys `URIs''
     Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
     installations of GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP, FTP,
     LDAP, etc.)

`--update-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance. This command iterates over all keys
     and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
     because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
     The user has to give an estimation of how far she trusts the owner
     of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other keys. GnuPG
     only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet been assigned
     to a key. Using the `--edit-key' menu, the assigned value can be
     changed at any time.

`--check-trustdb'
     Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From time
     to time the trust database must be updated so that expired keys or
     signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust can be
     tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this is required and
     do it automatically unless `--no-auto-check-trustdb' is set. This
     command can be used to force a trust database check at any time.
     The processing is identical to that of `--update-trustdb' but it
     skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

     For use with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
     `--batch' in which case the trust database check is done only if a
     check is needed. To force a run even in batch mode add the option
     `--yes'.

`--export-ownertrust'
     Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
     purposes as these values are the only ones which can't be
     re-created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
            gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

`--import-ownertrust'
     Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in `files' (or
     STDIN if not given); existing values will be overwritten.  In case
     of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent backup of
     the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file `otrust.txt', you may
     re-create the trustdb using these commands:
            cd ~/.gnupg
            rm trustdb.gpg
            gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

`--rebuild-keydb-caches'
     When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
     used to create signature caches in the keyring. It might be handy
     in other situations too.

`--print-md `algo''
`--print-mds'
     Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
     STDIN.  With the second form (or a deprecated "*" as algo) digests
     for all available algorithms are printed.

`--gen-random `0|1|2''
     Emit COUNT random bytes of the given quality level. If count is
     not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be
     emitted.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know what you
     are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

`--gen-prime `mode'  `bits''
     Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
     change.

`--enarmor'

`--dearmor'
     Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII armor.
     This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not very
     useful.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Key Management,  Prev: Operational GPG Commands,  Up: GPG Commands

3.1.3 How to manage your keys
-----------------------------

This section explains the main commands for key management

`--gen-key'
     Generate a new key pair. This command is normally only used
     interactively.

     There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys in
     batch mode. See the file `doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution
     on how to use this.

`--gen-revoke `name''
     Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. To revoke
     a subkey or a signature, use the `--edit' command.

`--desig-revoke `name''
     Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. This
     allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
     someone else's key.

`--edit-key'
     Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key management
     related tasks.  It expects the specification of a key on the
     command line.

    uid `n'
          Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with
          index `n'.  Use `*' to select all and `0' to deselect all.

    key `n'
          Toggle selection of subkey with index `n'.  Use `*' to select
          all and `0' to deselect all.

    sign
          Make a signature on key of user `name' If the key is not yet
          signed by the default user (or the users given with -u), the
          program displays the information of the key again, together
          with its fingerprint and asks whether it should be signed.
          This question is repeated for all users specified with -u.

    lsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-exportable
          and will therefore never be used by others. This may be used
          to make keys valid only in the local environment.

    nrsign
          Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revocable
          and can therefore never be revoked.

    tsign
          Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines the
          notions of certification (like a regular signature), and
          trust (like the "trust" command). It is generally only useful
          in distinct communities or groups.

     Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for
     non-revocable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and
     prefixed to "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

    delsig
          Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible to retract a
          signature, once it has been send to the public (i.e. to a
          keyserver).  In that case you better use `revsig'.

    revsig
          Revoke a signature. For every signature which has been
          generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
          revocation certificate should be generated.

    check
          Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

    adduid
          Create an additional user ID.

    addphoto
          Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a JPEG
          file that will be embedded into the user ID. Note that a very
          large JPEG will make for a very large key. Also note that
          some programs will display your JPEG unchanged (GnuPG), and
          some programs will scale it to fit in a dialog box (PGP).

    showphoto
          Display the selected photographic user ID.

    deluid
          Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note that it is not
          possible to retract a user id, once it has been send to the
          public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you better use
          `revuid'.

    revuid
          Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

    primary
          Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes the
          primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
          timestamp of all affected self-signatures one second ahead.
          Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes it primary
          over other photo user IDs, and setting a regular user ID as
          primary makes it primary over other regular user IDs.

    keyserver
          Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s). This
          allows other users to know where you prefer they get your key
          from. See `--keyserver-options honor-keyserver-url' for more
          on how this works.  Setting a value of "none" removes an
          existing preferred keyserver.

    notation
          Set a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s). See
          `--cert-notation' for more on how this works. Setting a value
          of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation prefixed
          with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and setting a
          notation name (without the =value) prefixed with a minus sign
          removes all notations with that name.

    pref
          List preferences from the selected user ID. This shows the
          actual preferences, without including any implied preferences.

    showpref
          More verbose preferences listing for the selected user ID.
          This shows the preferences in effect by including the implied
          preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
          Uncompressed (compression) if they are not already included
          in the preference list. In addition, the preferred keyserver
          and signature notations (if any) are shown.

    setpref `string'
          Set the list of user ID preferences to `string' for all (or
          just the selected) user IDs. Calling setpref with no
          arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
          built-in or set via `--default-preference-list'), and calling
          setpref with "none" as the argument sets an empty preference
          list. Use `gpg2 --version' to get a list of available
          algorithms. Note that while you can change the preferences on
          an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"), GnuPG does not select
          keys via attribute user IDs so these preferences will not be
          used by GnuPG.

          When setting preferences, you should list the algorithms in
          the order which you'd like to see them used by someone else
          when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't include
          3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.  Note that
          there are many factors that go into choosing an algorithm
          (for example, your key may not be the only recipient), and so
          the remote OpenPGP application being used to send to you may
          or may not follow your exact chosen order for a given
          message.  It will, however, only choose an algorithm that is
          present on the preference list of every recipient key.  See
          also the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section
          below.

    addkey
          Add a subkey to this key.

    addcardkey
          Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

    keytocard
          Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key if no
          subkey has been selected) to a smartcard. The secret key in
          the keyring will be replaced by a stub if the key could be
          stored successfully on the card and you use the save command
          later. Only certain key types may be transferred to the card.
          A sub menu allows you to select on what card to store the
          key. Note that it is not possible to get that key back from
          the card - if the card gets broken your secret key will be
          lost unless you have a backup somewhere.

    bkuptocard `file'
          Restore the given file to a card. This command may be used to
          restore a backup key (as generated during card
          initialization) to a new card. In almost all cases this will
          be the encryption key. You should use this command only with
          the corresponding public key and make sure that the file
          given as argument is indeed the backup to restore. You should
          then select 2 to restore as encryption key.  You will first
          be asked to enter the passphrase of the backup key and then
          for the Admin PIN of the card.

    delkey
          Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not possible
          to retract a subkey, once it has been send to the public
          (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you better use `revkey'.

    revkey
          Revoke a subkey.

    expire
          Change the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
          selected, the expiration time of this subkey will be changed.
          With no selection, the key expiration of the primary key is
          changed.

    trust
          Change the owner trust value for the key. This updates the
          trust-db immediately and no save is required.

    disable
    enable
          Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not
          normally be used for encryption.

    addrevoker
          Add a designated revoker to the key. This takes one optional
          argument: "sensitive". If a designated revoker is marked as
          sensitive, it will not be exported by default (see
          export-options).

    passwd
          Change the passphrase of the secret key.

    toggle
          Toggle between public and secret key listing.

    clean
          Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig) any
          user ID that is no longer usable (e.g. revoked, or expired).
          Then, remove any signatures that are not usable by the trust
          calculations.  Specifically, this removes any signature that
          does not validate, any signature that is superseded by a
          later signature, revoked signatures, and signatures issued by
          keys that are not present on the keyring.

    minimize
          Make the key as small as possible. This removes all
          signatures from each user ID except for the most recent
          self-signature.

    cross-certify
          Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys that
          may not currently have them. Cross-certification signatures
          protect against a subtle attack against signing subkeys. See
          `--require-cross-certification'.  All new keys generated have
          this signature by default, so this option is only useful to
          bring older keys up to date.

    save
          Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

    quit
          Quit the program without updating the key rings.


     The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all user
     ids. Selected keys or user ids are indicated by an asterisk. The
     trust value is displayed with the primary key: the first is the
     assigned owner trust and the second is the calculated trust value.
     Letters are used for the values:

    -
          No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

    e
          Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired key.

    q
          Not enough information for calculation.

    n
          Never trust this key.

    m
          Marginally trusted.

    f
          Fully trusted.

    u
          Ultimately trusted.

`--sign-key `name''
     Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut
     version of the subcommand "sign" from `--edit'.

`--lsign-key `name''
     Signs a public key with your secret key but marks it as
     non-exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand
     "lsign" from `--edit-key'.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Options,  Next: GPG Configuration,  Prev: GPG Commands,  Up: Invoking GPG

3.2 Option Summary
==================

`gpg2' comes features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour
and to change the default configuration.

* Menu:

* GPG Configuration Options::   How to change the configuration.
* GPG Key related Options::     Key related options.
* GPG Input and Output::        Input and Output.
* OpenPGP Options::             OpenPGP protocol specific options.
* GPG Esoteric Options::        Doing things one usually don't want to do.

   Long options can be put in an options file (default
"~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names will not work - for example,
"armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a" is not. Do not
write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any required
arguments. Lines with a hash ('#') as the first non-white-space
character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but that is
not generally useful as the command will execute automatically with
every execution of gpg.

   Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special option
`--'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Configuration Options,  Next: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

3.2.1 How to change the configuration
-------------------------------------

These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found
in the option file.

`--default-key NAME'
     Use NAME as the default key to sign with. If this option is not
     used, the default key is the first key found in the secret keyring.
     Note that `-u' or `--local-user' overrides this option.

`--default-recipient NAME'
     Use NAME as default recipient if option `--recipient' is not used
     and don't ask if this is a valid one. NAME must be non-empty.

`--default-recipient-self'
     Use the default key as default recipient if option `--recipient'
     is not used and don't ask if this is a valid one. The default key
     is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
     `--default-key'.

`--no-default-recipient'
     Reset `--default-recipient' and `--default-recipient-self'.

`-v, --verbose'
     Give more information during processing. If used twice, the input
     data is listed in detail.

`--no-verbose'
     Reset verbose level to 0.

`-q, --quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

`--batch'
`--no-batch'
     Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
     `--no-batch' disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
     given on the command line, gpg might still need to read from STDIN
     (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
     signature and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do
     not want to feed data via STDIN, you should connect STDIN to
     `/dev/null'.

`--no-tty'
     Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
     This option is needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes prints
     warnings to the TTY even if `--batch' is used.

`--yes'
     Assume "yes" on most questions.

`--no'
     Assume "no" on most questions.

`--list-options `parameters''
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when listing keys and signatures (that is, `--list-keys',
     `--list-sigs', `--list-public-keys', `--list-secret-keys', and the
     `--edit-key' functions).  Options can be prepended with a `no-'
     (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The options
     are:

    show-photos
          Causes `--list-keys', `--list-sigs', `--list-public-keys',
          and `--list-secret-keys' to display any photo IDs attached to
          the key.  Defaults to no. See also `--photo-viewer'.

    show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs'
          listings.  Defaults to no.

    show-notations
    show-std-notations
    show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs' listings. Defaults to
          no.

    show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the `--list-sigs' or
          `--check-sigs' listings. Defaults to no.

    show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key
          listings.  Defaults to no.

    show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings. Defaults
          to no.

    show-unusable-subkeys
          Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings. Defaults to
          no.

    show-keyring
          Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show
          which keyring a given key resides on. Defaults to no.

    show-sig-expire
          Show signature expiration dates (if any) during `--list-sigs'
          or `--check-sigs' listings. Defaults to no.

    show-sig-subpackets
          Include signature subpackets in the key listing. This option
          can take an optional argument list of the subpackets to list.
          If no argument is passed, list all subpackets. Defaults to
          no. This option is only meaningful when using `--with-colons'
          along with `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs'.

`--verify-options `parameters''
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options used
     when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with a `no-'
     to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

    show-photos
          Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
          signature.  Defaults to no. See also `--photo-viewer'.

    show-policy-urls
          Show policy URLs in the signature being verified. Defaults to
          no.

    show-notations
    show-std-notations
    show-user-notations
          Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature notations
          in the signature being verified. Defaults to IETF standard.

    show-keyserver-urls
          Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
          verified.  Defaults to no.

    show-uid-validity
          Display the calculated validity of the user IDs on the key
          that issued the signature. Defaults to no.

    show-unusable-uids
          Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature
          verification.  Defaults to no.

    show-primary-uid-only
          Show only the primary user ID during signature verification.
          That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are not shown
          with the signature verification status.

    pka-lookups
          Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note that PKA
          is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may disclose
          information on when and what signatures are verified or to
          whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the "web bug"
          described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

    pka-trust-increase
          Raise the trust in a signature to full if the signature
          passes PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
          pka-lookups is set.

`--enable-dsa2'
`--disable-dsa2'
     Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up to
     1024 bit.  This is also the default with `--openpgp'.  Note that
     older versions of GnuPG also required this flag to allow the
     generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

`--photo-viewer `string''
     This is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
     "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
     does the same, except the file will not be deleted once the viewer
     exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the long key
     ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the extension of the
     image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type of the image (e.g.
     "image/jpeg"), and "%%" for an actual percent sign. If neither %i
     or %I are present, then the photo will be supplied to the viewer
     on standard input.

     The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID 0x%k'
     STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not secure, then
     executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

`--exec-path `string''
     Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and
     keyserver helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the
     compiled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the $PATH
     environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value is
     ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

`--keyring `file''
     Add `file' to the current list of keyrings. If `file' begins with
     a tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if `--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

     Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
     is to use the specified keyring alone, use `--keyring' along with
     `--no-default-keyring'.

`--secret-keyring `file''
     Same as `--keyring' but for the secret keyrings.

`--primary-keyring `file''
     Designate `file' as the primary public keyring. This means that
     newly imported keys (via `--import' or keyserver `--recv-from')
     will go to this keyring.

`--trustdb-name `file''
     Use `file' instead of the default trustdb. If `file' begins with a
     tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
     the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     GnuPG home directory (`~/.gnupg' if `--homedir' or $GNUPGHOME is
     not used).

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`--display-charset `name''
     Set the name of the native character set. This is used to convert
     some informational strings like user IDs to the proper UTF-8
     encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the character set
     of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not recode
     user-supplied data. If this option is not used, the default
     character set is determined from the current locale. A verbosity
     level of 3 shows the chosen set.  Valid values for `name' are:

    iso-8859-1
          This is the Latin 1 set.

    iso-8859-2
          The Latin 2 set.

    iso-8859-15
          This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

    koi8-r
          The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

    utf-8
          Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses native
          UTF-8 encoding.

`--utf8-strings'
`--no-utf8-strings'
     Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF8 strings. The
     default (`--no-utf8-strings') is to assume that arguments are
     encoded in the character set as specified by `--display-charset'.
     These options affect all following arguments. Both options may be
     used multiple times.

`--options `file''
     Read options from `file' and do not try to read them from the
     default options file in the homedir (see `--homedir'). This option
     is ignored if used in an options file.

`--no-options'
     Shortcut for `--options /dev/null'. This option is detected before
     an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
     prevent the creation of a `~/.gnupg' homedir.

`-z `n''
`--compress-level `n''
`--bzip2-compress-level `n''
     Set compression level to `n' for the ZIP and ZLIB compression
     algorithms. The default is to use the default compression level of
     zlib (normally 6). `--bzip2-compress-level' sets the compression
     level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6 as
     well). This is a different option from `--compress-level' since
     BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory for each additional
     compression level.  `-z' sets both. A value of 0 for `n' disables
     compression.

`--bzip2-decompress-lowmem'
     Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
     This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
     also runs at half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
     memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed at a
     high `--bzip2-compress-level'.

`--mangle-dos-filenames'
`--no-mangle-dos-filenames'
     Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than one
     dot. `--mangle-dos-filenames' causes GnuPG to replace (rather than
     add to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this problem.
     This option is off by default and has no effect on non-Windows
     platforms.

`--ask-cert-level'
`--no-ask-cert-level'
     When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level. If
     this option is not specified, the certification level used is set
     via `--default-cert-level'. See `--default-cert-level' for
     information on the specific levels and how they are used.
     `--no-ask-cert-level' disables this option. This option defaults
     to no.

`--default-cert-level `n''
     The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

     0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you
     verified the key.

     1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
     own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This is
     useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key of a
     pseudonymous user.

     2 means you did casual verification of the key. For example, this
     could mean that you verified that the key fingerprint and checked
     the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

     3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
     this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
     owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
     hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
     the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
     key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that the
     email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

     Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
     that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
     "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

     This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

`--min-cert-level'
     When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a
     certification level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which
     disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no particular
     claim" signatures are always accepted.

`--trusted-key `long key ID''
     Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8
     byte key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
     This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
     (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check the
     validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

`--trust-model `pgp|classic|direct|always|auto''
     Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

    pgp
          This is the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures as
          used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust model
          when creating a new trust database.

    classic
          This is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x and
          earlier.

    direct
          Key validity is set directly by the user and not calculated
          via the Web of Trust.

    always
          Skip key validation and assume that used keys are always fully
          trusted. You generally won't use this unless you are using
          some external validation scheme. This option also suppresses
          the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signature checks when
          there is no evidence that the user ID is bound to the key.

    auto
          Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
          trust database says. This is the default model if such a
          database already exists.

`--auto-key-locate `parameters''
`--no-auto-key-locate'
     GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
     this option. This happens when encrypting to an email address (in
     the "user AT example.com" form), and there are no user AT example.com
     keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number of the
     following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

    cert
          Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

    pka
          Locate a key using DNS PKA.

    ldap
          Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question for
          any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt to locate
          the key using the PGP Universal method of checking
          `ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

    keyserver
          Locate a key using whatever keyserver is defined using the
          `--keyserver' option.

    keyserver-URL
          In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the `--keyserver'
          option may be used here to query that particular keyserver.

    local
          Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
          allows to select the order a local key lookup is done.  Thus
          using `--auto-key-locate local' is identical to
          `--no-auto-key-locate'.

    nodefault
          This flag disables the standard local key lookup, done before
          any of the mechanisms defined by the `--auto-key-locate' are
          tried.  The position of this mechanism in the list does not
          matter.  It is not required if `local' is also used.


`--keyid-format `short|0xshort|long|0xlong''
     Select how to display key IDs. "short" is the traditional
     8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less
     convenient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include
     an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.

`--keyserver `name''
     Use `name' as your keyserver. This is the server that
     `--recv-keys', `--send-keys', and `--search-keys' will communicate
     with to receive keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on.
     The format of the `name' is a URI:
     `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme is the type of
     keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible) keyservers, "ldap"
     for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the Graff email
     keyserver. Note that your particular installation of GnuPG may
     have other keyserver types available as well. Keyserver schemes
     are case-insensitive. After the keyserver name, optional keyserver
     configuration options may be provided. These are the same as the
     global `--keyserver-options' from below, but apply only to this
     particular keyserver.

     Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is generally
     no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
     `hkp://keys.gnupg.net' uses round robin DNS to give a different
     keyserver each time you use it.

`--keyserver-options `name=value1 ''
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
     opposite meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
     used here as well to apply to importing (`--recv-key') or exporting
     (`--send-key') a key from a keyserver. While not all options are
     available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

    include-revoked
          When searching for a key with `--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as revoked. Note that not
          all keyservers differentiate between revoked and unrevoked
          keys, and for such keyservers this option is meaningless.
          Note also that most keyservers do not have cryptographic
          verification of key revocations, and so turning this option
          off may result in skipping keys that are incorrectly marked
          as revoked.

    include-disabled
          When searching for a key with `--search-keys', include keys
          that are marked on the keyserver as disabled. Note that this
          option is not used with HKP keyservers.

    auto-key-retrieve
          This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from a
          keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that are not
          on the local keyring.

          Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior
          possible.  Keyserver operators can see which keys you
          request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new
          key (which you naturally will not have on your local
          keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address and the
          time when you verified the signature.

    honor-keyserver-url
          When using `--refresh-keys', if the key in question has a
          preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to
          refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-retrieve is
          set, and the signature being verified has a preferred
          keyserver URL, then use that preferred keyserver to fetch the
          key from. Defaults to yes.

    honor-pka-record
          If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being verified
          has a PKA record, then use the PKA information to fetch the
          key. Defaults to yes.

    include-subkeys
          When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential targets.
          Note that this option is not used with HKP keyservers, as
          they do not support retrieving keys by subkey id.

    use-temp-files
          On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with the
          keyserver helper program via pipes, which is the most
          efficient method. This option forces GnuPG to use temporary
          files to communicate. On some platforms (such as Win32 and
          RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

    keep-temp-files
          If using `use-temp-files', do not delete the temp files after
          using them. This option is useful to learn the keyserver
          communication protocol by reading the temporary files.

    verbose
          Tell the keyserver helper program to be more verbose. This
          option can be repeated multiple times to increase the
          verbosity level.

    timeout
          Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds) to
          try and perform a keyserver action before giving up. Note
          that performing multiple actions at the same time uses this
          timeout value per action.  For example, when retrieving
          multiple keys via `--recv-keys', the timeout applies
          separately to each key retrieval, and not to the
          `--recv-keys' command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

    http-proxy=`value'
          Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
          overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

    max-cert-size
          When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept keys up to
          this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

    debug
          Turn on debug output in the keyserver helper program.  Note
          that the details of debug output depends on which keyserver
          helper program is being used, and in turn, on any libraries
          that the keyserver helper program uses internally (libcurl,
          openldap, etc).

    check-cert
          Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one
          (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

    ca-cert-file
          Provide a certificate file to override the system default.
          Only necessary if check-cert is enabled, and the keyserver is
          using a certificate that is not present in a system default
          certificate list.


`--completes-needed `n''
     Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 1).

`--marginals-needed `n''
     Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
     (defaults to 3)

`--max-cert-depth `n''
     Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

`--simple-sk-checksum'
     Secret keys are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum. This
     method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP specification but
     GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure against certain attacks.
     Old applications don't understand this new format, so this option
     may be used to switch back to the old behaviour. Using this option
     bears a security risk. Note that using this option only takes
     effect when the secret key is encrypted - the simplest way to make
     this happen is to change the passphrase on the key (even changing
     it to the same value is acceptable).

`--no-sig-cache'
     Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
     gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
     suspect that your public keyring is not save against write
     modifications, you can use this option to disable the caching. It
     probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind of
     damage can be done if someone else has write access to your public
     keyring.

`--no-sig-create-check'
     GnuPG normally verifies each signature right after creation to
     protect against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could leak
     out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some
     time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option can be used to
     disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature creation
     needs manual interaction, this performance penalty does not matter
     in most settings.

`--auto-check-trustdb'
`--no-auto-check-trustdb'
     If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has to
     be updated, it automatically runs the `--check-trustdb' command
     internally.  This may be a time consuming process.
     `--no-auto-check-trustdb' disables this option.

`--use-agent'
`--no-use-agent'
     This is dummy option. `gpg2' always requires the agent.

`--gpg-agent-info'
     This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with `gpg2'.

`--lock-once'
     Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
     release the lock until the process terminates.

`--lock-multiple'
     Release the locks every time a lock is no longer needed. Use this
     to override a previous `--lock-once' from a config file.

`--lock-never'
     Disable locking entirely. This option should be used only in very
     special environments, where it can be assured that only one process
     is accessing those files. A bootable floppy with a stand-alone
     encryption system will probably use this. Improper usage of this
     option may lead to data and key corruption.

`--exit-on-status-write-error'
     This option will cause write errors on the status FD to immediately
     terminate the process. That should in fact be the default but it
     never worked this way and thus we need an option to enable this,
     so that the change won't break applications which close their end
     of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using this option along
     with `--enable-progress-filter' may be used to cleanly cancel long
     running gpg operations.

`--limit-card-insert-tries `n''
     With `n' greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
     smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't at
     all ask to insert a card if none has been inserted at startup. This
     option is useful in the configuration file in case an application
     does not know about the smartcard support and waits ad infinitum
     for an inserted card.

`--no-random-seed-file'
     GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over
     invocations.  This makes random generation faster; however
     sometimes write operations are not desired. This option can be
     used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

`--no-greeting'
     Suppress the initial copyright message.

`--no-secmem-warning'
     Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

`--no-permission-warning'
     Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory
     (`--homedir') permissions. Note that the permission checks that
     GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
     they simply warn about certain common permission problems. Do not
     assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is secure.

     Note that the warning for unsafe `--homedir' permissions cannot be
     suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker to
     place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
     suppress warnings about itself. The `--homedir' permissions
     warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

`--no-mdc-warning'
     Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

`--require-secmem'
`--no-require-secmem'
     Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no
     (i.e. run, but give a warning).

`--require-cross-certification'
`--no-require-cross-certification'
     When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
     cross certification "back signature" on the subkey is present and
     valid.  This protects against a subtle attack against subkeys that
     can sign.  Defaults to `--require-cross-certification' for `gpg2'.

`--expert'
`--no-expert'
     Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
     signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially
     incompatible things like generating unusual key types. This also
     disables certain warning messages about potentially incompatible
     actions. As the name implies, this option is for experts only. If
     you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows you
     to do, leave this off. `--no-expert' disables this option.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Key related Options,  Next: GPG Input and Output,  Prev: GPG Configuration Options,  Up: GPG Options

3.2.2 Key related options
-------------------------

`--recipient NAME'
`-r'
     Encrypt for user id NAME. If this option or `--hidden-recipient'
     is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless
     `--default-recipient' is given.

`--hidden-recipient NAME'
`-R'
     Encrypt for user ID NAME, but hide the key ID of this user's key.
     This option helps to hide the receiver of the message and is a
     limited countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this option or
     `--recipient' is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user ID unless
     `--default-recipient' is given.

`--encrypt-to `name''
     Same as `--recipient' but this one is intended for use in the
     options file and may be used with your own user-id as an
     "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of `--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

`--hidden-encrypt-to `name''
     Same as `--hidden-recipient' but this one is intended for use in
     the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hidden
     "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
     recipients given either by use of `--recipient' or by the asked
     user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
     even disabled keys can be used.

`--no-encrypt-to'
     Disable the use of all `--encrypt-to' and `--hidden-encrypt-to'
     keys.

`--group `name=value1 ''
     Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email
     programs.  Any time the group name is a recipient (`-r' or
     `--recipient'), it will be expanded to the values specified.
     Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into a
     single group.

     The values are `key IDs' or fingerprints, but any key description
     is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated as
     two different values. Note also there is only one level of
     expansion -- you cannot make an group that points to another
     group. When used from the command line, it may be necessary to
     quote the argument to this option to prevent the shell from
     treating it as multiple arguments.

`--ungroup `name''
     Remove a given entry from the `--group' list.

`--no-groups'
     Remove all entries from the `--group' list.

`--local-user NAME'
`-u'
     Use NAME as the key to sign with. Note that this option overrides
     `--default-key'.

`--try-all-secrets'
     Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all
     secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key. This option
     forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients (created by
     using `--throw-keyids') and might come handy in case where an
     encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Input and Output,  Next: OpenPGP Options,  Prev: GPG Key related Options,  Up: GPG Options

3.2.3 Input and Output
----------------------

`--armor'
`-a'
     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the binary
     OpenPGP format.

`--no-armor'
     Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

`--output FILE'
`-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE.

`--max-output `n''
     This option sets a limit on the number of bytes that will be
     generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
     levels of compression, it is possible that the plaintext of a
     given message may be significantly larger than the original
     OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,
     there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be
     generated before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.
     Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

`--import-options `parameters''
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     importing keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the
     opposite meaning. The options are:

    import-local-sigs
          Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

    repair-pks-subkey-bug
          During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the PKS
          keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys with
          multiple subkeys. Note that this cannot completely repair the
          damaged key as some crucial data is removed by the keyserver,
          but it does at least give you back one subkey. Defaults to no
          for regular `--import' and to yes for keyserver `--recv-keys'.

    merge-only
          During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do not
          allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

    import-clean
          After import, compact (remove all signatures except the
          self-signature) any user IDs from the new key that are not
          usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key that
          are not usable.  This includes signatures that were issued by
          keys that are not present on the keyring. This option is the
          same as running the `--edit-key' command "clean" after
          import. Defaults to no.

    import-minimal
          Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the `--edit-key' command
          "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

`--export-options `parameters''
     This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
     exporting keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give the
     opposite meaning. The options are:

    export-local-sigs
          Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is not
          generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is being used.
          Defaults to no.

    export-attributes
          Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting. This
          is useful to export keys if they are going to be used by an
          OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute user IDs.
          Defaults to yes.

    export-sensitive-revkeys
          Include designated revoker information that was marked as
          "sensitive". Defaults to no.

    export-reset-subkey-passwd
          When using the `--export-secret-subkeys' command, this option
          resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to empty.
          This is useful when the exported subkey is to be used on an
          unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't necessarily
          make sense. Defaults to no.

    export-clean
          Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key being
          exported if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do not export
          any signatures that are not usable. This includes signatures
          that were issued by keys that are not present on the keyring.
          This option is the same as running the `--edit-key' command
          "clean" before export except that the local copy of the key
          is not modified. Defaults to no.

    export-minimal
          Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signatures
          except the most recent self-signature on each user ID. This
          option is the same as running the `--edit-key' command
          "minimize" before export except that the local copy of the
          key is not modified. Defaults to no.

`--with-colons'
     Print key listings delimited by colons. Note that the output will
     be encoded in UTF-8 regardless of any `--display-charset' setting.
     This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts and other
     programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details of this
     format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which is included
     in the GnuPG source distribution.

`--fixed-list-mode'
     Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in `--with-colon'
     listing mode and print all timestamps as seconds since 1970-01-01.
     Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is always used and thus this option
     is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

`--with-fingerprint'
     Same as the command `--fingerprint' but changes only the format of
     the output and may be used together with another command.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Options,  Next: GPG Esoteric Options,  Prev: GPG Input and Output,  Up: GPG Options

3.2.4 OpenPGP protocol specific options.
----------------------------------------

`-t, --textmode'
`--no-textmode'
     Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canonical
     text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also sets the
     necessary flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted or
     signed data is text and may need its line endings converted back
     to whatever the local system uses. This option is useful when
     communicating between two platforms that have different line
     ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
     `--no-textmode' disables this option, and is the default.

`--force-v3-sigs'
`--no-force-v3-sigs'
     OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4 signatures
     but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures on key
     material. This option forces v3 signatures for signatures on data.
     Note that this option implies `--ask-sig-expire',
     `--sig-policy-url', `--sig-notation', and `--sig-keyserver-url',
     as these features cannot be used with v3 signatures.
     `--no-force-v3-sigs' disables this option.

`--force-v4-certs'
`--no-force-v4-certs'
     Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This option also
     changes the default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
     SHA-1.  `--no-force-v4-certs' disables this option.

`--force-mdc'
     Force the use of encryption with a modification detection code.
     This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a blocksize
     greater than 64 bits), or if all of the recipient keys indicate
     MDC support in their feature flags.

`--disable-mdc'
     Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
     using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
     message modification attack.

`--personal-cipher-preferences `string''
     Set the list of personal cipher preferences to `string'.  Use
     `gpg2 --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use
     `none' to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to
     safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key
     preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by
     all recipients.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is also
     used for the `--symmetric' encryption command.

`--personal-digest-preferences `string''
     Set the list of personal digest preferences to `string'.  Use
     `gpg2 --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use
     `none' to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to
     safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key
     preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by
     all recipients.  The most highly ranked digest algorithm in this
     list is also used when signing without encryption (e.g.
     `--clearsign' or `--sign'). The default value is SHA-1.

`--personal-compress-preferences `string''
     Set the list of personal compression preferences to `string'.  Use
     `gpg2 --version' to get a list of available algorithms, and use
     `none' to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to
     safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key
     preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable
     by all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm
     in this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to
     consider (e.g. `--symmetric').

`--s2k-cipher-algo `name''
     Use `name' as the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
     The default cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used for
     conventional encryption if `--personal-cipher-preferences' and
     `--cipher-algo' is not given.

`--s2k-digest-algo `name''
     Use `name' as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
     The default algorithm is SHA-1.

`--s2k-mode `n''
     Selects how passphrases are mangled. If `n' is 0 a plain
     passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a
     salt to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole
     process a number of times (see -s2k-count).  Unless `--rfc1991' is
     used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

`--s2k-count `n''
     Specify how many times the passphrase mangling is repeated.  This
     value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive, and the
     default is 65536.  Note that not all values in the 1024-65011712
     range are legal and if an illegal value is selected, GnuPG will
     round up to the nearest legal value.  This option is only
     meaningful if `--s2k-mode' is 3.


3.2.5 Compliance options
------------------------

These options control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these
options may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

`--gnupg'
     Use standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behavior
     (see `--openpgp'), but with some additional workarounds for common
     compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This is the
     default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may be
     useful to override a different compliance option in the gpg.conf
     file.

`--openpgp'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
     behavior. Use this option to reset all previous options like
     `--s2k-*', `--cipher-algo', `--digest-algo' and `--compress-algo'
     to OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

`--rfc4880'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
     behavior. Note that this is currently the same thing as
     `--openpgp'.

`--rfc2440'
     Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
     behavior.

`--rfc1991'
     Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.

`--pgp2'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and
     warn if an action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key) that
     will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to handle.
     Note that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are other
     versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is a good
     common baseline.

     This option implies `--rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
     --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --cipher-algo IDEA
     --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP'. It also disables
     `--textmode' when encrypting.

`--pgp6'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This
     restricts you to the ciphers IDEA (if the IDEA plugin is
     installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
     and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
     -throw-keyids, and making signatures with signing subkeys as PGP 6
     does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

     This option implies `--disable-mdc --escape-from-lines
     --force-v3-sigs'.

`--pgp7'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
     identical to `--pgp6' except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
     list of allowable ciphers is expanded to add AES128, AES192,
     AES256, and TWOFISH.

`--pgp8'
     Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8 is
     a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions of
     PGP, so all this does is disable `--throw-keyids' and set
     `--escape-from-lines'.  All algorithms are allowed except for the
     SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Esoteric Options,  Prev: OpenPGP Options,  Up: GPG Options

3.2.6 Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.
--------------------------------------------------

`-n'
`--dry-run'
     Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

`--list-only'
     Changes the behaviour of some commands. This is like `--dry-run'
     but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
     extended in the future. Currently it only skips the actual
     decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of the
     encryption keys.

`-i'
`--interactive'
     Prompt before overwriting any files.

`--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems. LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

    `none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.

    `basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

`--debug FLAGS'
     Set debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and FLAGS may be given in
     C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).

`--debug-all'
     Set all useful debugging flags.

`--enable-progress-filter'
     Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows
     frontends to display a progress indicator while gpg is processing
     larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using it.

`--status-fd `n''
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor `n'.  See the
     file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

`--status-file `file''
     Same as `--status-fd', except the status data is written to file
     `file'.

`--logger-fd `n''
     Write log output to file descriptor `n' and not to STDERR.

`--log-file `file''
`--logger-file `file''
     Same as `--logger-fd', except the logger data is written to file
     `file'.  Note that `--log-file' is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

`--attribute-fd `n''
     Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor `n'. This is most
     useful for use with `--status-fd', since the status messages are
     needed to separate out the various subpackets from the stream
     delivered to the file descriptor.

`--attribute-file `file''
     Same as `--attribute-fd', except the attribute data is written to
     file `file'.

`--comment `string''
`--no-comments'
     Use `string' as a comment string in clear text signatures and ASCII
     armored messages or keys (see `--armor'). The default behavior is
     not to use a comment string. `--comment' may be repeated multiple
     times to get multiple comment strings. `--no-comments' removes all
     comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a single comment
     below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail programs wrapping
     such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all other header lines,
     are not protected by the signature.

`--emit-version'
`--no-emit-version'
     Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.
     `--no-emit-version' disables this option.

`--sig-notation `name=value''
`--cert-notation `name=value''
`-N, --set-notation `name=value''
     Put the name value pair into the signature as notation data.
     `name' must consist only of printable characters or spaces, and
     must contain a '@' character in the form keyname AT domain.com
     (substituting the appropriate keyname and domain name, of course).
     This is to help prevent pollution of the IETF reserved notation
     namespace. The `--expert' flag overrides the '@' check. `value'
     may be any printable string; it will be encoded in UTF8, so you
     should check that your `--display-charset' is set correctly. If
     you prefix `name' with an exclamation mark (!), the notation data
     will be flagged as critical (rfc2440:5.2.3.15). `--sig-notation'
     sets a notation for data signatures. `--cert-notation' sets a
     notation for key signatures (certifications). `--set-notation'
     sets both.

     There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
     will be expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
     into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the
     fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the
     key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key
     making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key making
     the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the fingerprint
     of the primary key of the key making the signature, "%c" into the
     signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and "%%" results in a
     single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful when making a key
     signature (certification), and %c is only meaningful when using
     the OpenPGP smartcard.

`--sig-policy-url `string''
`--cert-policy-url `string''
`--set-policy-url `string''
     Use `string' as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc2440:5.2.3.19).  If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL packet
     will be flagged as critical. `--sig-policy-url' sets a policy url
     for data signatures. `--cert-policy-url' sets a policy url for key
     signatures (certifications). `--set-policy-url' sets both.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

`--sig-keyserver-url `string''
     Use `string' as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
     you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL
     packet will be flagged as critical.

     The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
     well.

`--set-filename `string''
     Use `string' as the filename which is stored inside messages.
     This overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename of
     the file being encrypted.

`--for-your-eyes-only'
`--no-for-your-eyes-only'
     Set the `for your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes
     GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the `--output' option is
     given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed
     Tempest-resistant font to display the message. This option
     overrides `--set-filename'.  `--no-for-your-eyes-only' disables
     this option.

`--use-embedded-filename'
`--no-use-embedded-filename'
     Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This can
     be a dangerous option as it allows to overwrite files. Defaults to
     no.

`--cipher-algo `name''
     Use `name' as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the
     command `--version' yields a list of supported algorithms. If this
     is not used the cipher algorithm is selected from the preferences
     stored with the key. In general, you do not want to use this
     option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     `--personal-cipher-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

`--digest-algo `name''
     Use `name' as the message digest algorithm. Running the program
     with the command `--version' yields a list of supported
     algorithms. In general, you do not want to use this option as it
     allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     `--personal-digest-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish the
     same thing.

`--compress-algo `name''
     Use compression algorithm `name'. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB
     compression. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by
     PGP.  "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme that can
     compress some things better than zip or zlib, but at the cost of
     more memory used during compression and decompression.
     "uncompressed" or "none" disables compression. If this option is
     not used, the default behavior is to examine the recipient key
     preferences to see which algorithms the recipient supports. If all
     else fails, ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

     ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the
     compression window size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
     better compression results than that, but will use a significantly
     larger amount of memory while compressing and decompressing. This
     may be significant in low memory situations. Note, however, that
     PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression. Using any
     algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the message
     unreadable with PGP. In general, you do not want to use this
     option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.
     `--personal-compress-preferences' is the safe way to accomplish
     the same thing.

`--cert-digest-algo `name''
     Use `name' as the message digest algorithm used when signing a
     key. Running the program with the command `--version' yields a
     list of supported algorithms. Be aware that if you choose an
     algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations do
     not, then some users will not be able to use the key signatures
     you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

`--disable-cipher-algo `name''
     Never allow the use of `name' as cipher algorithm.  The given name
     will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
     get disabled.

`--disable-pubkey-algo `name''
     Never allow the use of `name' as public key algorithm.  The given
     name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
     still get disabled.

`--throw-keyids'
`--no-throw-keyids'
     Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This
     helps to hide the receivers of the message and is a limited
     countermeasure against traffic analysis.(1)  On the receiving
     side, it may slow down the decryption process because all
     available secret keys must be tried.  `--no-throw-keyids' disables
     this option. This option is essentially the same as using
     `--hidden-recipient' for all recipients.

`--not-dash-escaped'
     This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
     they can be used for patch files. You should not send such an
     armored file via email because all spaces and line endings are
     hashed too. You can not use this option for data which has 5
     dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this. A
     special armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
     signature option.

`--escape-from-lines'
`--no-escape-from-lines'
     Because some mailers change lines starting with "From " to ">From
     " it is good to handle such lines in a special way when creating
     cleartext signatures to prevent the mail system from breaking the
     signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it this way too.
     Enabled by default. `--no-escape-from-lines' disables this option.

`--passphrase-repeat `n''
     Specify how many times `gpg2' will request a new passphrase be
     repeated.  This is useful for helping memorize a passphrase.
     Defaults to 1 repetition.

`--passphrase-fd `n''
     Read the passphrase from file descriptor `n'. Only the first line
     will be read from file descriptor `n'. If you use 0 for `n', the
     passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if only
     one passphrase is supplied.  Note that this passphrase is only
     used if the option `--batch' has also been given.  This is
     different from `gpg'.

`--passphrase-file `file''
     Read the passphrase from file `file'. Only the first line will be
     read from file `file'. This can only be used if only one
     passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file is
     of questionable security if other users can read this file. Don't
     use this option if you can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is
     only used if the option `--batch' has also been given.  This is
     different from `gpg'.

`--passphrase `string''
     Use `string' as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
     passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very questionable
     security on a multi-user system. Don't use this option if you can
     avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is only used if the option
     `--batch' has also been given.  This is different from `gpg'.

`--command-fd `n''
     This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
     If this option is enabled, user input on questions is not expected
     from the TTY but from the given file descriptor. It should be used
     together with `--status-fd'. See the file doc/DETAILS in the source
     distribution for details on how to use it.

`--command-file `file''
     Same as `--command-fd', except the commands are read out of file
     `file'

`--allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
`--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid'
     Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not
     self-signed. This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user ID
     is trivial to forge. `--no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid' disables.

`--allow-freeform-uid'
     Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
     new one. This option should only be used in very special
     environments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
     user IDs.

`--ignore-time-conflict'
     GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and
     signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a signature
     seems to be older than the key due to clock problems. This option
     makes these checks just a warning. See also `--ignore-valid-from'
     for timestamp issues on subkeys.

`--ignore-valid-from'
     GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the
     future.  This option allows the use of such keys and thus exhibits
     the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option unless you
     there is some clock problem. See also `--ignore-time-conflict' for
     timestamp issues with signatures.

`--ignore-crc-error'
     The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
     against transmission errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
     somewhere on the transmission channel but the actual content
     (which is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still okay.
     This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

`--ignore-mdc-error'
     This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a
     warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt,
     but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the
     corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection failure
     may also mean that the message was tampered with intentionally by
     an attacker.

`--no-default-keyring'
     Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note that
     GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use this
     option and do not provide alternate keyrings via `--keyring' or
     `--secret-keyring', then GnuPG will still use the default public or
     secret keyrings.

`--skip-verify'
     Skip the signature verification step. This may be used to make the
     decryption faster if the signature verification is not needed.

`--with-key-data'
     Print key listings delimited by colons (like `--with-colons') and
     print the public key data.

`--fast-list-mode'
     Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
     achieved by leaving some parts empty. Some applications don't need
     the user ID and the trust information given in the listings. By
     using this options they can get a faster listing. The exact
     behaviour of this option may change in future versions.  If you
     are missing some information, don't use this option.

`--no-literal'
     This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

`--set-filesize'
     This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
     might be useful.

`--show-session-key'
     Display the session key used for one message. See
     `--override-session-key' for the counterpart of this option.

     We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
     have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
     the content of one specific message without compromising all
     messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS
     YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

`--override-session-key `string''
     Don't use the public key but the session key `string'. The format
     of this string is the same as the one printed by
     `--show-session-key'. This option is normally not used but comes
     handy in case someone forces you to reveal the content of an
     encrypted message; using this option you can do this without
     handing out the secret key.

`--ask-sig-expire'
`--no-ask-sig-expire'
     When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
     this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     `--default-sig-expire' is used. `--no-ask-sig-expire' disables
     this option. Note that by default, `--force-v3-sigs' is set which
     also disables this option. If you want signature expiration, you
     must set `--no-force-v3-sigs' as well as turning
     `--ask-sig-expire' on.

`--default-sig-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for signature expiration. Valid
     values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the letter d
     (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for years) (for
     example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years), or an
     absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

`--ask-cert-expire'
`--no-ask-cert-expire'
     When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If this
     option is not specified, the expiration time set via
     `--default-cert-expire' is used. `--no-ask-cert-expire' disables
     this option.

`--default-cert-expire'
     The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
     Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
     letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
     years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five years),
     or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to "0".

`--allow-secret-key-import'
     This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

`--allow-multiple-messages'

`--no-allow-multiple-messages'
     Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a
     single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not
     prepared to deal with multiple messages being processed together,
     so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG prior to
     1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

     Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a temporary
     workaround!

`--enable-special-filenames'
     This options enables a mode in which filenames of the form `-&n',
     where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the file
     descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

`--no-expensive-trust-checks'
     Experimental use only.

`--preserve-permissions'
     Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user
     read/write only. Use this option only if you really know what you
     are doing.

`--default-preference-list `string''
     Set the list of default preferences to `string'. This preference
     list is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref" in
     the edit menu.

`--default-keyserver-url `name''
     Set the default keyserver URL to `name'. This keyserver will be
     used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
     key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

`--list-config'
     Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
     option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to
     perform tasks, and is thus not generally useful. See the file
     `doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of which
     configuration items may be listed. `--list-config' is only usable
     with `--with-colons' set.

`--gpgconf-list'
     This command is similar to `--list-config' but in general only
     internally used by the `gpgconf' tool.

`--gpgconf-test'
     This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the
     configuration file and returns with failure if the configuration
     file would prevent `gpg' from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
     a syntax check on the configuration file.


3.2.7 Deprecated options
------------------------

`--show-photos'
`--no-show-photos'
     Causes `--list-keys', `--list-sigs', `--list-public-keys',
     `--list-secret-keys', and verifying a signature to also display
     the photo ID attached to the key, if any. See also
     `--photo-viewer'. These options are deprecated. Use
     `--list-options [no-]show-photos' and/or `--verify-options
     [no-]show-photos' instead.

`--show-keyring'
     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show which
     keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated: use
     `--list-options [no-]show-keyring' instead.

`--always-trust'
     Identical to `--trust-model always'. This option is deprecated.

`--show-notation'
`--no-show-notation'
     Show signature notations in the `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs'
     listings as well as when verifying a signature with a notation in
     it. These options are deprecated. Use `--list-options
     [no-]show-notation' and/or `--verify-options [no-]show-notation'
     instead.

`--show-policy-url'
`--no-show-policy-url'
     Show policy URLs in the `--list-sigs' or `--check-sigs' listings
     as well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL in it.
     These options are deprecated. Use `--list-options
     [no-]show-policy-url' and/or `--verify-options
     [no-]show-policy-url' instead.


   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Using a little social engineering anyone who is able to decrypt
the message can check whether one of the other recipients is the one he
suspects.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Configuration,  Next: GPG Examples,  Prev: GPG Options,  Up: Invoking GPG

3.3 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
`gpg2''s operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
directory (*note option --homedir::).

`gpg.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by `gpg2' on startup.
     It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
     not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This default
     name may be changed on the command line (*note option --options::).
     You should backup this file.


   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the a small
helper script is provided to create these files (*note addgnupghome::).

   For internal purposes `gpg2' creates and maintains a few other
files; They all live in in the current home directory (*note option
--homedir::).  Only the `gpg2' may modify these files.

`~/.gnupg/secring.gpg'
     The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

`~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the secret keyring.

`~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg'
     The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

`~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the public keyring.

`~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg'
     The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
     better to backup the ownertrust values (*note option
     --export-ownertrust::).

`~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock'
     The lock file for the trust database.

`~/.gnupg/random_seed'
     A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

`/usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel'
     The skeleton options file.

`/usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/'
     Default location for extensions.


   Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

HOME
     Used to locate the default home directory.

GNUPGHOME
     If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

GPG_AGENT_INFO
     Used to locate the gpg-agent.  The value consists of 3 colon
     delimited fields: The first is the path to the Unix Domain Socket,
     the second the PID of the gpg-agent and the protocol version which
     should be set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent as described in
     its documentation, this variable is set to the correct value. The
     option `--gpg-agent-info' can be used to override it.

PINENTRY_USER_DATA
     This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
     convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

COLUMNS
LINES
     Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

LANGUAGE
     Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
     override the language selection done through the Registry.  If
     used and set to a valid and available language name (LANGID), the
     file with the translation is loaded from
     `GPGDIR/gnupg.nls/LANGID.mo'.  Here GPGDIR is the directory out of
     which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
     Registry is tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
     system is used.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPG Examples,  Prev: GPG Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPG

3.4 Examples
============

gpg -se -r `Bob' `file'
     sign and encrypt for user Bob

gpg -clearsign `file'
     make a clear text signature

gpg -sb `file'
     make a detached signature

gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb `file'
     make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

gpg -list-keys `user_ID'
     show keys

gpg -fingerprint `user_ID'
     show fingerprint

gpg -verify `pgpfile'
gpg -verify `sigfile'
     Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
     second form is used for detached signatures, where `sigfile' is
     the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and are
     the signed data; if this is not given, the name of the file
     holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the
     extension (".asc" or ".sig") of `sigfile' or by asking the user
     for the filename.

RETURN VALUE
************

The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
********

Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
protect your secret key. This passphrase is the weakest part of the
whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
are very easy to write and so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
directory very well.

   Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet),
it is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

   If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the
program knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line
or use `-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS
********************************************

GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP
standard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of
the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2
compression algorithms. It is important to be aware that not all
OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by
forcing their use via the `--cipher-algo', `--digest-algo',
`--cert-digest-algo', or `--compress-algo' options in GnuPG, it is
possible to create a perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that
cannot be read by the intended recipient.

   There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and
each supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.
For example, until recently, no (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP
preferences system that will always do the right thing and create
messages that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP
program they use. Only override this safe default if you really know
what you are doing.

   If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the
preferences on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far
better off using the `--pgp6', `--pgp7', or `--pgp8' options. These
options are safe as they do not force any particular algorithms in
violation of OpenPGP, but rather reduce the available algorithms to a
"PGP-safe" list.

BUGS
****

On many systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
is necessary to lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
operating system from writing memory pages (which may contain
passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking
without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
memory is allocated.

   Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
"suspend to disk" (also known as "safe sleep" or "hibernate").  This
writes all memory to disk before going into a low power or even powered
off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to protect
the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may be
recoverable from it later.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking GPGSM,  Next: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Prev: Invoking GPG,  Up: Top

4 Invoking GPGSM
****************

`gpgsm' is a tool similar to `gpg' to provide digital encryption and
signing services on X.509 certificates and the CMS protocol.  It is
mainly used as a backend for S/MIME mail processing.  `gpgsm' includes
a full features certificate management and complies with all rules
defined for the German Sphinx project.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to `GPGSM''s commands and options.

* Menu:

* GPGSM Commands::        List of all commands.
* GPGSM Options::         List of all options.
* GPGSM Configuration::   Configuration files.
* GPGSM Examples::        Some usage examples.

Developer information:
* Unattended Usage::      Using `gpgsm' from other programs.
* GPGSM Protocol::        The protocol the server mode uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Commands,  Next: GPGSM Options,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

* Menu:

* General GPGSM Commands::        Commands not specific to the functionality.
* Operational GPGSM Commands::    Commands to select the type of operation.
* Certificate Management::        How to manage certificates.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: General GPGSM Commands,  Next: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

4.1.1 Commands not specific to the function
-------------------------------------------

`--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

`--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

`--warranty'
     Print warranty information.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this
     command.

`--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that you
     cannot abbreviate this command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Next: Certificate Management,  Prev: General GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

4.1.2 Commands to select the type of operation
----------------------------------------------

`--encrypt'
     Perform an encryption.  The keys the data is encrypted too must be
     set using the option `--recipient'.

`--decrypt'
     Perform a decryption; the type of input is automatically
     determined.  It may either be in binary form or PEM encoded;
     automatic determination of base-64 encoding is not done.

`--sign'
     Create a digital signature.  The key used is either the fist one
     found in the keybox or those set with the `--local-user' option.

`--verify'
     Check a signature file for validity.  Depending on the arguments a
     detached signature may also be checked.

`--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the `stdin'.

`--call-dirmngr COMMAND [ARGS]'
     Behave as a Dirmngr client issuing the request COMMAND with the
     optional list of ARGS.  The output of the Dirmngr is printed
     stdout.  Please note that file names given as arguments should
     have an absolute file name (i.e. commencing with `/' because they
     are passed verbatim to the Dirmngr and the working directory of the
     Dirmngr might not be the same as the one of this client.
     Currently it is not possible to pass data via stdin to the
     Dirmngr.  COMMAND should not contain spaces.

     This is command is required for certain maintaining tasks of the
     dirmngr where a dirmngr must be able to call back to `gpgsm'.  See
     the Dirmngr manual for details.

`--call-protect-tool ARGUMENTS'
     Certain maintenance operations are done by an external program call
     `gpg-protect-tool'; this is usually not installed in a directory
     listed in the PATH variable.  This command provides a simple
     wrapper to access this tool.  ARGUMENTS are passed verbatim to
     this command; use `--help' to get a list of supported operations.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Certificate Management,  Prev: Operational GPGSM Commands,  Up: GPGSM Commands

4.1.3 How to manage the certificates and keys
---------------------------------------------

`--gen-key'
     This command allows the creation of a certificate signing request.
     It is commonly used along with the `--output' option to save the
     created CSR into a file.  If used with the `--batch' a parameter
     file is used to create the CSR.

`--list-keys'
`-k'
     List all available certificates stored in the local key database.
     Note that the displayed data might be reformatted for better human
     readability and illegal characters are replaced by safe
     substitutes.

`--list-secret-keys'
`-K'
     List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret
     key is available.

`--list-external-keys PATTERN'
     List certificates matching PATTERN using an external server.  This
     utilizes the `dirmngr' service.

`--list-chain'
     Same as `--list-keys' but also prints all keys making up the chain.

`--dump-cert'
`--dump-keys'
     List all available certificates stored in the local key database
     using a format useful mainly for debugging.

`--dump-chain'
     Same as `--dump-keys' but also prints all keys making up the chain.

`--dump-secret-keys'
     List all available certificates for which a corresponding a secret
     key is available using a format useful mainly for debugging.

`--dump-external-keys PATTERN'
     List certificates matching PATTERN using an external server.  This
     utilizes the `dirmngr' service.  It uses a format useful mainly
     for debugging.

`--keydb-clear-some-cert-flags'
     This is a debugging aid to reset certain flags in the key database
     which are used to cache certain certificate stati.  It is
     especially useful if a bad CRL or a weird running OCSP responder
     did accidentally revoke certificate.  There is no security issue
     with this command because `gpgsm' always make sure that the
     validity of a certificate is checked right before it is used.

`--delete-keys PATTERN'
     Delete the keys matching PATTERN.  Note that there is no command
     to delete the secret part of the key directly.  In case you need
     to do this, you should run the command `gpgsm --dump-secret-keys
     KEYID' before you delete the key, copy the string of hex-digits in
     the "keygrip" line and delete the file consisting of these
     hex-digits and the suffix `.key' from the `private-keys-v1.d'
     directory below our GnuPG home directory (usually `~/.gnupg').

`--export [PATTERN]'
     Export all certificates stored in the Keybox or those specified by
     the optional PATTERN. Those pattern consist of a list of user ids
     (*note how-to-specify-a-user-id::).  When used along with the
     `--armor' option a few informational lines are prepended before
     each block.  There is one limitation: As there is no commonly
     agreed upon way to pack more than one certificate into an ASN.1
     structure, the binary export (i.e. without using `armor') works
     only for the export of one certificate.  Thus it is required to
     specify a PATTERN which yields exactly one certificate.  Ephemeral
     certificate are only exported if all PATTERN are given as
     fingerprints or keygrips.

`--export-secret-key-p12 KEY-ID'
     Export the private key and the certificate identified by KEY-ID in
     a PKCS#12 format. When using along with the `--armor' option a few
     informational lines are prepended to the output.  Note, that the
     PKCS#12 format is not very secure and this command is only
     provided if there is no other way to exchange the private key.
     (*note option --p12-charset::)

`--import [FILES]'
     Import the certificates from the PEM or binary encoded files as
     well as from signed-only messages.  This command may also be used
     to import a secret key from a PKCS#12 file.

`--learn-card'
     Read information about the private keys from the smartcard and
     import the certificates from there.  This command utilizes the
     `gpg-agent' and in turn the `scdaemon'.

`--passwd USER_ID'
     Change the passphrase of the private key belonging to the
     certificate specified as USER_ID.  Note, that changing the
     passphrase/PIN of a smartcard is not yet supported.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Options,  Next: GPGSM Configuration,  Prev: GPGSM Commands,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.2 Option Summary
==================

`GPGSM' comes features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour
and to change the default configuration.

* Menu:

* Configuration Options::   How to change the configuration.
* Certificate Options::     Certificate related options.
* Input and Output::        Input and Output.
* CMS Options::             How to change how the CMS is created.
* Esoteric Options::        Doing things one usually don't want to do.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Configuration Options,  Next: Certificate Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

4.2.1 How to change the configuration
-------------------------------------

These options are used to change the configuration and are usually found
in the option file.

`--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     `gpgsm.conf' and expected in the `.gnupg' directory directly below
     the home directory of the user.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`-v'

`--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase
     the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to `gpgsm', such
     as `-vv'.

`--policy-file FILENAME'
     Change the default name of the policy file to FILENAME.

`--agent-program FILE'
     Specify an agent program to be used for secret key operations.  The
     default value is the `/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent'.  This is only used
     as a fallback when the environment variable `GPG_AGENT_INFO' is not
     set or a running agent can't be connected.

`--dirmngr-program FILE'
     Specify a dirmngr program to be used for CRL checks.  The default
     value is `/usr/sbin/dirmngr'.  This is only used as a fallback
     when the environment variable `DIRMNGR_INFO' is not set or a
     running dirmngr can't be connected.

`--prefer-system-dirmngr'
     If a system wide `dirmngr' is running in daemon mode, first try to
     connect to this one.  Fallback to a pipe based server if this does
     not work.  Under Windows this option is ignored because the system
     dirmngr is always used.

`--disable-dirmngr'
     Entirely disable the use of the Dirmngr.

`--no-secmem-warning'
     Don't print a warning when the so called "secure memory" can't be
     used.

`--log-file FILE'
     When running in server mode, append all logging output to FILE.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Certificate Options,  Next: Input and Output,  Prev: Configuration Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

4.2.2 Certificate related options
---------------------------------

`--enable-policy-checks'
`--disable-policy-checks'
     By default policy checks are enabled.  These options may be used to
     change it.

`--enable-crl-checks'
`--disable-crl-checks'
     By default the CRL checks are enabled and the DirMngr is used to
     check for revoked certificates.  The disable option is most useful
     with an off-line network connection to suppress this check.

`--enable-trusted-cert-crl-check'
`--disable-trusted-cert-crl-check'
     By default the CRL for trusted root certificates are checked like
     for any other certificates.  This allows a CA to revoke its own
     certificates voluntary without the need of putting all ever issued
     certificates into a CRL.  The disable option may be used to switch
     this extra check off.  Due to the caching done by the Dirmngr,
     there won't be any noticeable performance gain.  Note, that this
     also disables possible OCSP checks for trusted root certificates.
     A more specific way of disabling this check is by adding the
     "relax" keyword to the root CA line of the `trustlist.txt'

`--force-crl-refresh'
     Tell the dirmngr to reload the CRL for each request.  For better
     performance, the dirmngr will actually optimize this by suppressing
     the loading for short time intervals (e.g. 30 minutes). This option
     is useful to make sure that a fresh CRL is available for
     certificates hold in the keybox.  The suggested way of doing this
     is by using it along with the option `--with-validation' for a key
     listing command.  This option should not be used in a
     configuration file.

`--enable-ocsp'
`--disable-ocsp'
     Be default OCSP checks are disabled.  The enable option may be
     used to enable OCSP checks via Dirmngr.  If CRL checks are also
     enabled, CRLs will be used as a fallback if for some reason an
     OCSP request won't succeed.  Note, that you have to allow OCSP
     requests in Dirmngr's configuration too (option `--allow-ocsp' and
     configure dirmngr properly.  If you don't do so you will get the
     error code `Not supported'.

`--auto-issuer-key-retrieve'
     If a required certificate is missing while validating the chain of
     certificates, try to load that certificate from an external
     location.  This usually means that Dirmngr is employed to search
     for the certificate.  Note that this option makes a "web bug" like
     behavior possible.  LDAP server operators can see which keys you
     request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand new key
     (which you naturally will not have on your local keybox), the
     operator can tell both your IP address and the time when you
     verified the signature.

`--validation-model NAME'
     This option changes the default validation model.  The only
     possible values are "shell" (which is the default) and "chain"
     which forces the use of the chain model.  The chain model is also
     used if an option in the `trustlist.txt' or an attribute of the
     certificate requests it.  However the standard model (shell) is in
     that case always tried first.

`--ignore-cert-extension OID'
     Add OID to the list of ignored certificate extensions.  The OID is
     expected to be in dotted decimal form, like `2.5.29.3'.  This
     option may used more than once.  Critical flagged certificate
     extensions matching one of the OIDs in the list are treated as if
     they are actually handled and thus the certificate won't be
     rejected due to an unknown critical extension.  Use this option
     with care because extensions are usually flagged as critical for a
     reason.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Input and Output,  Next: CMS Options,  Prev: Certificate Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

4.2.3 Input and Output
----------------------

`--armor'
`-a'
     Create PEM encoded output.  Default is binary output.

`--base64'
     Create Base-64 encoded output; i.e. PEM without the header lines.

`--assume-armor'
     Assume the input data is PEM encoded.  Default is to autodetect the
     encoding but this is may fail.

`--assume-base64'
     Assume the input data is plain base-64 encoded.

`--assume-binary'
     Assume the input data is binary encoded.

`--p12-charset NAME'
     `gpgsm' uses the UTF-8 encoding when encoding passphrases for
     PKCS#12 files.  This option may be used to force the passphrase to
     be encoded in the specified encoding NAME.  This is useful if the
     application used to import the key uses a different encoding and
     thus won't be able to import a file generated by `gpgsm'.  Commonly
     used values for NAME are `Latin1' and `CP850'.  Note that `gpgsm'
     itself automagically imports any file with a passphrase encoded to
     the most commonly used encodings.

`--default-key USER_ID'
     Use USER_ID as the standard key for signing.  This key is used if
     no other key has been defined as a signing key.  Note, that the
     first `--local-users' option also sets this key if it has not yet
     been set; however `--default-key' always overrides this.

`--local-user USER_ID'

`-u USER_ID'
     Set the user(s) to be used for signing.  The default is the first
     secret key found in the database.

`--recipient NAME'
`-r'
     Encrypt to the user id NAME.  There are several ways a user id may
     be given (*note how-to-specify-a-user-id::).

`--output FILE'
`-o FILE'
     Write output to FILE.  The default is to write it to stdout.

`--with-key-data'
     Displays extra information with the `--list-keys' commands.
     Especially a line tagged `grp' is printed which tells you the
     keygrip of a key.  This string is for example used as the file
     name of the secret key.

`--with-validation'
     When doing a key listing, do a full validation check for each key
     and print the result.  This is usually a slow operation because it
     requires a CRL lookup and other operations.

     When used along with -import, a validation of the certificate to
     import is done and only imported if it succeeds the test.  Note
     that this does not affect an already available certificate in the
     DB.  This option is therefore useful to simply verify a
     certificate.

`--with-md5-fingerprint'
     For standard key listings, also print the MD5 fingerprint of the
     certificate.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: CMS Options,  Next: Esoteric Options,  Prev: Input and Output,  Up: GPGSM Options

4.2.4 How to change how the CMS is created.
-------------------------------------------

`--include-certs N'
     Using N of -2 includes all certificate except for the root cert,
     -1 includes all certs, 0 does not include any certs, 1 includes
     only the signers cert (this is the default) and all other positive
     values include up to N certificates starting with the signer cert.
     The default is -2.

`--cipher-algo OID'
     Use the cipher algorithm with the ASN.1 object identifier OID for
     encryption.  For convenience the strings `3DES', `AES' and
     `AES256' may be used instead of their OIDs.  The default is `3DES'
     (1.2.840.113549.3.7).

`--digest-algo `name''
     Use `name' as the message digest algorithm.  Usually this
     algorithm is deduced from the respective signing certificate.  This
     option forces the use of the given algorithm and may lead to severe
     interoperability problems.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Esoteric Options,  Prev: CMS Options,  Up: GPGSM Options

4.2.5 Doing things one usually don't want to do.
------------------------------------------------

`--extra-digest-algo NAME'
     Sometimes signatures are broken in that they announce a different
     digest algorithm than actually used.  `gpgsm' uses a one-pass data
     processing model and thus needs to rely on the announced digest
     algorithms to properly hash the data.  As a workaround this option
     may be used to tell gpg to also hash the data using the algorithm
     NAME; this slows processing down a little bit but allows to verify
     such broken signatures.  If `gpgsm' prints an error like "digest
     algo 8 has not been enabled" you may want to try this option, with
     `SHA256' for NAME.

`--faked-system-time EPOCH'
     This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
     back or forth to EPOCH which is the number of seconds elapsed
     since the year 1970.  Alternatively EPOCH may be given as a full
     ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

`--with-ephemeral-keys'
     Include ephemeral flagged keys in the output of key listings.  Note
     that they are included anyway if the key specification for a
     listing is given as fingerprint or keygrip.

`--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems. LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or by a keyword:

    `none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.

    `basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

`--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
     change at any time without notice; using `--debug-levels' is the
     preferred method to select the debug verbosity.  FLAGS are bit
     encoded and may be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently defined
     bits are:

    `0  (1)'
          X.509 or OpenPGP protocol related data

    `1  (2)'
          values of big number integers

    `2  (4)'
          low level crypto operations

    `5  (32)'
          memory allocation

    `6  (64)'
          caching

    `7  (128)'
          show memory statistics.

    `9  (512)'
          write hashed data to files named `dbgmd-000*'

    `10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol

     Note, that all flags set using this option may get overridden by
     `--debug-level'.

`--debug-all'
     Same as `--debug=0xffffffff'

`--debug-allow-core-dump'
     Usually `gpgsm' tries to avoid dumping core by well written code
     and by disabling core dumps for security reasons.  However, bugs
     are pretty durable beasts and to squash them it is sometimes
     useful to have a core dump.  This option enables core dumps unless
     the Bad Thing happened before the option parsing.

`--debug-no-chain-validation'
     This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
     It lets `gpgsm' bypass all certificate chain validation checks.

`--debug-ignore-expiration'
     This is actually not a debugging option but only useful as such.
     It lets `gpgsm' ignore all notAfter dates, this is used by the
     regression tests.

`--fixed-passphrase STRING'
     Supply the passphrase STRING to the gpg-protect-tool.  This option
     is only useful for the regression tests included with this package
     and may be revised or removed at any time without notice.

`--no-common-certs-import'
     Suppress the import of common certificates on keybox creation.


   All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Configuration,  Next: GPGSM Examples,  Prev: GPGSM Options,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.3 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
`gpgsm''s operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current
home directory (*note option --homedir::).

`gpgsm.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by `gpgsm' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This default name may be changed on the command line (*note option
     --options::).  You should backup this file.

`policies.txt'
     This is a list of allowed CA policies.  This file should list the
     object identifiers of the policies line by line.  Empty lines and
     lines starting with a hash mark are ignored.  Policies missing in
     this file and not marked as critical in the certificate will print
     only a warning; certificates with policies marked as critical and
     not listed in this file will fail the signature verification.  You
     should backup this file.

     For example, to allow only the policy 2.289.9.9, the file should
     look like this:

          # Allowed policies
          2.289.9.9

`qualified.txt'
     This is the list of root certificates used for qualified
     certificates.  They are defined as certificates capable of
     creating legally binding signatures in the same way as handwritten
     signatures are.  Comments start with a hash mark and empty lines
     are ignored.  Lines do have a length limit but this is not a
     serious limitation as the format of the entries is fixed and
     checked by gpgsm: A non-comment line starts with optional
     whitespace, followed by exactly 40 hex character, white space and
     a lowercased 2 letter country code.  Additional data delimited with
     by a white space is current ignored but might late be used for
     other purposes.

     Note that even if a certificate is listed in this file, this does
     not mean that the certificate is trusted; in general the
     certificates listed in this file need to be listed also in
     `trustlist.txt'.

     This is a global file an installed in the data directory (e.g.
     `/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').  GnuPG installs a suitable file
     with root certificates as used in Germany.  As new Root-CA
     certificates may be issued over time, these entries may need to be
     updated; new distributions of this software should come with an
     updated list but it is still the responsibility of the
     Administrator to check that this list is correct.

     Everytime `gpgsm' uses a certificate for signing or verification
     this file will be consulted to check whether the certificate under
     question has ultimately been issued by one of these CAs.  If this
     is the case the user will be informed that the verified signature
     represents a legally binding ("qualified") signature.  When
     creating a signature using such a certificate an extra prompt will
     be issued to let the user confirm that such a legally binding
     signature shall really be created.

     Because this software has not yet been approved for use with such
     certificates, appropriate notices will be shown to indicate this
     fact.

`help.txt'
     This is plain text file with a few help entries used with
     `pinentry' as well as a large list of help items for `gpg' and
     `gpgsm'.  The standard file has English help texts; to install
     localized versions use filenames like `help.LL.txt' with LL
     denoting the locale.  GnuPG comes with a set of predefined help
     files in the data directory (e.g. `/usr/share/gnupg/help.de.txt')
     and allows overriding of any help item by help files stored in the
     system configuration directory (e.g. `/etc/gnupg/help.de.txt').
     For a reference of the help file's syntax, please see the installed
     `help.txt' file.

`com-certs.pem'
     This file is a collection of common certificates used to populated
     a newly created `pubring.kbx'.  An administrator may replace this
     file with a custom one.  The format is a concatenation of PEM
     encoded X.509 certificates.  This global file is installed in the
     data directory (e.g. `/usr/share/gnupg/qualified.txt').


   Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined
files into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users
start up with a working configuration.  For existing users a small
helper script is provided to create these files (*note addgnupghome::).

   For internal purposes gpgsm creates and maintains a few other files;
they all live in in the current home directory (*note option
--homedir::).  Only `gpgsm' may modify these files.

`pubring.kbx'
     This a database file storing the certificates as well as meta
     information.  For debugging purposes the tool `kbxutil' may be
     used to show the internal structure of this file.  You should
     backup this file.

`random_seed'
     This content of this file is used to maintain the internal state
     of the random number generator across invocations.  The same file
     is used by other programs of this software too.

`S.gpg-agent'
     If this file exists and the environment variable `GPG_AGENT_INFO'
     is not set, `gpgsm' will first try to connect to this socket for
     accessing `gpg-agent' before starting a new `gpg-agent' instance.
     Under Windows this socket (which in reality be a plain file
     describing a regular TCP listening port) is the standard way of
     connecting the `gpg-agent'.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Examples,  Next: Unattended Usage,  Prev: GPGSM Configuration,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.4 Examples
============

     $ gpgsm -er goo AT bar.net <plaintext >ciphertext

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Unattended Usage,  Next: GPGSM Protocol,  Prev: GPGSM Examples,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.5 Unattended Usage
====================

`gpgsm' is often used as a backend engine by other software.  To help
with this a machine interface has been defined to have an unambiguous
way to do this.  This is most likely used with the `--server' command
but may also be used in the standard operation mode by using the
`--status-fd' option.

* Menu:

* Automated signature checking::  Automated signature checking.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Automated signature checking,  Up: Unattended Usage

4.6 Automated signature checking
================================

It is very important to understand the semantics used with signature
verification.  Checking a signature is not as simple as it may sound and
so the operation is a bit complicated.  In most cases it is required to
look at several status lines.  Here is a table of all cases a signed
message may have:

The signature is valid
     This does mean that the signature has been successfully verified,
     the certificates are all sane.  However there are two subcases with
     important information:  One of the certificates may have expired
     or a signature of a message itself as expired.  It is a sound
     practise to consider such a signature still as valid but
     additional information should be displayed.  Depending on the
     subcase `gpgsm' will issue these status codes:
    signature valid and nothing did expire
          `GOODSIG', `VALIDSIG', `TRUST_FULLY'

    signature valid but at least one certificate has expired
          `EXPKEYSIG', `VALIDSIG', `TRUST_FULLY'

    signature valid but expired
          `EXPSIG', `VALIDSIG', `TRUST_FULLY'   Note, that this case is
          currently not implemented.

The signature is invalid
     This means that the signature verification failed (this is an
     indication of af a transfer error, a program error or tampering
     with the message).  `gpgsm' issues one of these status codes
     sequences:
    ``BADSIG''

    ``GOODSIG', `VALIDSIG' `TRUST_NEVER''

Error verifying a signature
     For some reason the signature could not be verified, i.e. it can't
     be decided whether the signature is valid or invalid.  A common
     reason for this is a missing certificate.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM Protocol,  Prev: Unattended Usage,  Up: Invoking GPGSM

4.7 The Protocol the Server Mode Uses.
======================================

Description of the protocol used to access `GPGSM'.  `GPGSM' does
implement the Assuan protocol and in addition provides a regular
command line interface which exhibits a full client to this protocol
(but uses internal linking).  To start `gpgsm' as a server the command
line the option `--server' must be used.  Additional options are
provided to select the communication method (i.e. the name of the
socket).

   We assume that the connection has already been established; see the
Assuan manual for details.

* Menu:

* GPGSM ENCRYPT::         Encrypting a message.
* GPGSM DECRYPT::         Decrypting a message.
* GPGSM SIGN::            Signing a message.
* GPGSM VERIFY::          Verifying a message.
* GPGSM GENKEY::          Generating a key.
* GPGSM LISTKEYS::        List available keys.
* GPGSM EXPORT::          Export certificates.
* GPGSM IMPORT::          Import certificates.
* GPGSM DELETE::          Delete certificates.
* GPGSM GETINFO::         Information about the process

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM ENCRYPT,  Next: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.1 Encrypting a Message
--------------------------

Before encryption can be done the recipient must be set using the
command:

       RECIPIENT USERID

   Set the recipient for the encryption.  USERID should be the internal
representation of the key; the server may accept any other way of
specification.  If this is a valid and trusted recipient the server
does respond with OK, otherwise the return is an ERR with the reason why
the recipient can't be used, the encryption will then not be done for
this recipient.  If the policy is not to encrypt at all if not all
recipients are valid, the client has to take care of this.  All
`RECIPIENT' commands are cumulative until a `RESET' or an successful
`ENCRYPT' command.

       INPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64|--binary]

   Set the file descriptor for the message to be encrypted to N.
Obviously the pipe must be open at that point, the server establishes
its own end.  If the server returns an error the client should consider
this session failed.  If N is not given, this commands uses the last
file descriptor passed to the application.  *Note the assuan_sendfd
function: (assuan)fun-assuan_sendfd, on how to do descriptor passing.

   The `--armor' option may be used to advice the server that the input
data is in PEM format, `--base64' advices that a raw base-64 encoding
is used, `--binary' advices of raw binary input (BER).  If none of
these options is used, the server tries to figure out the used
encoding, but this may not always be correct.

       OUTPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64]

   Set the file descriptor to be used for the output (i.e. the encrypted
message). Obviously the pipe must be open at that point, the server
establishes its own end.  If the server returns an error he client
should consider this session failed.

   The option armor encodes the output in PEM format, the `--base64'
option applies just a base 64 encoding.  No option creates binary
output (BER).

   The actual encryption is done using the command

       ENCRYPT

   It takes the plaintext from the `INPUT' command, writes to the
ciphertext to the file descriptor set with the `OUTPUT' command, take
the recipients from all the recipients set so far.  If this command
fails the clients should try to delete all output currently done or
otherwise mark it as invalid.  `GPGSM' does ensure that there won't be
any security problem with leftover data on the output in this case.

   This command should in general not fail, as all necessary checks have
been done while setting the recipients.  The input and output pipes are
closed.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Next: GPGSM SIGN,  Prev: GPGSM ENCRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.2 Decrypting a message
--------------------------

Input and output FDs are set the same way as in encryption, but `INPUT'
refers to the ciphertext and output to the plaintext. There is no need
to set recipients.  `GPGSM' automatically strips any S/MIME headers
from the input, so it is valid to pass an entire MIME part to the INPUT
pipe.

   The encryption is done by using the command

       DECRYPT

   It performs the decrypt operation after doing some check on the
internal state. (e.g. that all needed data has been set).  Because it
utilizes the GPG-Agent for the session key decryption, there is no need
to ask the client for a protecting passphrase - GpgAgent takes care of
this by requesting this from the user.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM SIGN,  Next: GPGSM VERIFY,  Prev: GPGSM DECRYPT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.3 Signing a Message
-----------------------

Signing is usually done with these commands:

       INPUT FD[=N] [--armor|--base64|--binary]

   This tells `GPGSM' to read the data to sign from file descriptor N.

       OUTPUT FD[=M] [--armor|--base64]

   Write the output to file descriptor M.  If a detached signature is
requested, only the signature is written.

       SIGN [--detached]

   Sign the data set with the INPUT command and write it to the sink
set by OUTPUT.  With `--detached', a detached signature is created
(surprise).

   The key used for signing is the default one or the one specified in
the configuration file.  To get finer control over the keys, it is
possible to use the command

       SIGNER USERID

   to the signer's key.  USERID should be the internal representation
of the key; the server may accept any other way of specification.  If
this is a valid and trusted recipient the server does respond with OK,
otherwise the return is an ERR with the reason why the key can't be
used, the signature will then not be created using this key.  If the
policy is not to sign at all if not all keys are valid, the client has
to take care of this.  All `SIGNER' commands are cumulative until a
`RESET' is done.  Note that a `SIGN' does not reset this list of
signers which is in contrats to the `RECIPIENT' command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM VERIFY,  Next: GPGSM GENKEY,  Prev: GPGSM SIGN,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.4 Verifying a Message
-------------------------

To verify a mesage the command:

       VERIFY

   is used. It does a verify operation on the message send to the input
FD.  The result is written out using status lines.  If an output FD was
given, the signed text will be written to that.  If the signature is a
detached one, the server will inquire about the signed material and the
client must provide it.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM GENKEY,  Next: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Prev: GPGSM VERIFY,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.5 Generating a Key
----------------------

This is used to generate a new keypair, store the secret part in the
PSE and the public key in the key database.  We will probably add
optional commands to allow the client to select whether a hardware
token is used to store the key.  Configuration options to `GPGSM' can
be used to restrict the use of this command.

       GENKEY

   `GPGSM' checks whether this command is allowed and then does an
INQUIRY to get the key parameters, the client should then send the key
parameters in the native format:

         S: INQUIRE KEY_PARAM native
         C: D foo:fgfgfg
         C: D bar
         C: END

   Please note that the server may send Status info lines while reading
the data lines from the client.  After this the key generation takes
place and the server eventually does send an ERR or OK response.
Status lines may be issued as a progress indicator.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Next: GPGSM EXPORT,  Prev: GPGSM GENKEY,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.6 List available keys
-------------------------

To list the keys in the internal database or using an external key
provider, the command:

       LISTKEYS  PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed during the
search) quoting is required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or
into "%20"; in turn this requires that the usual escape quoting rules
are done.

       LISTSECRETKEYS PATTERN

   Lists only the keys where a secret key is available.

   The list commands  commands are affected by the option

       OPTION list-mode=MODE

   where mode may be:
`0'
     Use default (which is usually the same as 1).

`1'
     List only the internal keys.

`2'
     List only the external keys.

`3'
     List internal and external keys.

   Note that options are valid for the entire session.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM EXPORT,  Next: GPGSM IMPORT,  Prev: GPGSM LISTKEYS,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.7 Export certificates
-------------------------

To export certificate from the internal key database the command:

       EXPORT [--data [--armor] [--base64]] [--] PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed) quoting is
required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or into "%20"; in turn
this requires that the usual escape quoting rules are done.

   If the `--data' option has not been given, the format of the output
depends on what was set with the OUTPUT command.  When using PEM
encoding a few informational lines are prepended.

   If the `--data' has been given, a target set via OUTPUT is ignored
and the data is returned inline using standard `D'-lines. This avoids
the need for an extra file descriptor.  In this case the options
`--armor' and `--base64' may be used in the same way as with the OUTPUT
command.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM IMPORT,  Next: GPGSM DELETE,  Prev: GPGSM EXPORT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.8 Import certificates
-------------------------

To import certificates into the internal key database, the command

       IMPORT [--re-import]

   is used.  The data is expected on the file descriptor set with the
`INPUT' command.  Certain checks are performed on the certificate.
Note that the code will also handle PKCS#12 files and import private
keys; a helper program is used for that.

   With the option `--re-import' the input data is expected to a be a
linefeed separated list of fingerprints.  The command will re-import
the corresponding certificates; that is they are made permanent by
removing their ephemeral flag.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM DELETE,  Next: GPGSM GETINFO,  Prev: GPGSM IMPORT,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.9 Delete certificates
-------------------------

To delete a certificate the command

       DELKEYS PATTERN

   is used.  To allow multiple patterns (which are ORed) quoting is
required: Spaces are to be translated into "+" or into "%20"; in turn
this requires that the usual escape quoting rules are done.

   The certificates must be specified unambiguously otherwise an error
is returned.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GPGSM GETINFO,  Prev: GPGSM DELETE,  Up: GPGSM Protocol

4.7.10 Return information about the process
-------------------------------------------

This is a multipurpose function to return a variety of information.

     GETINFO WHAT

   The value of WHAT specifies the kind of information returned:
`version'
     Return the version of the program.

`pid'
     Return the process id of the process.

`agent-check'
     Return success if the agent is running.

`cmd_has_option CMD OPT'
     Return success if the command CMD implements the option OPT.  The
     leading two dashes usually used with OPT shall not be given.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Next: Specify a User ID,  Prev: Invoking GPGSM,  Up: Top

5 Invoking the SCDAEMON
***********************

The `scdaemon' is a daemon to manage smartcards.  It is usually invoked
by `gpg-agent' and in general not used directly.

   *Note Option Index::, for an index to `scdaemon''s commands and
options.

* Menu:

* Scdaemon Commands::      List of all commands.
* Scdaemon Options::       List of all options.
* Card applications::      Description of card applications.
* Scdaemon Configuration:: Configuration files.
* Scdaemon Examples::      Some usage examples.
* Scdaemon Protocol::      The protocol the daemon uses.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Commands,  Next: Scdaemon Options,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.1 Commands
============

Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
only one command is allowed.

`--version'
     Print the program version and licensing information.  Not that you
     can abbreviate this command.

`--help, -h'
     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command-line
     options.  Not that you can abbreviate this command.

`--dump-options'
     Print a list of all available options and commands.  Not that you
     can abbreviate this command.

`--server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the `stdin'.  This is
     default mode is to create a socket and listen for commands there.

`--multi-server'
     Run in server mode and wait for commands on the `stdin' as well as
     on an additional Unix Domain socket.  The server command `GETINFO'
     may be used to get the name of that extra socket.

`--daemon'
     Run the program in the background.  This option is required to
     prevent it from being accidentally running in the background.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Options,  Next: Card applications,  Prev: Scdaemon Commands,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.2 Option Summary
==================

`--options FILE'
     Reads configuration from FILE instead of from the default per-user
     configuration file.  The default configuration file is named
     `scdaemon.conf' and expected in the `.gnupg' directory directly
     below the home directory of the user.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`-v'

`--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  You can increase
     the verbosity by giving several verbose commands to `gpgsm', such
     as `-vv'.

`--debug-level LEVEL'
     Select the debug level for investigating problems.  LEVEL may be a
     numeric value or a keyword:

    `none'
          No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
          instead of the keyword.

    `basic'
          Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `advanced'
          More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `expert'
          Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may be
          used instead of the keyword.

    `guru'
          All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater than 8
          may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation of hash
          tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is used.

     How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
     specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They
     are however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

          Note: All debugging options are subject to change and thus
          should not be used by any application program.  As the name
          says, they are only used as helpers to debug problems.

`--debug FLAGS'
     This option is only useful for debugging and the behaviour may
     change at any time without notice.  FLAGS are bit encoded and may
     be given in usual C-Syntax. The currently defined bits are:

    `0  (1)'
          command I/O

    `1  (2)'
          values of big number integers

    `2  (4)'
          low level crypto operations

    `5  (32)'
          memory allocation

    `6  (64)'
          caching

    `7  (128)'
          show memory statistics.

    `9  (512)'
          write hashed data to files named `dbgmd-000*'

    `10 (1024)'
          trace Assuan protocol

    `11 (2048)'
          trace APDU I/O to the card.  This may reveal sensitive data.

`--debug-all'
     Same as `--debug=0xffffffff'

`--debug-wait N'
     When running in server mode, wait N seconds before entering the
     actual processing loop and print the pid.  This gives time to
     attach a debugger.

`--debug-ccid-driver'
     Enable debug output from the included CCID driver for smartcards.
     Using this option twice will also enable some tracing of the T=1
     protocol.  Note that this option may reveal sensitive data.

`--debug-disable-ticker'
     This option disables all ticker functions like checking for card
     insertions.

`--debug-allow-core-dump'
     For security reasons we won't create a core dump when the process
     aborts.  For debugging purposes it is sometimes better to allow
     core dump.  This options enables it and also changes the working
     directory to `/tmp' when running in `--server' mode.

`--debug-log-tid'
     This option appends a thread ID to the PID in the log output.

`--no-detach'
     Don't detach the process from the console.  This is mainly useful
     for debugging.

`--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  This is very helpful in seeing
     what the agent actually does.

`--pcsc-driver LIBRARY'
     Use LIBRARY to access the smartcard reader.  The current default
     is `libpcsclite.so'.  Instead of using this option you might also
     want to install a symbolic link to the default file name (e.g.
     from `libpcsclite.so.1').

`--ctapi-driver LIBRARY'
     Use LIBRARY to access the smartcard reader.  The current default
     is `libtowitoko.so'.  Note that the use of this interface is
     deprecated; it may be removed in future releases.

`--disable-ccid'
     Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers.  This
     allows to fall back to one of the other drivers even if the
     internal CCID driver can handle the reader.  Note, that CCID
     support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

`--reader-port NUMBER_OR_STRING'
     This option may be used to specify the port of the card terminal.
     A value of 0 refers to the first serial device; add 32768 to
     access USB devices.  The default is 32768 (first USB device).
     PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string here; run the program in
     verbose mode to get a list of available readers.  The default is
     then the first reader found.

     To get a list of available CCID readers you may use this command:
          echo scd getinfo reader_list | gpg-connect-agent --decode | awk '/^D/ {print $2}'

`--card-timeout N'
     If N is not 0 and no client is actively using the card, the card
     will be powered down after N seconds.  Powering down the card
     avoids a potential risk of damaging a card when used with certain
     cheap readers.  This also allows non Scdaemon aware applications to
     access the card.  The disadvantage of using a card timeout is that
     accessing the card takes longer and that the user needs to enter
     the PIN again after the next power up.

     Note that with the current version of Scdaemon the card is powered
     down immediately at the next timer tick for any value of N other
     than 0.

`--disable-keypad'
     Even if a card reader features a keypad, do not try to use it.

`--deny-admin'
     This option disables the use of admin class commands for card
     applications where this is supported.  Currently we support it for
     the OpenPGP card. This commands is useful to inhibit accidental
     access to admin class command which could ultimately lock the card
     through wrong PIN numbers.  Note that GnuPG versions older than
     2.0.11 featured an `--allow-admin' command which was required to
     use such admin commands.  This option has no more effect today
     because the default is now to allow admin commands.

`--disable-application NAME'
     This option disables the use of the card application named NAME.
     This is mainly useful for debugging or if a application with lower
     priority should be used by default.


   All the long options may also be given in the configuration file
after stripping off the two leading dashes.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Card applications,  Next: Scdaemon Configuration,  Prev: Scdaemon Options,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.3 Description of card applications
====================================

`scdaemon' supports the card applications as described below.

* Menu:

* OpenPGP Card::          The OpenPGP card application
* NKS Card::              The Telesec NetKey card application
* DINSIG Card::           The DINSIG card application
* PKCS#15 Card::          The PKCS#15 card application
* Geldkarte Card::        The Geldkarte application

File: gnupg.info,  Node: OpenPGP Card,  Next: NKS Card,  Up: Card applications

5.3.1 The OpenPGP card application "openpgp"
--------------------------------------------

This application is currently only used by `gpg' but may in future also
be useful with `gpgsm'.  Version 1 and version 2 of the card is
supported.

   The specifications for these cards are available at
`http://g10code.com/docs/openpgp-card-1.0.pdf' and
`http://g10code.com/docs/openpgp-card-2.0.pdf'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: NKS Card,  Next: DINSIG Card,  Prev: OpenPGP Card,  Up: Card applications

5.3.2 The Telesec NetKey card "nks"
-----------------------------------

This is the main application of the Telesec cards as available in
Germany.  It is a superset of the German DINSIG card.  The card is used
by `gpgsm'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: DINSIG Card,  Next: PKCS#15 Card,  Prev: NKS Card,  Up: Card applications

5.3.3 The DINSIG card application "dinsig"
------------------------------------------

This is an application as described in the German draft standard _DIN V
66291-1_.  It is intended to be used by cards supporting the German
signature law and its bylaws (SigG and SigV).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: PKCS#15 Card,  Next: Geldkarte Card,  Prev: DINSIG Card,  Up: Card applications

5.3.4 The PKCS#15 card application "p15"
----------------------------------------

This is common framework for smart card applications.  It is used by
`gpgsm'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Geldkarte Card,  Prev: PKCS#15 Card,  Up: Card applications

5.3.5 The Geldkarte card application "geldkarte"
------------------------------------------------

This is a simple application to display information of a German
Geldkarte.  The Geldkarte is a small amount debit card application which
comes with almost all German banking cards.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Configuration,  Next: Scdaemon Examples,  Prev: Card applications,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.4 Configuration files
=======================

There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of
`scdaemons''s operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current
home directory (*note option --homedir::).

`scdaemon.conf'
     This is the standard configuration file read by `scdaemon' on
     startup.  It may contain any valid long option; the leading two
     dashes may not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.
     This default name may be changed on the command line (*note option
     --options::).

`scd-event'
     If this file is present and executable, it will be called on veyer
     card reader's status changed. An example of this script is
     provided with the distribution

`reader_N.status'
     This file is created by `sdaemon' to let other applications now
     about reader status changes.  Its use is now deprecated in favor of
     `scd-event'.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Examples,  Next: Scdaemon Protocol,  Prev: Scdaemon Configuration,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.5 Examples
============

     $ scdaemon --server -v

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon Protocol,  Prev: Scdaemon Examples,  Up: Invoking SCDAEMON

5.6 Scdaemon's Assuan Protocol
==============================

The SC-Daemon should be started by the system to provide access to
external tokens.  Using Smartcards on a multi-user system does not make
much sense expect for system services, but in this case no regular user
accounts are hosted on the machine.

   A client connects to the SC-Daemon by connecting to the socket named
`/var/run/scdaemon/socket', configuration information is read from
/ETC/SCDAEMON.CONF

   Each connection acts as one session, SC-Daemon takes care of
synchronizing access to a token between sessions.

* Menu:

* Scdaemon SERIALNO::     Return the serial number.
* Scdaemon LEARN::        Read all useful information from the card.
* Scdaemon READCERT::     Return a certificate.
* Scdaemon READKEY::      Return a public key.
* Scdaemon PKSIGN::       Signing data with a Smartcard.
* Scdaemon PKDECRYPT::    Decrypting data with a Smartcard.
* Scdaemon GETATTR::      Read an attribute's value.
* Scdaemon SETATTR::      Update an attribute's value.
* Scdaemon WRITEKEY::     Write a key to a card.
* Scdaemon GENKEY::       Generate a new key on-card.
* Scdaemon RANDOM::       Return random bytes generate on-card.
* Scdaemon PASSWD::       Change PINs.
* Scdaemon CHECKPIN::     Perform a VERIFY operation.
* Scdaemon RESTART::      Restart connection
* Scdaemon APDU::         Send a verbatim APDU to the card

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon SERIALNO,  Next: Scdaemon LEARN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.1 Return the serial number
------------------------------

This command should be used to check for the presence of a card.  It is
special in that it can be used to reset the card.  Most other commands
will return an error when a card change has been detected and the use of
this function is therefore required.

   Background: We want to keep the client clear of handling card changes
between operations; i.e. the client can assume that all operations are
done on the same card unless he call this function.

       SERIALNO

   Return the serial number of the card using a status response like:

       S SERIALNO D27600000000000000000000 0

   The trailing 0 should be ignored for now, it is reserved for a future
extension.  The serial number is the hex encoded value identified by
the `0x5A' tag in the GDO file (FIX=0x2F02).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon LEARN,  Next: Scdaemon READCERT,  Prev: Scdaemon SERIALNO,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.2 Read all useful information from the card
-----------------------------------------------

       LEARN [--force]

   Learn all useful information of the currently inserted card.  When
used without the force options, the command might do an INQUIRE like
this:

           INQUIRE KNOWNCARDP <hexstring_with_serialNumber> <timestamp>

   The client should just send an `END' if the processing should go on
or a `CANCEL' to force the function to terminate with a cancel error
message.  The response of this command is a list of status lines
formatted as this:

          S KEYPAIRINFO HEXSTRING_WITH_KEYGRIP HEXSTRING_WITH_ID

   If there is no certificate yet stored on the card a single "X" is
returned in HEXSTRING_WITH_KEYGRIP.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon READCERT,  Next: Scdaemon READKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon LEARN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.3 Return a certificate
--------------------------

      READCERT HEXIFIED_CERTID|KEYID

   This function is used to read a certificate identified by
HEXIFIED_CERTID from the card.  With OpenPGP cards the keyid
`OpenPGP.3' may be used to rad the certificate of version 2 cards.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon READKEY,  Next: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Prev: Scdaemon READCERT,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.4 Return a public key
-------------------------

     READKEY HEXIFIED_CERTID

   Return the public key for the given cert or key ID as an standard
S-Expression.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Next: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Prev: Scdaemon READKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.5 Signing data with a Smartcard
-----------------------------------

To sign some data the caller should use the command

      SETDATA HEXSTRING

   to tell `scdaemon' about the data to be signed.  The data must be
given in hex notation.  The actual signing is done using the command

       PKSIGN KEYID

   where KEYID is the hexified ID of the key to be used.  The key id
may have been retrieved using the command `LEARN'.  If another hash
algorithm than SHA-1 is used, that algorithm may be given like:

       PKSIGN --hash=ALGONAME KEYID

   With ALGONAME are one of `sha1', `rmd160' or `md5'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Next: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Prev: Scdaemon PKSIGN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.6 Decrypting data with a Smartcard
--------------------------------------

To decrypt some data the caller should use the command

      SETDATA HEXSTRING

   to tell `scdaemon' about the data to be decrypted.  The data must be
given in hex notation.  The actual decryption is then done using the
command

       PKDECRYPT KEYID

   where KEYID is the hexified ID of the key to be used.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Next: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Prev: Scdaemon PKDECRYPT,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.7 Read an attribute's value.
--------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Next: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon GETATTR,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.8 Update an attribute's value.
----------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Next: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Prev: Scdaemon SETATTR,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.9 Write a key to a card.
----------------------------

       WRITEKEY [--force] KEYID

   This command is used to store a secret key on a smartcard.  The
allowed keyids depend on the currently selected smartcard application.
The actual keydata is requested using the inquiry `KEYDATA' and need to
be provided without any protection.  With `--force' set an existing key
under this KEYID will get overwritten.  The key data is expected to be
the usual canonical encoded S-expression.

   A PIN will be requested in most cases.  This however depends on the
actual card application.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Next: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Prev: Scdaemon WRITEKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.10 Generate a new key on-card.
----------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Next: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Prev: Scdaemon GENKEY,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.11 Return random bytes generate on-card.
--------------------------------------------

TO BE WRITTEN.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Next: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Prev: Scdaemon RANDOM,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.12 Change PINs.
-------------------

        PASSWD [--reset] [--nullpin] CHVNO

   Change the PIN or reset the retry counter of the card holder
verification vector number CHVNO.  The option `--nullpin' is used to
initialize the PIN of TCOS cards (6 byte NullPIN only).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Next: Scdaemon RESTART,  Prev: Scdaemon PASSWD,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.13 Perform a VERIFY operation.
----------------------------------

       CHECKPIN IDSTR

   Perform a VERIFY operation without doing anything else.  This may be
used to initialize a the PIN cache earlier to long lasting operations.
Its use is highly application dependent:

*OpenPGP*
     Perform a simple verify operation for CHV1 and CHV2, so that
     further operations won't ask for CHV2 and it is possible to do a
     cheap check on the PIN: If there is something wrong with the PIN
     entry system, only the regular CHV will get blocked and not the
     dangerous CHV3.  IDSTR is the usual card's serial number in hex
     notation; an optional fingerprint part will get ignored.

     There is however a special mode if IDSTR is suffixed with the
     literal string `[CHV3]': In this case the Admin PIN is checked if
     and only if the retry counter is still at 3.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon RESTART,  Next: Scdaemon APDU,  Prev: Scdaemon CHECKPIN,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.14 Perform a RESTART operation.
-----------------------------------

       RESTART

   Restart the current connection; this is a kind of warm reset.  It
deletes the context used by this connection but does not actually reset
the card.

   This is used by gpg-agent to reuse a primary pipe connection and may
be used by clients to backup from a conflict in the serial command;
i.e. to select another application.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Scdaemon APDU,  Prev: Scdaemon RESTART,  Up: Scdaemon Protocol

5.6.15 Send a verbatim APDU to the card.
----------------------------------------

       APDU [--atr] [--more] [--exlen[=N]] [HEXSTRING]

   Send an APDU to the current reader.  This command bypasses the high
level functions and sends the data directly to the card.  HEXSTRING is
expected to be a proper APDU.  If HEXSTRING is not given no commands
are send to the card; However the command will implicitly check whether
the card is ready for use.

   Using the option `--atr' returns the ATR of the card as a status
message before any data like this:
          S CARD-ATR 3BFA1300FF813180450031C173C00100009000B1

   Using the option `--more' handles the card status word MORE_DATA
(61xx) and concatenate all responses to one block.

   Using the option `--exlen' the returned APDU may use extended length
up to N bytes.  If N is not given a default value is used (currently
4096).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Specify a User ID,  Next: Helper Tools,  Prev: Invoking SCDAEMON,  Up: Top

6 How to Specify a User Id
**************************

There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
are only valid for `gpg' others are only good for `gpgsm'.  Here is the
entire list of ways to specify a key:

   * By key Id.  This format is deduced from the length of the string
     and its content or `0x' prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate
     are the low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids
     is just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
     should be used.

     When using `gpg' an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
     form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
     long key ID using the option `--with-colons'.

          234567C4
          0F34E556E
          01347A56A
          0xAB123456

          234AABBCC34567C4
          0F323456784E56EAB
          01AB3FED1347A5612
          0x234AABBCC34567C4

   * By fingerprint.  This format is deduced from the length of the
     string and its content or the `0x' prefix.  Note, that only the 20
     byte version fingerprint is available with `gpgsm' (i.e. the SHA-1
     hash of the certificate).

     When using `gpg' an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
     using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
     calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

     The best way to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.  This
     avoids any ambiguities in case that there are duplicated key IDs.

          1234343434343434C434343434343434
          123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
          0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
          0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

     (`gpgsm' also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal
     digits because this is the de-facto standard on how to present
     X.509 fingerprints.)

   * By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.  This is denoted by a leading
     equal sign. It does not make sense for X.509 certificates.

          =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By exact match on an email address.  This is indicated by
     enclosing the email address in the usual way with left and right
     angles.

          <heinrichh AT uni-duesseldorf.de>

   * By word match.  All words must match exactly (not case sensitive)
     but can appear in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.
     Words are any sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all
     characters with bit 7 set.

          +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

   * By exact match on the subject's DN.  This is indicated by a
     leading slash, directly followed by the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the
     subject.  Note that you can't use the string printed by "gpgsm
     -list-keys" because that one as been reordered and modified for
     better readability; use -with-colons to print the raw (but standard
     escaped) RFC-2253 string

          /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on the issuer's DN.  This is indicated by a leading
     hash mark, directly followed by a slash and then directly followed
     by the rfc2253 encoded DN of the issuer.  This should return the
     Root cert of the issuer.  See note above.

          #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.  This is
     indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
     representation of the serial number, then followed by a slash and
     the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

          #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

   * By keygrip This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40
     hex digits of a keygrip.  `gpgsm' prints the keygrip when using
     the command `--dump-cert'.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

          &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

   * By substring match.  This is the default mode but applications may
     want to explicitly indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.
     Match is not case sensitive.

          Heine
          *Heine


   Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was
used in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is
not anymore used and there should be no conflict when used with X.509
stuff.

   Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
possible to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't
have to do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta
data.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Helper Tools,  Next: Howtos,  Prev: Specify a User ID,  Up: Top

7 Helper Tools
**************

GnuPG comes with a couple of smaller tools:

* Menu:

* watchgnupg::            Read logs from a socket.
* gpgv::                  Verify OpenPGP signatures.
* addgnupghome::          Create .gnupg home directories.
* gpgconf::               Modify .gnupg home directories.
* applygnupgdefaults::    Run gpgconf for all users.
* gpgsm-gencert.sh::      Generate an X.509 certificate request.
* gpg-preset-passphrase:: Put a passphrase into the cache.
* gpg-connect-agent::     Communicate with a running agent.
* gpgparsemail::          Parse a mail message into an annotated format
* symcryptrun::           Call a simple symmetric encryption tool.
* gpg-zip::               Encrypt or sign files into an archive.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: watchgnupg,  Next: gpgv,  Up: Helper Tools

7.1 Read logs from a socket
===========================

Most of the main utilities are able to write their log files to a Unix
Domain socket if configured that way.  `watchgnupg' is a simple
listener for such a socket.  It ameliorates the output with a time
stamp and makes sure that long lines are not interspersed with log
output from other utilities.

`watchgnupg' is commonly invoked as

     watchgnupg --force ~/.gnupg/S.log

This starts it on the current terminal for listening on the socket
`~/.gnupg/S.log'.

`watchgnupg' understands these options:

`--force'
     Delete an already existing socket file.

`--verbose'
     Enable extra informational output.

`--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

`--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgv,  Next: addgnupghome,  Prev: watchgnupg,  Up: Helper Tools

7.2 Verify OpenPGP signatures
=============================

   `gpgv2' is an OpenPGP signature verification tool.

   This program is actually a stripped-down version of `gpg' which is
only able to check signatures. It is somewhat smaller than the
fully-blown `gpg' and uses a different (and simpler) way to check that
the public keys used to make the signature are valid. There are no
configuration files and only a few options are implemented.

   `gpgv2' assumes that all keys in the keyring are trustworthy.  By
default it uses a keyring named `trustedkeys.gpg' which is assumed to
be in the home directory as defined by GnuPG or set by an option or an
environment variable. An option may be used to specify another keyring
or even multiple keyrings.



   `gpgv2' recognizes these options:

`--verbose'
`-v'
     Gives more information during processing. If used twice, the input
     data is listed in detail.

`--quiet'
`-q'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

`--keyring FILE'
     Add FILE to the list of keyrings.  If FILE begins with a tilde and
     a slash, these are replaced by the HOME directory. If the filename
     does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in the
     home-directory ("~/.gnupg" if -homedir is not used).

`--status-fd N'
     Write special status strings to the file descriptor N.  See the
     file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

`--logger-fd `n''
     Write log output to file descriptor `n' and not to stderr.

`--ignore-time-conflict'
     GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys and
     signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a signature
     seems to be older than the key due to clock problems. This option
     turns these checks into warnings.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.


   The program returns 0 if everything is fine, 1 if at least one
signature was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

7.2.1 Examples
--------------

gpgv2 `pgpfile'
gpgv2 `sigfile' [`datafile']
     Verify the signature of the file. The second form is used for
     detached signatures, where `sigfile' is the detached signature
     (either ASCII-armored or binary) and `datafile' contains the
     signed data; if `datafile' is "-" the signed data is expected on
     `stdin'; if `datafile' is not given the name of the file holding
     the signed data is constructed by cutting off the extension
     (".asc", ".sig" or ".sign") from `sigfile'.


7.2.2 Environment
-----------------

HOME
     Used to locate the default home directory.

GNUPGHOME
     If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".


7.2.3 FILES
-----------

~/.gnupg/trustedkeys.gpg
     The default keyring with the allowed keys.


   `gpg2'(1)

File: gnupg.info,  Node: addgnupghome,  Next: gpgconf,  Prev: gpgv,  Up: Helper Tools

7.3 Create .gnupg home directories.
===================================

If GnuPG is installed on a system with existing user accounts, it is
sometimes required to populate the GnuPG home directory with existing
files.  Especially a `trustlist.txt' and a keybox with some initial
certificates are often desired.  This scripts help to do this by
copying all files from `/etc/skel/.gnupg' to the home directories of
the accounts given on the command line.  It takes care not to overwrite
existing GnuPG home directories.

`addgnupghome' is invoked by root as:

     addgnupghome account1 account2 ... accountn

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgconf,  Next: applygnupgdefaults,  Prev: addgnupghome,  Up: Helper Tools

7.4 Modify .gnupg home directories.
===================================

The `gpgconf' is a utility to automatically and reasonable safely query
and modify configuration files in the `.gnupg' home directory.  It is
designed not to be invoked manually by the user, but automatically by
graphical user interfaces (GUI).(1)

   `gpgconf' provides access to the configuration of one or more
components of the GnuPG system.  These components correspond more or
less to the programs that exist in the GnuPG framework, like GnuPG,
GPGSM, DirMngr, etc.  But this is not a strict one-to-one relationship.
Not all configuration options are available through `gpgconf'.
`gpgconf' provides a generic and abstract method to access the most
important configuration options that can feasibly be controlled via
such a mechanism.

   `gpgconf' can be used to gather and change the options available in
each component, and can also provide their default values.  `gpgconf'
will give detailed type information that can be used to restrict the
user's input without making an attempt to commit the changes.

   `gpgconf' provides the backend of a configuration editor.  The
configuration editor would usually be a graphical user interface
program, that allows to display the current options, their default
values, and allows the user to make changes to the options.  These
changes can then be made active with `gpgconf' again.  Such a program
that uses `gpgconf' in this way will be called GUI throughout this
section.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpgconf::       List of all commands and options.
* Format conventions::     Formatting conventions relevant for all commands.
* Listing components::     List all gpgconf components.
* Checking programs::      Check all programs know to gpgconf.
* Listing options::        List all options of a component.
* Changing options::       Changing options of a component.
* Listing global options:: List all global options.
* Files used by gpgconf::  What files are used by gpgconf.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Please note that currently no locking is done, so concurrent
access should be avoided.  There are some precautions to avoid
corruption with concurrent usage, but results may be inconsistent and
some changes may get lost.  The stateless design makes it difficult to
provide more guarantees.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpgconf,  Next: Format conventions,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.1 Invoking gpgconf
----------------------

One of the following commands must be given:

`--list-components'
     List all components.  This is the default command used if none is
     specified.

`--check-programs'
     List all available backend programs and test whether they are
     runnable.

`--list-options COMPONENT'
     List all options of the component COMPONENT.

`--change-options COMPONENT'
     Change the options of the component COMPONENT.

`--check-options COMPONENT'
     Check the options for the component COMPONENT.

`--apply-defaults'
     Update all configuration files with values taken from the global
     configuration file (usually `/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf').

`--list-dirs'
     Lists the directories used by `gpgconf'.  One directory is listed
     per line, and each line consists of a colon-separated list where
     the first field names the directory type (for example `sysconfdir')
     and the second field contains the percent-escaped directory.
     Although they are not directories, the socket file names used by
     `gpg-agent' and `dirmngr' are printed as well.  Note that the
     socket file names and the `homedir' lines are the default names
     and they may be overridden by command line switches.

`--list-config [FILENAME]'
     List the global configuration file in a colon separated format.  If
     FILENAME is given, check that file instead.

`--check-config [FILENAME]'
     Run a syntax check on the global configuration file.  If FILENAME
     is given, check that file instead.


   The following options may be used:

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Outputs additional information while running.  Specifically, this
     extends numerical field values by human-readable descriptions.

`-n'
`--dry-run'
     Do not actually change anything.  This is currently only
     implemented for `--change-options' and can be used for testing
     purposes.

`-r'
`--runtime'
     Only used together with `--change-options'.  If one of the
     modified options can be changed in a running daemon process, signal
     the running daemon to ask it to reparse its configuration file
     after changing.

     This means that the changes will take effect at run-time, as far as
     this is possible.  Otherwise, they will take effect at the next
     start of the respective backend programs.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Format conventions,  Next: Listing components,  Prev: Invoking gpgconf,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.2 Format conventions
------------------------

Some lines in the output of `gpgconf' contain a list of colon-separated
fields.  The following conventions apply:

   * The GUI program is required to strip off trailing newline and/or
     carriage return characters from the output.

   * `gpgconf' will never leave out fields.  If a certain version
     provides a certain field, this field will always be present in all
     `gpgconf' versions from that time on.

   * Future versions of `gpgconf' might append fields to the list.  New
     fields will always be separated from the previously last field by
     a colon separator.  The GUI should be prepared to parse the last
     field it knows about up until a colon or end of line.

   * Not all fields are defined under all conditions.  You are required
     to ignore the content of undefined fields.

   There are several standard types for the content of a field:

verbatim
     Some fields contain strings that are not escaped in any way.  Such
     fields are described to be used _verbatim_.  These fields will
     never contain a colon character (for obvious reasons).  No
     de-escaping or other formatting is required to use the field
     content.  This is for easy parsing of the output, when it is known
     that the content can never contain any special characters.

percent-escaped
     Some fields contain strings that are described to be
     _percent-escaped_.  Such strings need to be de-escaped before
     their content can be presented to the user.  A percent-escaped
     string is de-escaped by replacing all occurrences of `%XY' by the
     byte that has the hexadecimal value `XY'.  `X' and `Y' are from
     the set `0-9a-f'.

localised
     Some fields contain strings that are described to be _localised_.
     Such strings are translated to the active language and formatted in
     the active character set.

unsigned number
     Some fields contain an _unsigned number_.  This number will always
     fit into a 32-bit unsigned integer variable.  The number may be
     followed by a space, followed by a human readable description of
     that value (if the verbose option is used).  You should ignore
     everything in the field that follows the number.

signed number
     Some fields contain a _signed number_.  This number will always
     fit into a 32-bit signed integer variable.  The number may be
     followed by a space, followed by a human readable description of
     that value (if the verbose option is used).  You should ignore
     everything in the field that follows the number.

boolean value
     Some fields contain a _boolean value_.  This is a number with
     either the value 0 or 1.  The number may be followed by a space,
     followed by a human readable description of that value (if the
     verbose option is used).  You should ignore everything in the
     field that follows the number; checking just the first character
     is sufficient in this case.

option
     Some fields contain an _option_ argument.  The format of an option
     argument depends on the type of the option and on some flags:

    no argument
          The simplest case is that the option does not take an
          argument at all (TYPE `0').  Then the option argument is an
          unsigned number that specifies how often the option occurs.
          If the `list' flag is not set, then the only valid number is
          `1'.  Options that do not take an argument never have the
          `default' or `optional arg' flag set.

    number
          If the option takes a number argument (ALT-TYPE is `2' or
          `3'), and it can only occur once (`list' flag is not set),
          then the option argument is either empty (only allowed if the
          argument is optional), or it is a number.  A number is a
          string that begins with an optional minus character, followed
          by one or more digits.  The number must fit into an integer
          variable (unsigned or signed, depending on ALT-TYPE).

    number list
          If the option takes a number argument and it can occur more
          than once, then the option argument is either empty, or it is
          a comma-separated list of numbers as described above.

    string
          If the option takes a string argument (ALT-TYPE is 1), and it
          can only occur once (`list' flag is not set) then the option
          argument is either empty (only allowed if the argument is
          optional), or it starts with a double quote character (`"')
          followed by a percent-escaped string that is the argument
          value.  Note that there is only a leading double quote
          character, no trailing one.  The double quote character is
          only needed to be able to differentiate between no value and
          the empty string as value.

    string list
          If the option takes a number argument and it can occur more
          than once, then the option argument is either empty, or it is
          a comma-separated list of string arguments as described above.

   The active language and character set are currently determined from
the locale environment of the `gpgconf' program.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing components,  Next: Checking programs,  Prev: Format conventions,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.3 Listing components
------------------------

The command `--list-components' will list all components that can be
configured with `gpgconf'.  Usually, one component will correspond to
one GnuPG-related program and contain the options of that programs
configuration file that can be modified using `gpgconf'.  However, this
is not necessarily the case.  A component might also be a group of
selected options from several programs, or contain entirely virtual
options that have a special effect rather than changing exactly one
option in one configuration file.

   A component is a set of configuration options that semantically
belong together.  Furthermore, several changes to a component can be
made in an atomic way with a single operation.  The GUI could for
example provide a menu with one entry for each component, or a window
with one tabulator sheet per component.

   The command argument `--list-components' lists all available
components, one per line.  The format of each line is:

   `NAME:DESCRIPTION:PGMNAME:'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag of the component.  The name tag is
     used to specify the component in all communication with `gpgconf'.
     The name tag is to be used _verbatim_.  It is thus not in any
     escaped format.

DESCRIPTION
     The _string_ in this field contains a human-readable description
     of the component.  It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for
     informational purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

PGMNAME
     The _string_ in this field contains the absolute name of the
     program's file.  It can be used to unambiguously invoke that
     program.  It is _percent-escaped_.

   Example:
     $ gpgconf --list-components
     gpg:GPG for OpenPGP:/usr/local/bin/gpg2:
     gpg-agent:GPG Agent:/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent:
     scdaemon:Smartcard Daemon:/usr/local/bin/scdaemon:
     gpgsm:GPG for S/MIME:/usr/local/bin/gpgsm:
     dirmngr:Directory Manager:/usr/local/bin/dirmngr:

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Checking programs,  Next: Listing options,  Prev: Listing components,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.4 Checking programs
-----------------------

The command `--check-programs' is similar to `--list-components' but
works on backend programs and not on components.  It runs each program
to test whether it is installed and runnable.  This also includes a
syntax check of all config file options of the program.

   The command argument `--check-programs' lists all available
programs, one per line.  The format of each line is:

   `NAME:DESCRIPTION:PGMNAME:AVAIL:OKAY:CFGFILE:LINE:ERROR:'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag of the program which is identical
     to the name of the component.  The name tag is to be used
     _verbatim_.  It is thus not in any escaped format.  This field may
     be empty to indicate a continuation of error descriptions for the
     last name.  The description and pgmname fields are then also empty.

DESCRIPTION
     The _string_ in this field contains a human-readable description
     of the component.  It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for
     informational purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

PGMNAME
     The _string_ in this field contains the absolute name of the
     program's file.  It can be used to unambiguously invoke that
     program.  It is _percent-escaped_.

AVAIL
     The _boolean value_ in this field indicates whether the program is
     installed and runnable.

OKAY
     The _boolean value_ in this field indicates whether the program's
     config file is syntactically okay.

CFGFILE
     If an error occurred in the configuration file (as indicated by a
     false value in the field `okay'), this field has the name of the
     failing configuration file.  It is _percent-escaped_.

LINE
     If an error occurred in the configuration file, this field has the
     line number of the failing statement in the configuration file.
     It is an _unsigned number_.

ERROR
     If an error occurred in the configuration file, this field has the
     error text of the failing statement in the configuration file.  It
     is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.


In the following example the `dirmngr' is not runnable and the
configuration file of `scdaemon' is not okay.

     $ gpgconf --check-programs
     gpg:GPG for OpenPGP:/usr/local/bin/gpg2:1:1:
     gpg-agent:GPG Agent:/usr/local/bin/gpg-agent:1:1:
     scdaemon:Smartcard Daemon:/usr/local/bin/scdaemon:1:0:
     gpgsm:GPG for S/MIME:/usr/local/bin/gpgsm:1:1:
     dirmngr:Directory Manager:/usr/local/bin/dirmngr:0:0:

The command `--check-options COMPONENT' will verify the configuration
file in the same manner as `--check-programs', but only for the
component COMPONENT.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing options,  Next: Changing options,  Prev: Checking programs,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.5 Listing options
---------------------

Every component contains one or more options.  Options may be gathered
into option groups to allow the GUI to give visual hints to the user
about which options are related.

   The command argument `--list-options COMPONENT' lists all options
(and the groups they belong to) in the component COMPONENT, one per
line.  COMPONENT must be the string in the field NAME in the output of
the `--list-components' command.

   There is one line for each option and each group.  First come all
options that are not in any group.  Then comes a line describing a
group.  Then come all options that belong into each group.  Then comes
the next group and so on.  There does not need to be any group (and in
this case the output will stop after the last non-grouped option).

   The format of each line is:

`NAME:FLAGS:LEVEL:DESCRIPTION:TYPE:ALT-TYPE:ARGNAME:DEFAULT:ARGDEF:VALUE'

NAME
     This field contains a name tag for the group or option.  The name
     tag is used to specify the group or option in all communication
     with `gpgconf'.  The name tag is to be used _verbatim_.  It is
     thus not in any escaped format.

FLAGS
     The flags field contains an _unsigned number_.  Its value is the
     OR-wise combination of the following flag values:

    `group (1)'
          If this flag is set, this is a line describing a group and
          not an option.

     The following flag values are only defined for options (that is, if
     the `group' flag is not used).

    `optional arg (2)'
          If this flag is set, the argument is optional.  This is never
          set for TYPE `0' (none) options.

    `list (4)'
          If this flag is set, the option can be given multiple times.

    `runtime (8)'
          If this flag is set, the option can be changed at runtime.

    `default (16)'
          If this flag is set, a default value is available.

    `default desc (32)'
          If this flag is set, a (runtime) default is available.  This
          and the `default' flag are mutually exclusive.

    `no arg desc (64)'
          If this flag is set, and the `optional arg' flag is set, then
          the option has a special meaning if no argument is given.

    `no change (128)'
          If this flag is set, gpgconf ignores requests to change the
          value.  GUI frontends should grey out this option.  Note,
          that manual changes of the configuration files are still
          possible.

LEVEL
     This field is defined for options and for groups.  It contains an
     _unsigned number_ that specifies the expert level under which this
     group or option should be displayed.  The following expert levels
     are defined for options (they have analogous meaning for groups):

    `basic (0)'
          This option should always be offered to the user.

    `advanced (1)'
          This option may be offered to advanced users.

    `expert (2)'
          This option should only be offered to expert users.

    `invisible (3)'
          This option should normally never be displayed, not even to
          expert users.

    `internal (4)'
          This option is for internal use only.  Ignore it.

     The level of a group will always be the lowest level of all
     options it contains.

DESCRIPTION
     This field is defined for options and groups.  The _string_ in
     this field contains a human-readable description of the option or
     group.  It can be displayed to the user of the GUI for
     informational purposes.  It is _percent-escaped_ and _localized_.

TYPE
     This field is only defined for options.  It contains an _unsigned
     number_ that specifies the type of the option's argument, if any.
     The following types are defined:

     Basic types:

    `none (0)'
          No argument allowed.

    `string (1)'
          An _unformatted string_.

    `int32 (2)'
          A _signed number_.

    `uint32 (3)'
          An _unsigned number_.

     Complex types:

    `pathname (32)'
          A _string_ that describes the pathname of a file.  The file
          does not necessarily need to exist.

    `ldap server (33)'
          A _string_ that describes an LDAP server in the format:

          `HOSTNAME:PORT:USERNAME:PASSWORD:BASE_DN'

    `key fingerprint (34)'
          A _string_ with a 40 digit fingerprint specifying a
          certificate.

    `pub key (35)'
          A _string_ that describes a certificate by user ID, key ID or
          fingerprint.

    `sec key (36)'
          A _string_ that describes a certificate with a key by user ID,
          key ID or fingerprint.

    `alias list (37)'
          A _string_ that describes an alias list, like the one used
          with gpg's group option.  The list consists of a key, an
          equal sign and space separated values.

     More types will be added in the future.  Please see the ALT-TYPE
     field for information on how to cope with unknown types.

ALT-TYPE
     This field is identical to TYPE, except that only the types `0' to
     `31' are allowed.  The GUI is expected to present the user the
     option in the format specified by TYPE.  But if the argument type
     TYPE is not supported by the GUI, it can still display the option
     in the more generic basic type ALT-TYPE.  The GUI must support all
     the defined basic types to be able to display all options.  More
     basic types may be added in future versions.  If the GUI
     encounters a basic type it doesn't support, it should report an
     error and abort the operation.

ARGNAME
     This field is only defined for options with an argument type TYPE
     that is not `0'.  In this case it may contain a _percent-escaped_
     and _localised string_ that gives a short name for the argument.
     The field may also be empty, though, in which case a short name is
     not known.

DEFAULT
     This field is defined only for options for which the `default' or
     `default desc' flag is set.  If the `default' flag is set, its
     format is that of an _option argument_ (*Note Format
     conventions::, for details).  If the default value is empty, then
     no default is known.  Otherwise, the value specifies the default
     value for this option.  If the `default desc' flag is set, the
     field is either empty or contains a description of the effect if
     the option is not given.

ARGDEF
     This field is defined only for options for which the `optional
     arg' flag is set.  If the `no arg desc' flag is not set, its
     format is that of an _option argument_ (*Note Format
     conventions::, for details).  If the default value is empty, then
     no default is known.  Otherwise, the value specifies the default
     argument for this option.  If the `no arg desc' flag is set, the
     field is either empty or contains a description of the effect of
     this option if no argument is given.

VALUE
     This field is defined only for options.  Its format is that of an
     _option argument_.  If it is empty, then the option is not
     explicitly set in the current configuration, and the default
     applies (if any).  Otherwise, it contains the current value of the
     option.  Note that this field is also meaningful if the option
     itself does not take a real argument (in this case, it contains
     the number of times the option appears).

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Changing options,  Next: Listing global options,  Prev: Listing options,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.6 Changing options
----------------------

The command `--change-options COMPONENT' will attempt to change the
options of the component COMPONENT to the specified values.  COMPONENT
must be the string in the field NAME in the output of the
`--list-components' command.  You have to provide the options that
shall be changed in the following format on standard input:

   `NAME:FLAGS:NEW-VALUE'

NAME
     This is the name of the option to change.  NAME must be the string
     in the field NAME in the output of the `--list-options' command.

FLAGS
     The flags field contains an _unsigned number_.  Its value is the
     OR-wise combination of the following flag values:

    `default (16)'
          If this flag is set, the option is deleted and the default
          value is used instead (if applicable).

NEW-VALUE
     The new value for the option.  This field is only defined if the
     `default' flag is not set.  The format is that of an _option
     argument_.  If it is empty (or the field is omitted), the default
     argument is used (only allowed if the argument is optional for this
     option).  Otherwise, the option will be set to the specified value.

The output of the command is the same as that of `--check-options' for
the modified configuration file.

   Examples:

   To set the force option, which is of basic type `none (0)':

     $ echo 'force:0:1' | gpgconf --change-options dirmngr

   To delete the force option:

     $ echo 'force:16:' | gpgconf --change-options dirmngr

   The `--runtime' option can influence when the changes take effect.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Listing global options,  Next: Files used by gpgconf,  Prev: Changing options,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.7 Listing global options
----------------------------

Sometimes it is useful for applications to look at the global options
file `gpgconf.conf'.  The colon separated listing format is record
oriented and uses the first field to identify the record type:

`k'
     This describes a key record to start the definition of a new
     ruleset for a user/group.  The format of a key record is:

     `k:USER:GROUP:'

    USER
          This is the user field of the key.  It is percent escaped.
          See the definition of the gpgconf.conf format for details.

    GROUP
          This is the group field of the key.  It is percent escaped.

`r'
     This describes a rule record. All rule records up to the next key
     record make up a rule set for that key.  The format of a rule
     record is:

     `r:::COMPONENT:OPTION:FLAGS:VALUE:'

    COMPONENT
          This is the component part of a rule.  It is a plain string.

    OPTION
          This is the option part of a rule.  It is a plain string.

    FLAG
          This is the flags part of a rule.  There may be only one flag
          per rule but by using the same component and option, several
          flags may be assigned to an option.  It is a plain string.

    VALUE
          This is the optional value for the option.  It is a percent
          escaped string with a single quotation mark to indicate a
          string.  The quotation mark is only required to distinguish
          between no value specified and an empty string.


Unknown record types should be ignored.  Note that there is
intentionally no feature to change the global option file through
`gpgconf'.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Files used by gpgconf,  Prev: Listing global options,  Up: gpgconf

7.4.8 Files used by gpgconf
---------------------------

`/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf'
     If this file exists, it is processed as a global configuration
     file.    A commented example can be found in the `examples'
     directory of   the distribution.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: applygnupgdefaults,  Next: gpgsm-gencert.sh,  Prev: gpgconf,  Up: Helper Tools

7.5 Run gpgconf for all users.
==============================

This script is a wrapper around `gpgconf' to run it with the command
`--apply-defaults' for all real users with an existing GnuPG home
directory.  Admins might want to use this script to update he GnuPG
configuration files for all users after `/etc/gnupg/gpgconf.conf' has
been changed.  This allows to enforce certain policies for all users.
Note, that this is not a bulletproof of forcing a user to use certain
options.  A user may always directly edit the configuration files and
bypass gpgconf.

`applygnupgdefaults' is invoked by root as:

     applygnupgdefaults

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgsm-gencert.sh,  Next: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Prev: applygnupgdefaults,  Up: Helper Tools

7.6 Generate an X.509 certificate request
=========================================

This is a simple tool to interactively generate a certificate request
which will be printed to stdout.

`gpgsm-gencert.sh' is invoked as:

   `gpgsm-cencert.sh'

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Next: gpg-connect-agent,  Prev: gpgsm-gencert.sh,  Up: Helper Tools

7.7 Put a passphrase into the cache.
====================================

The `gpg-preset-passphrase' is a utility to seed the internal cache of
a running `gpg-agent' with passphrases.  It is mainly useful for
unattended machines, where the usual `pinentry' tool may not be used
and the passphrases for the to be used keys are given at machine
startup.

   Passphrases set with this utility don't expire unless the `--forget'
option is used to explicitly clear them from the cache -- or
`gpg-agent' is either restarted or reloaded (by sending a SIGHUP to
it).  It is necessary to allow this passphrase presetting by starting
`gpg-agent' with the `--allow-preset-passphrase'.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase::   List of all commands and options.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase,  Up: gpg-preset-passphrase

7.7.1 List of all commands and options.
---------------------------------------

`gpg-preset-passphrase' is invoked this way:

     gpg-preset-passphrase [options] [command] CACHEID

   CACHEID is either a 40 character keygrip of hexadecimal characters
identifying the key for which the passphrase should be set or cleared.
The keygrip is listed along with the key when running the command:
`gpgsm --dump-secret-keys'.  Alternatively an arbitrary string may be
used to identify a passphrase; it is suggested that such a string is
prefixed with the name of the application (e.g `foo:12346').

One of the following command options must be given:

`--preset'
     Preset a passphrase. This is what you usually will use.
     `gpg-preset-passphrase' will then read the passphrase from `stdin'.

`--forget'
     Flush the passphrase for the given cache ID from the cache.


The following additional options may be used:

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

`-P STRING'
`--passphrase STRING'
     Instead of reading the passphrase from `stdin', use the supplied
     STRING as passphrase.  Note that this makes the passphrase visible
     for other users.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-connect-agent,  Next: gpgparsemail,  Prev: gpg-preset-passphrase,  Up: Helper Tools

7.8 Communicate with a running agent.
=====================================

The `gpg-connect-agent' is a utility to communicate with a running
`gpg-agent'.  It is useful to check out the commands gpg-agent provides
using the Assuan interface.  It might also be useful for scripting
simple applications.  Input is expected at stdin and out put gets
printed to stdout.

   It is very similar to running `gpg-agent' in server mode; but here
we connect to a running instance.

* Menu:

* Invoking gpg-connect-agent::       List of all options.
* Controlling gpg-connect-agent::    Control commands.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking gpg-connect-agent,  Next: Controlling gpg-connect-agent,  Up: gpg-connect-agent

7.8.1 List of all options.
--------------------------

`gpg-connect-agent' is invoked this way:

     gpg-connect-agent [options] [commands]

The following options may be used:

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

`-q'

`--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`-S'
`--raw-socket NAME'
     Connect to socket NAME assuming this is an Assuan style server.
     Do not run any special initializations or environment checks.
     This may be used to directly connect to any Assuan style socket
     server.

`-E'
`--exec'
     Take the rest of the command line as a program and it's arguments
     and execute it as an assuan server. Here is how you would run
     `gpgsm':
           gpg-connect-agent --exec gpgsm --server
     Note that you may not use options on the command line in this case.

`--no-ext-connect'
     When using `-S' or `--exec', `gpg-connect-agent' connects to the
     assuan server in extended mode to allow descriptor passing.  This
     option makes it use the old mode.

`--run FILE'
     Run the commands from FILE at startup and then continue with the
     regular input method.  Note, that commands given on the command
     line are executed after this file.

`-s'
`--subst'
     Run the command `/subst' at startup.

`--hex'
     Print data lines in a hex format and the ASCII representation of
     non-control characters.

`--decode'
     Decode data lines.  That is to remove percent escapes but make
     sure that a new line always starts with a D and a space.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Controlling gpg-connect-agent,  Prev: Invoking gpg-connect-agent,  Up: gpg-connect-agent

7.8.2 Control commands.
-----------------------

While reading Assuan commands, gpg-agent also allows a few special
commands to control its operation.  These control commands all start
with a slash (`/').

`/echo ARGS'
     Just print ARGS.

`/let NAME VALUE'
     Set the variable NAME to VALUE.  Variables are only substituted on
     the input if the `/subst' has been used.  Variables are referenced
     by prefixing the name with a dollar sign and optionally include
     the name in curly braces.  The rules for a valid name are
     identically to those of the standard bourne shell.  This is not yet
     enforced but may be in the future.  When used with curly braces no
     leading or trailing white space is allowed.

     If a variable is not found, it is searched in the environment and
     if found copied to the table of variables.

     Variable functions are available: The name of the function must be
     followed by at least one space and the at least one argument.  The
     following functions are available:

    `get'
          Return a value described by the argument.  Available
          arguments are:

         `cwd'
               The current working directory.

         `homedir'
               The gnupg homedir.

         `sysconfdir'
               GnuPG's system configuration directory.

         `bindir'
               GnuPG's binary directory.

         `libdir'
               GnuPG's library directory.

         `libexecdir'
               GnuPG's library directory for executable files.

         `datadir'
               GnuPG's data directory.

         `serverpid'
               The PID of the current server. Command `/serverpid' must
               have been given to return a useful value.

    `unescape ARGS'
          Remove C-style escapes from ARGS.  Note that `\0' and `\x00'
          terminate the returned string implicitly.  The string to be
          converted are the entire arguments right behind the
          delimiting space of the function name.

    `unpercent ARGS'
    `unpercent+ ARGS'
          Remove percent style escaping from ARGS.  Note that `%00'
          terminates the string implicitly.  The string to be converted
          are the entire arguments right behind the delimiting space of
          the function name. `unpercent+' also maps plus signs to a
          spaces.

    `percent ARGS'
    `percent+ ARGS'
          Escape the ARGS using percent style escaping.  Tabs,
          formfeeds, linefeeds, carriage returns and colons are
          escaped. `percent+' also maps spaces to plus signs.

    `errcode ARG'
    `errsource ARG'
    `errstring ARG'
          Assume ARG is an integer and evaluate it using `strtol'.
          Return the gpg-error error code, error source or a formatted
          string with the error code and error source.

    `+'
    `-'
    `*'
    `/'
    `%'
          Evaluate all arguments as long integers using `strtol' and
          apply this operator.  A division by zero yields an empty
          string.

    `!'
    `|'
    `&'
          Evaluate all arguments as long integers using `strtol' and
          apply the logical oeprators NOT, OR or AND.  The NOT operator
          works on the last argument only.


`/definq NAME VAR'
     Use content of the variable VAR for inquiries with NAME.  NAME may
     be an asterisk (`*') to match any inquiry.

`/definqfile NAME FILE'
     Use content of FILE for inquiries with NAME.  NAME may be an
     asterisk (`*') to match any inquiry.

`/definqprog NAME PROG'
     Run PROG for inquiries matching NAME and pass the entire line to
     it as command line arguments.

`/datafile NAME'
     Write all data lines from the server to the file NAME.  The file
     is opened for writing and created if it does not exists.  An
     existing file is first truncated to 0.  The data written to the
     file fully decoded.  Using a single dash for NAME writes to
     stdout.  The file is kept open until a new file is set using this
     command or this command is used without an argument.

`/showdef'
     Print all definitions

`/cleardef'
     Delete all definitions

`/sendfd FILE MODE'
     Open FILE in MODE (which needs to be a valid `fopen' mode string)
     and send the file descriptor to the server.  This is usually
     followed by a command like `INPUT FD' to set the input source for
     other commands.

`/recvfd'
     Not yet implemented.

`/open VAR FILE [MODE]'
     Open FILE and assign the file descriptor to VAR.  Warning: This
     command is experimental and might change in future versions.

`/close FD'
     Close the file descriptor FD.  Warning: This command is
     experimental and might change in future versions.

`/showopen'
     Show a list of open files.

`/serverpid'
     Send the Assuan command `GETINFO pid' to the server and store the
     returned PID for internal purposes.

`/sleep'
     Sleep for a second.

`/hex'
`/nohex'
     Same as the command line option `--hex'.

`/decode'
`/nodecode'
     Same as the command line option `--decode'.

`/subst'
`/nosubst'
     Enable and disable variable substitution.  It defaults to disabled
     unless the command line option `--subst' has been used.  If /subst
     as been enabled once, leading whitespace is removed from input
     lines which makes scripts easier to read.

`/while CONDITION'
`/end'
     These commands provide a way for executing loops.  All lines
     between the `while' and the corresponding `end' are executed as
     long as the evaluation of CONDITION yields a non-zero value.  The
     evaluation is done by passing CONDITION to the `strtol' function.
     Example:

            /subst
            /let i 3
            /while $i
              /echo loop couter is $i
              /let i ${- $i 1}
            /end

`/run FILE'
     Run commands from FILE.

`/bye'
     Terminate the connection and the program

`/help'
     Print a list of available control commands.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpgparsemail,  Next: symcryptrun,  Prev: gpg-connect-agent,  Up: Helper Tools

7.9 Parse a mail message into an annotated format
=================================================

The `gpgparsemail' is a utility currently only useful for debugging.
Run it with `--help' for usage information.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: symcryptrun,  Next: gpg-zip,  Prev: gpgparsemail,  Up: Helper Tools

7.10 Call a simple symmetric encryption tool.
=============================================

Sometimes simple encryption tools are already in use for a long time and
there might be a desire to integrate them into the GnuPG framework.  The
protocols and encryption methods might be non-standard or not even
properly documented, so that a full-fledged encryption tool with an
interface like gpg is not doable.  `symcryptrun' provides a solution:
It operates by calling the external encryption/decryption module and
provides a passphrase for a key using the standard `pinentry' based
mechanism through `gpg-agent'.

   Note, that `symcryptrun' is only available if GnuPG has been
configured with `--enable-symcryptrun' at build time.

* Menu:

* Invoking symcryptrun::   List of all commands and options.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Invoking symcryptrun,  Up: symcryptrun

7.10.1 List of all commands and options.
----------------------------------------

`symcryptrun' is invoked this way:

     symcryptrun --class CLASS --program PROGRAM --keyfile KEYFILE
        [--decrypt | --encrypt] [inputfile]

   For encryption, the plain text must be provided on STDIN or as the
argument INPUTFILE, and the ciphertext will be output to STDOUT.  For
decryption vice versa.

   CLASS describes the calling conventions of the external tool.
Currently it must be given as `confucius'.  PROGRAM is the full
filename of that external tool.

   For the class `confucius' the option `--keyfile' is required;
KEYFILE is the name of a file containing the secret key, which may be
protected by a passphrase.  For detailed calling conventions, see the
source code.

Note, that `gpg-agent' must be running before starting `symcryptrun'.

The following additional options may be used:

`-v'
`--verbose'
     Output additional information while running.

`-q'

`--quiet'
     Try to be as quiet as possible.

`--homedir DIR'
     Set the name of the home directory to DIR. If this option is not
     used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
     recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides any
     home directory stated through the environment variable `GNUPGHOME'
     or (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
     HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\GNUPG:HOMEDIR.

`--log-file FILE'
     Append all logging output to FILE.  Default is to write logging
     information to STDERR.


The possible exit status codes of `symcryptrun' are:

`0'
     Success.

`1'
     Some error occured.

`2'
     No valid passphrase was provided.

`3'
     The operation was canceled by the user.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: gpg-zip,  Prev: symcryptrun,  Up: Helper Tools

7.11 Encrypt or sign files into an archive
==========================================

`gpg-zip' encrypts or signs files into an archive.  It is an gpg-ized
tar using the same format as used by PGP's PGP Zip.

`gpg-zip' is invoked this way:

     gpg-zip [options] FILENAME1 [FILENAME2, ...] DIRECTORY [DIRECTORY2, ...]

`gpg-zip' understands these options:

`--encrypt'
`-e'
     Encrypt data.  This option may be combined with `--symmetric' (for
     output that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

`--decrypt'
`-d'
     Decrypt data.

`--symmetric'
`-c'
     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase.  The default
     symmetric cipher used is CAST5, but may be chosen with the
     `--cipher-algo' option to `gpg'.

`--sign'
`-s'
     Make a signature.  See `gpg'.

`--recipient USER'
`-r USER'
     Encrypt for user id USER. See `gpg'.

`--local-user USER'
`-u USER'
     Use USER as the key to sign with.  See `gpg'.

`--list-archive'
     List the contents of the specified archive.

`--output FILE'
`-o FILE'
     Write output to specified file FILE.

`--gpg GPGCMD'
     Use the specified command GPGCMD instead of `gpg'.

`--gpg-args ARGS'
     Pass the specified options to `gpg'.

`--tar TARCMD'
     Use the specified command TARCMD instead of `tar'.

`--tar-args ARGS'
     Pass the specified options to `tar'.

`--version'
     Print version of the program and exit.

`--help'
     Display a brief help page and exit.


The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 otherwise.

Some examples:

Encrypt the contents of directory `mydocs' for user Bob to file `test1':

     gpg-zip --encrypt --output test1 --gpg-args  -r Bob mydocs

List the contents of archive `test1':

     gpg-zip --list-archive test1

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Howtos,  Next: System Notes,  Prev: Helper Tools,  Up: Top

8 How to do certain things
**************************

This is a collection of small howto documents.

* Menu:

* Howto Create a Server Cert::  Creating a TLS server certificate.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Howto Create a Server Cert,  Up: Howtos

8.1 Creating a TLS server certificate
=====================================

Here is a brief run up on how to create a server certificate. It has
actually been done this way to get a certificate from CAcert to be used
on a real server.  It has only been tested with this CA, but there
shouldn't be any problem to run this against any other CA.

   Before you start, make sure that gpg-agent is running.  As there is
no need for a configuration file, you may simply enter:

       $ gpgsm-gencert.sh >a.p10
       Key type
        [1] RSA
        [2] Existing key
        [3] Direct from card
       Your selection: 1
       You selected: RSA

   I opted for creating a new RSA key. The other option is to use an
already existing key, by selecting `2' and entering the so-called
keygrip.  Running the command `gpgsm --dump-secret-key USERID' shows
you this keygrip.  Using `3' offers another menu to create a
certificate directly from a smart card based key.

   Let's continue:

       Key length
        [1] 1024
        [2] 2048
       Your selection: 1
       You selected: 1024

   The script offers  two common key sizes. With the current setup of
CAcert, it does not make much sense to use a 2k key; their policies need
to be revised anyway (a CA root key valid for 30 years is not really
serious).

       Key usage
        [1] sign, encrypt
        [2] sign
        [3] encrypt
       Your selection: 1
       You selected: sign, encrypt

   We want to sign and encrypt using this key. This is just a suggestion
and the CA may actually assign other key capabilities.

   Now for some real data:

       Name (DN)
       > CN=kerckhoffs.g10code.com

   This is the most important value for a server certificate. Enter here
the canonical name of your server machine. You may add other virtual
server names later.

       E-Mail addresses (end with an empty line)
       >

   We don't need email addresses in a server certificate and CAcert
would anyway ignore such a request. Thus just hit enter.

   If you want to create a client certificate for email encryption, this
would be the place to enter your mail address (e.g. <joe AT example.org>).
You may enter as many addresses as you like, however the CA may not
accept them all or reject the entire request.

       DNS Names (optional; end with an empty line)
       > www.g10code.com
       DNS Names (optional; end with an empty line)
       > ftp.g10code.com
       DNS Names (optional; end with an empty line)
       >

   Here I entered the names of the servers which actually run on the
machine given in the DN above. The browser will accept a certificate for
any of these names. As usual the CA must approve all of these names.

       URIs (optional; end with an empty line)
       >

   It is possible to insert arbitrary URIs into a certificate; for a
server certificate this does not make sense.

   We have now entered all required information and `gpgsm' will
display what it has gathered and ask whether to create the certificate
request:

       Parameters for certificate request to create:
            1	Key-Type: RSA
            2	Key-Length: 1024
            3	Key-Usage: sign, encrypt
            4	Name-DN: CN=kerckhoffs.g10code.com
            5	Name-DNS: www.g10code.com
            6	Name-DNS: ftp.g10code.com

       Really create such a CSR?
        [1] yes
        [2] no
       Your selection: 1
       You selected: yes

   `gpgsm' will now start working on creating the request. As this
includes the creation of an RSA key it may take a while. During this
time you will be asked 3 times for a passphrase to protect the created
private key on your system. A pop up window will appear to ask for it.
The first two prompts are for the new passphrase and for re-entering it;
the third one is required to actually create the certificate signing
request.

   When it is ready, you should see the final notice:

       gpgsm: certificate request created

   Now, you may look at the created request:

       $ cat a.p10
       -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
       MIIBnzCCAQgCAQAwITEfMB0GA1UEAxMWa2VyY2tob2Zmcy5nMTBjb2RlLmNvbTCB
       nzANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEA5h+uKRenpvbe+BnMY6siPO50LVyg
       HtB7kr+YISlPJ5JAFO12yQFz9Y0sBLHbjR+V+TOawwP1dZhGjlgnEBkMdWKuEBlS
       wFTALLX78GAyvAYAmPqSPDEYXkMECyUXVX/bbGI1bY8Y2OGy4w4D+v7e+xD2NBkm
       Bj5cNy+YMbGVldECAwEAAaA+MDwGCSqGSIb3DQEJDjEvMC0wKwYDVR0RBCQwIoIP
       d3d3LmcxMGNvZGUuY29tgg9mdHAuZzEwY29kZS5jb20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEFBQAD
       gYEAzBRIi8KTfKyebOlMtDN6oDYBOv+r9A4w3u/Z1ikjffaiN1Bmd2o9Ez9KXKHA
       IezLeSEA/rGUPN5Ur5qIJnRNQ8xrS+iLftr8msWQSZppVnA/vnqMrtqBUpitqAr0
       eYBmt1Uem2Y3UFABrKPglv2xzgGkrKX6AqmFoOnJWQ0QcTw=
       -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
       $

   You may now proceed by logging into your account at the CAcert
website, choose `Server Certificates - New', check `sign by class 3 root
certificate', paste the above request block into the text field and
click on `Submit'.

   If everything works out fine, a certificate will be shown. Now run

     $ gpgsm --import

   and paste the certificate from the CAcert page into your terminal
followed by a Ctrl-D

       -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
       MIIEIjCCAgqgAwIBAgIBTDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFADBUMRQwEgYDVQQKEwtDQWNl
       cnQgSW5jLjEeMBwGA1UECxMVaHR0cDovL3d3dy5DQWNlcnQub3JnMRwwGgYDVQQD
       ExNDQWNlcnQgQ2xhc3MgMyBSb290MB4XDTA1MTAyODE2MjA1MVoXDTA3MTAyODE2
       MjA1MVowITEfMB0GA1UEAxMWa2VyY2tob2Zmcy5nMTBjb2RlLmNvbTCBnzANBgkq
       hkiG9w0BAQEFAAOBjQAwgYkCgYEA5h+uKRenpvbe+BnMY6siPO50LVygHtB7kr+Y
       ISlPJ5JAFO12yQFz9Y0sBLHbjR+V+TOawwP1dZhGjlgnEBkMdWKuEBlSwFTALLX7
       8GAyvAYAmPqSPDEYXkMECyUXVX/bbGI1bY8Y2OGy4w4D+v7e+xD2NBkmBj5cNy+Y
       MbGVldECAwEAAaOBtTCBsjAMBgNVHRMBAf8EAjAAMDQGA1UdJQQtMCsGCCsGAQUF
       BwMCBggrBgEFBQcDAQYJYIZIAYb4QgQBBgorBgEEAYI3CgMDMAsGA1UdDwQEAwIF
       oDAyBggrBgEFBQcBAQQmMCQwIgYIKwYBBQUHMAGGFmh0dHA6Ly9vY3NwLmNhY2Vy
       dC5vcmcwKwYDVR0RBCQwIoIPd3d3LmcxMGNvZGUuY29tgg9mdHAuZzEwY29kZS5j
       b20wDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQADggIBAAj5XAHCtzQR8PV6PkQBgZqUCbcfxGO/ZIp9
       aIT6J2z0Jo1OZI6KmConbqnZG9WyDlV5P7msQXW/Z9nBfoj4KSmNR8G/wtb8ClJn
       W8s75+K3ZLq1UgEyxBDrS7GjtbVaj7gsfZsuiQzxmk9lbl1gbkpJ3VEMjwVCTMlM
       fpjp8etyPhUZqOZaoKVaq//KTOsjhPMwz7TcfOkHvXketPrWTcefJQU7NKLH16D3
       mZAwnBxp3P51H6E6VG8AoJO8xCBuVwsbXKEf/FW+tmKG9pog6CaZQ9WibROTtnKj
       NJjSBsrUk5C+JowO/EyZRGm6R1tlok8iFXj+2aimyeBqDcxozNmFgh9F3S5u0wK0
       6cfYgkPVMHxgwV3f3Qh+tJkgLExN7KfO9hvpZqAh+CLQtxVmvpxEVEXKR6nwBI5U
       BaseulvVy3wUfg2daPkG17kDDBzQlsWC0BRF8anH+FWSrvseC3nS0a9g3sXF1Ic3
       gIqeAMhkant1Ac3RR6YCWtJKr2rcQNdDAxXK35/gUSQNCi9dclEzoOgjziuA1Mha
       94jYcvGKcwThn0iITVS5hOsCfaySBLxTzfIruLbPxXlpWuCW/6I/7YyivppKgEZU
       rUTFlNElRXCwIl0YcJkIaYYqWf7+A/aqYJCi8+51usZwMy3Jsq3hJ6MA3h1BgwZs
       Rtct3tIX
       -----END CERTIFICATE-----
       gpgsm: issuer certificate (#/CN=CAcert Class 3 Ro[...]) not found
       gpgsm: certificate imported

       gpgsm: total number processed: 1
       gpgsm:               imported: 1

   gpgsm tells you that it has imported the certificate. It is now
associated with the key you used when creating the request. The root
certificate has not been found, so you may want to import it from the
CACert website.

   To see the content of your certificate, you may now enter:

       $ gpgsm -K kerckhoffs.g10code.com
       /home/foo/.gnupg/pubring.kbx
       ---------------------------
       Serial number: 4C
              Issuer: /CN=CAcert Class 3 Root/OU=http:\x2f\x2fwww.[...]
             Subject: /CN=kerckhoffs.g10code.com
                 aka: (dns-name www.g10code.com)
                 aka: (dns-name ftp.g10code.com)
            validity: 2005-10-28 16:20:51 through 2007-10-28 16:20:51
            key type: 1024 bit RSA
           key usage: digitalSignature keyEncipherment
       ext key usage: clientAuth (suggested), serverAuth (suggested), [...]
         fingerprint: 0F:9C:27:B2:DA:05:5F:CB:33:19:D8:E9:65:B9:BD:4F:B1:98:CC:57

   I used `-K' above because this will only list certificates for which
a private key is available.  To see more details, you may use
`--dump-secret-keys' instead of `-K'.

   To make actual use of the certificate you need to install it on your
server. Server software usually expects a PKCS\#12 file with key and
certificate. To create such a file, run:

       $ gpgsm --export-secret-key-p12 -a >kerckhoffs-cert.pem

   You will be asked for the passphrase as well as for a new passphrase
to be used to protect the PKCS\#12 file. The file now contains the
certificate as well as the private key:

       $ cat kerckhoffs-cert.pem
       Issuer ...: /CN=CAcert Class 3 Root/OU=http:\x2f\x2fwww.CA[...]
       Serial ...: 4C
       Subject ..: /CN=kerckhoffs.g10code.com
           aka ..: (dns-name www.g10code.com)
           aka ..: (dns-name ftp.g10code.com)

       -----BEGIN PKCS12-----
       MIIHlwIBAzCCB5AGCSqGSIb37QdHAaCCB4EEggd9MIIHeTk1BJ8GCSqGSIb3DQEu
       [...many more lines...]
       -----END PKCS12-----
       $

   Copy this file in a secure way to the server, install it there and
delete the file then. You may export the file again at any time as long
as it is available in GnuPG's private key database.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: System Notes,  Next: Debugging,  Prev: Howtos,  Up: Top

9 Notes pertaining to certain OSes.
***********************************

GnuPG has been developed on GNU/Linux systems and is know to work on
almost all Free OSes.  All modern POSIX systems should be supported
right now, however there are probably a lot of smaller glitches we need
to fix first.  The major problem areas are:

   * For logging to sockets and other internal operations the
     `fopencookie' function (`funopen' under *BSD) is used.  This is a
     very convenient function which makes it possible to create outputs
     in a structures and easy maintainable way.  The drawback however
     is that most proprietary OSes don't support this function.  At
     g10 Code we have looked into several ways on how to overcome this
     limitation but no sufficiently easy and maintainable way has been
     found.  Porting _glibc_ to a general POSIX system is of course an
     option and would make writing portable software much easier; this
     it has not yet been done and the system administrator would need
     to cope with the GNU specific admin things in addition to the
     generic ones of his system.

     We have now settled to use explicit stdio wrappers with a
     functionality similar to funopen.  Although the code for this has
     already been written (_libestream_), we have not yet changed GnuPG
     to use it.

     This means that on systems not supporting either `funopen' or
     `fopencookie', logging to a socket won't work, prompts are not
     formatted as pretty as they should be and `gpgsm''s `LISTKEYS'
     Assuan command does not work.

   * We are planning to use file descriptor passing for interprocess
     communication.  This will allow us save a lot of resources and
     improve performance of certain operations a lot.  Systems not
     supporting this won't gain these benefits but we try to keep them
     working the standard way as it is done today.

   * We require more or less full POSIX compatibility.  This has been
     around for 15 years now and thus we don't believe it makes sense to
     support non POSIX systems anymore.  Well, we of course the usual
     workarounds for near POSIX systems well be applied.

     There is one exception of this rule: Systems based the Microsoft
     Windows API (called here _W32_) will be supported to some extend.


* Menu:

* W32 Notes::             Microsoft Windows Notes

File: gnupg.info,  Node: W32 Notes,  Up: System Notes

9.1 Microsoft Windows Notes
===========================

Current limitations are:

   * `gpgconf' does not create backup files, so in case of trouble your
     configuration file might get lost.

   * `watchgnupg' is not available.  Logging to sockets is not possible.

   * The periodical smartcard status checking done by `scdaemon' is not
     yet supported.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging,  Next: Copying,  Prev: System Notes,  Up: Top

10 How to solve problems
************************

Everyone knows that software often does not do what it should do and
thus there is a need to track down problems.  We call this debugging in
a reminiscent to the moth jamming a relay in a Mark II box back in 1947.

   Most of the problems a merely configuration and user problems but
nevertheless there are the most annoying ones and responsible for many
gray hairs.  We try to give some guidelines here on how to identify and
solve the problem at hand.

* Menu:

* Debugging Tools::       Description of some useful tools.
* Debugging Hints::       Various hints on debugging.
* Common Problems::       Commonly seen problems.
* Architecture Details::  How the whole thing works internally.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging Tools,  Next: Debugging Hints,  Up: Debugging

10.1 Debugging Tools
====================

The GnuPG distribution comes with a couple of tools, useful to help find
and solving problems.

* Menu:

* kbxutil::        Scrutinizing a keybox file.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: kbxutil,  Up: Debugging Tools

10.1.1 Scrutinizing a keybox file
---------------------------------

A keybox is a file format used to store public keys along with meta
information and indices.  The commonly used one is the file
`pubring.kbx' in the `.gnupg' directory. It contains all X.509
certificates as well as OpenPGP keys(1) .

When called the standard way, e.g.:

   `kbxutil ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

it lists all records (called blobs) with there meta-information in a
human readable format.

To see statistics on the keybox in question, run it using

   `kbxutil --stats ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

and you get an output like:

     Total number of blobs:       99
                    header:        1
                     empty:        0
                   openpgp:        0
                      x509:       98
               non flagged:       81
            secret flagged:        0
         ephemeral flagged:       17

   In this example you see that the keybox does not have any OpenPGP
keys but contains 98 X.509 certificates and a total of 17 keys or
certificates are flagged as ephemeral, meaning that they are only
temporary stored (cached) in the keybox and won't get listed using the
usual commands provided by `gpgsm' or `gpg'. 81 certificates are stored
in a standard way and directly available from `gpgsm'.

To find duplicated certificates and keyblocks in a keybox file (this
should not occur but sometimes things go wrong), run it using

   `kbxutil --find-dups ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx'

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Well, OpenPGP keys are not implemented, `gpg' still used the
keyring file `pubring.gpg'

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Debugging Hints,  Next: Common Problems,  Prev: Debugging Tools,  Up: Debugging

10.2 Various hints on debugging.
================================

   * How to find the IP address of a keyserver

     If a round robin URL of is used for a keyserver (e.g.
     subkeys.gnupg.org); it is not easy to see what server is actually
     used.  Using the keyserver debug option as in

           gpg --keyserver-options debug=1 -v --refresh-key 1E42B367

     is thus often helpful.  Note that the actual output depends on the
     backend and may change from release to release.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Common Problems,  Next: Architecture Details,  Prev: Debugging Hints,  Up: Debugging

10.3 Commonly Seen Problems
===========================

   * Error code `Not supported' from Dirmngr

     Most likely the option `enable-ocsp' is active for gpgsm but
     Dirmngr's OCSP feature has not been enabled using `allow-ocsp' in
     `dirmngr.conf'.

   * The Curses based Pinentry does not work

     The far most common reason for this is that the environment
     variable `GPG_TTY' has not been set correctly.  Make sure that it
     has been set to a real tty devce and not just to `/dev/tty'; i.e.
     `GPG_TTY=tty' is plainly wrong; what you want is `GPG_TTY=`tty`'
     -- note the back ticks.  Also make sure that this environment
     variable gets exported, that is you should follow up the setting
     with an `export GPG_TTY' (assuming a Bourne style shell). Even for
     GUI based Pinentries; you should have set `GPG_TTY'. See the
     section on installing the `gpg-agent' on how to do it.

   * SSH hangs while a popping up pinentry was expected

     SSH has no way to tell the gpg-agent what terminal or X display it
     is running on.  So when remotely logging into a box where a
     gpg-agent with SSH support is running, the pinentry will get
     popped up on whatever display the gpg-agent has been started.  To
     solve this problem you may issue the command

          echo UPDATESTARTUPTTY | gpg-connect-agent

     and the next pinentry will pop up on your display or screen.
     However, you need to kill the running pinentry first because only
     one pinentry may be running at once.  If you plan to use ssh on a
     new display you should issue the above command before invoking ssh
     or any other service making use of ssh.

   * Exporting a secret key without a certificate

     I may happen that you have created a certificate request using
     `gpgsm' but not yet received and imported the certificate from the
     CA.  However, you want to export the secret key to another machine
     right now to import the certificate over there then.  You can do
     this with a little trick but it requires that you know the
     approximate time you created the signing request.  By running the
     command

            ls -ltr ~/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d

     you get a listing of all private keys under control of `gpg-agent'.
     Pick the key which best matches the creation time and run the
     command

            /usr/local/libexec/gpg-protect-tool --p12-export ~/.gnupg/private-keys-v1.d/FOO >FOO.p12

     (Please adjust the path to `gpg-protect-tool' to the appropriate
     location). FOO is the name of the key file you picked (it should
     have the suffix `.key').  A Pinentry box will pop up and ask you
     for the current passphrase of the key and a new passphrase to
     protect it in the pkcs#12 file.

     To import the created file on the machine you use this command:

            /usr/local/libexec/gpg-protect-tool --p12-import --store  FOO.p12

     You will be asked for the pkcs#12 passphrase and a new passphrase
     to protect the imported private key at its new location.

     Note that there is no easy way to match existing certificates with
     stored private keys because some private keys are used for Secure
     Shell or other purposes and don't have a corresponding certificate.

   * A root certificate does not verify

     A common problem is that the root certificate misses the required
     basicConstrains attribute and thus `gpgsm' rejects this
     certificate.  An error message indicating "no value" is a sign for
     such a certificate.  You may use the `relax' flag in
     `trustlist.txt' to accept the certificate anyway.  Note that the
     fingerprint and this flag may only be added manually to
     `trustlist.txt'.

   * Error message: "digest algorithm N has not been enabled"

     The signature is broken.  You may try the option
     `--extra-digest-algo SHA256' to workaround the problem.  The
     number N is the internal algorithm identifier; for example 8
     refers to SHA-256.

   * The Windows version does not work under Wine

     When running the W32 version of `gpg' under Wine you may get an
     error messages like:

          gpg: fatal: WriteConsole failed: Access denied

     The solution is to use the command `wineconsole'.

     Some operations like gen-key really want to talk to the console
     directly for increased security (for example to prevent the
     passphrase from appearing on the screen).  So, you should use
     `wineconsole' instead of `wine', which will launch a windows
     console that implements those additional features.

   * Why does GPG's -search-key list weird keys?

     For performance reasons the keyservers do not check the keys the
     same way `gpg' does.  It may happen that the listing of keys
     available on the keyservers shows keys with wrong user IDs or with
     user Ids from other keys.  If you try to import this key, the bad
     keys or bad user ids won't get imported, though.  This is a bit
     unfortunate but we can't do anything about it without actually
     downloading the keys.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Architecture Details,  Prev: Common Problems,  Up: Debugging

10.4 How the whole thing works internally.
==========================================

* Menu:

* GnuPG-1 and GnuPG-2::   Relationship between the two branches.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: GnuPG-1 and GnuPG-2,  Up: Architecture Details

10.4.1 Relationship between the two branches.
---------------------------------------------

Here is a little picture showing how the components work together:

[image src="gnupg-card-architecture.png"]

Lets try to explain it:

   TO BE DONE.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Copying,  Next: Contributors,  Prev: Debugging,  Up: Top

GNU General Public License
**************************

                        Version 3, 29 June 2007

     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
     license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble
========

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software
and other kinds of works.

   The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works.  By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program-to make sure it remains free
software for all its users.  We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
any other work released this way by its authors.  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

   To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights.  Therefore, you
have certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software,
or if you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received.  You must make sure that they, too, receive
or can get the source code.  And you must show them these terms so they
know their rights.

   Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

   For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
that there is no warranty for this free software.  For both users' and
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
authors of previous versions.

   Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
modified versions of the software inside them, although the
manufacturer can do so.  This is fundamentally incompatible with the
aim of protecting users' freedom to change the software.  The
systematic pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for
individuals to use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable.
Therefore, we have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the
practice for those products.  If such problems arise substantially in
other domains, we stand ready to extend this provision to those domains
in future versions of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of
users.

   Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to
avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
make it effectively proprietary.  To prevent this, the GPL assures that
patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

                         TERMS AND CONDITIONS
  0. Definitions.

     "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public
     License.

     "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other
     kinds of works, such as semiconductor masks.

     "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
     License.  Each licensee is addressed as "you".  "Licensees" and
     "recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

     To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the
     work in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the
     making of an exact copy.  The resulting work is called a "modified
     version" of the earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

     A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work
     based on the Program.

     To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
     permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
     infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it
     on a computer or modifying a private copy.  Propagation includes
     copying, distribution (with or without modification), making
     available to the public, and in some countries other activities as
     well.

     To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
     parties to make or receive copies.  Mere interaction with a user
     through a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not
     conveying.

     An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
     to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
     feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
     tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to
     the extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may
     convey the work under this License, and how to view a copy of this
     License.  If the interface presents a list of user commands or
     options, such as a menu, a prominent item in the list meets this
     criterion.

  1. Source Code.

     The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
     for making modifications to it.  "Object code" means any
     non-source form of a work.

     A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an
     official standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in
     the case of interfaces specified for a particular programming
     language, one that is widely used among developers working in that
     language.

     The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything,
     other than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal
     form of packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that
     Major Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work
     with that Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface
     for which an implementation is available to the public in source
     code form.  A "Major Component", in this context, means a major
     essential component (kernel, window system, and so on) of the
     specific operating system (if any) on which the executable work
     runs, or a compiler used to produce the work, or an object code
     interpreter used to run it.

     The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all
     the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable
     work) run the object code and to modify the work, including
     scripts to control those activities.  However, it does not include
     the work's System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally
     available free programs which are used unmodified in performing
     those activities but which are not part of the work.  For example,
     Corresponding Source includes interface definition files
     associated with source files for the work, and the source code for
     shared libraries and dynamically linked subprograms that the work
     is specifically designed to require, such as by intimate data
     communication or control flow between those subprograms and other
     parts of the work.

     The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users can
     regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding
     Source.

     The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
     same work.

  2. Basic Permissions.

     All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
     copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated
     conditions are met.  This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
     permission to run the unmodified Program.  The output from running
     a covered work is covered by this License only if the output,
     given its content, constitutes a covered work.  This License
     acknowledges your rights of fair use or other equivalent, as
     provided by copyright law.

     You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
     convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise
     remains in force.  You may convey covered works to others for the
     sole purpose of having them make modifications exclusively for
     you, or provide you with facilities for running those works,
     provided that you comply with the terms of this License in
     conveying all material for which you do not control copyright.
     Those thus making or running the covered works for you must do so
     exclusively on your behalf, under your direction and control, on
     terms that prohibit them from making any copies of your
     copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

     Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under
     the conditions stated below.  Sublicensing is not allowed; section
     10 makes it unnecessary.

  3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

     No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological
     measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under
     article 11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December
     1996, or similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of
     such measures.

     When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
     circumvention of technological measures to the extent such
     circumvention is effected by exercising rights under this License
     with respect to the covered work, and you disclaim any intention
     to limit operation or modification of the work as a means of
     enforcing, against the work's users, your or third parties' legal
     rights to forbid circumvention of technological measures.

  4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

     You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
     receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
     appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice;
     keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
     non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the
     code; keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and
     give all recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

     You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
     and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

  5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

     You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
     produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the
     terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these
     conditions:

       a. The work must carry prominent notices stating that you
          modified it, and giving a relevant date.

       b. The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
          released under this License and any conditions added under
          section 7.  This requirement modifies the requirement in
          section 4 to "keep intact all notices".

       c. You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
          License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy.  This
          License will therefore apply, along with any applicable
          section 7 additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all
          its parts, regardless of how they are packaged.  This License
          gives no permission to license the work in any other way, but
          it does not invalidate such permission if you have separately
          received it.

       d. If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
          Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has
          interactive interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal
          Notices, your work need not make them do so.

     A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
     works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered
     work, and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger
     program, in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is
     called an "aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting
     copyright are not used to limit the access or legal rights of the
     compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
     Inclusion of a covered work in an aggregate does not cause this
     License to apply to the other parts of the aggregate.

  6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

     You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
     of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the
     machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this
     License, in one of these ways:

       a. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
          (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the
          Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium
          customarily used for software interchange.

       b. Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
          (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a
          written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for
          as long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that
          product model, to give anyone who possesses the object code
          either (1) a copy of the Corresponding Source for all the
          software in the product that is covered by this License, on a
          durable physical medium customarily used for software
          interchange, for a price no more than your reasonable cost of
          physically performing this conveying of source, or (2) access
          to copy the Corresponding Source from a network server at no
          charge.

       c. Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of
          the written offer to provide the Corresponding Source.  This
          alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially,
          and only if you received the object code with such an offer,
          in accord with subsection 6b.

       d. Convey the object code by offering access from a designated
          place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access
          to the Corresponding Source in the same way through the same
          place at no further charge.  You need not require recipients
          to copy the Corresponding Source along with the object code.
          If the place to copy the object code is a network server, the
          Corresponding Source may be on a different server (operated
          by you or a third party) that supports equivalent copying
          facilities, provided you maintain clear directions next to
          the object code saying where to find the Corresponding Source.
          Regardless of what server hosts the Corresponding Source, you
          remain obligated to ensure that it is available for as long
          as needed to satisfy these requirements.

       e. Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission,
          provided you inform other peers where the object code and
          Corresponding Source of the work are being offered to the
          general public at no charge under subsection 6d.


     A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is
     excluded from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need
     not be included in conveying the object code work.

     A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means
     any tangible personal property which is normally used for personal,
     family, or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for
     incorporation into a dwelling.  In determining whether a product
     is a consumer product, doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of
     coverage.  For a particular product received by a particular user,
     "normally used" refers to a typical or common use of that class of
     product, regardless of the status of the particular user or of the
     way in which the particular user actually uses, or expects or is
     expected to use, the product.  A product is a consumer product
     regardless of whether the product has substantial commercial,
     industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent the
     only significant mode of use of the product.

     "Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods,
     procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to
     install and execute modified versions of a covered work in that
     User Product from a modified version of its Corresponding Source.
     The information must suffice to ensure that the continued
     functioning of the modified object code is in no case prevented or
     interfered with solely because modification has been made.

     If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with,
     or specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying
     occurs as part of a transaction in which the right of possession
     and use of the User Product is transferred to the recipient in
     perpetuity or for a fixed term (regardless of how the transaction
     is characterized), the Corresponding Source conveyed under this
     section must be accompanied by the Installation Information.  But
     this requirement does not apply if neither you nor any third party
     retains the ability to install modified object code on the User
     Product (for example, the work has been installed in ROM).

     The requirement to provide Installation Information does not
     include a requirement to continue to provide support service,
     warranty, or updates for a work that has been modified or
     installed by the recipient, or for the User Product in which it
     has been modified or installed.  Access to a network may be denied
     when the modification itself materially and adversely affects the
     operation of the network or violates the rules and protocols for
     communication across the network.

     Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information
     provided, in accord with this section must be in a format that is
     publicly documented (and with an implementation available to the
     public in source code form), and must require no special password
     or key for unpacking, reading or copying.

  7. Additional Terms.

     "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of
     this License by making exceptions from one or more of its
     conditions.  Additional permissions that are applicable to the
     entire Program shall be treated as though they were included in
     this License, to the extent that they are valid under applicable
     law.  If additional permissions apply only to part of the Program,
     that part may be used separately under those permissions, but the
     entire Program remains governed by this License without regard to
     the additional permissions.

     When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
     remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part
     of it.  (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
     removal in certain cases when you modify the work.)  You may place
     additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work,
     for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material
     you add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright
     holders of that material) supplement the terms of this License
     with terms:

       a. Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from
          the terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or

       b. Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices
          or author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate
          Legal Notices displayed by works containing it; or

       c. Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material,
          or requiring that modified versions of such material be
          marked in reasonable ways as different from the original
          version; or

       d. Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors
          or authors of the material; or

       e. Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some
          trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or

       f. Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that
          material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified
          versions of it) with contractual assumptions of liability to
          the recipient, for any liability that these contractual
          assumptions directly impose on those licensors and authors.

     All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
     restrictions" within the meaning of section 10.  If the Program as
     you received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that
     it is governed by this License along with a term that is a further
     restriction, you may remove that term.  If a license document
     contains a further restriction but permits relicensing or
     conveying under this License, you may add to a covered work
     material governed by the terms of that license document, provided
     that the further restriction does not survive such relicensing or
     conveying.

     If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
     must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
     additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
     where to find the applicable terms.

     Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in
     the form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
     the above requirements apply either way.

  8. Termination.

     You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
     provided under this License.  Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
     modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights
     under this License (including any patent licenses granted under
     the third paragraph of section 11).

     However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
     license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
     provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly
     and finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the
     copyright holder fails to notify you of the violation by some
     reasonable means prior to 60 days after the cessation.

     Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
     reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
     violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
     received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from
     that copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days
     after your receipt of the notice.

     Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate
     the licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from
     you under this License.  If your rights have been terminated and
     not permanently reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new
     licenses for the same material under section 10.

  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

     You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
     run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
     occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer
     transmission to receive a copy likewise does not require
     acceptance.  However, nothing other than this License grants you
     permission to propagate or modify any covered work.  These actions
     infringe copyright if you do not accept this License.  Therefore,
     by modifying or propagating a covered work, you indicate your
     acceptance of this License to do so.

 10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

     Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
     receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
     propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not
     responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties with this
     License.

     An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
     organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
     organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a
     covered work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
     transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
     licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or
     could give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to
     possession of the Corresponding Source of the work from the
     predecessor in interest, if the predecessor has it or can get it
     with reasonable efforts.

     You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
     rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you
     may not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for
     exercise of rights granted under this License, and you may not
     initiate litigation (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a
     lawsuit) alleging that any patent claim is infringed by making,
     using, selling, offering for sale, or importing the Program or any
     portion of it.

 11. Patents.

     A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
     License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.
     The work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor
     version".

     A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
     owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
     hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner,
     permitted by this License, of making, using, or selling its
     contributor version, but do not include claims that would be
     infringed only as a consequence of further modification of the
     contributor version.  For purposes of this definition, "control"
     includes the right to grant patent sublicenses in a manner
     consistent with the requirements of this License.

     Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide,
     royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential
     patent claims, to make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and
     otherwise run, modify and propagate the contents of its
     contributor version.

     In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any
     express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to
     enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a
     patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement).  To
     "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an
     agreement or commitment not to enforce a patent against the party.

     If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent
     license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available
     for anyone to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this
     License, through a publicly available network server or other
     readily accessible means, then you must either (1) cause the
     Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive
     yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular
     work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements
     of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream
     recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge
     that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work
     in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a
     country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
     country that you have reason to believe are valid.

     If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
     arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
     covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
     receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate,
     modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the
     patent license you grant is automatically extended to all
     recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

     A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
     the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
     conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that
     are specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a
     covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third
     party that is in the business of distributing software, under
     which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of
     your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third
     party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered
     work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection
     with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made
     from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with
     specific products or compilations that contain the covered work,
     unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license
     was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

     Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
     any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
     otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

     If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
     agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
     License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this
     License.  If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy
     simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other
     pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it
     at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to
     collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you
     convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those
     terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying
     the Program.

 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
     permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
     under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a
     single combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms
     of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the
     covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero
     General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through
     a network will apply to the combination as such.

 14. Revised Versions of this License.

     The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time.
     Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present
     version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
     concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU
     General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that numbered version or of any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a
     version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose
     any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

     If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
     versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

     Later license versions may give you additional or different
     permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
     author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
     later version.

 15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

     THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
     APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
     COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS"
     WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED,
     INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
     MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE
     RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.
     SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL
     NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

 16. Limitation of Liability.

     IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN
     WRITING WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES
     AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
     FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR
     CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
     THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA
     BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
     PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
     PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
     THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

     If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
     above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
     reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely
     approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in
     connection with the Program, unless a warranty or assumption of
     liability accompanies a copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                        END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

     If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

     To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is
safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most
effectively state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have
at least the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is
found.
          ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
          Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR

          This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
          it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
          the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
          your option) any later version.

          This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
          WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
          MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
          General Public License for more details.

          You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
          along with this program.  If not, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

     Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

     If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

          PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
          This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
          This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

     The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would
use an "about box".

     You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

     The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.  But first,
please read `http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html'.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Contributors,  Next: Glossary,  Prev: Copying,  Up: Top

Contributors to GnuPG
*********************

The GnuPG project would like to thank its many contributors.  Without
them the project would not have been nearly as successful as it has
been.  Any omissions in this list are accidental.  Feel free to contact
the maintainer if you have been left out or some of your contributions
are not listed.

   David Shaw, Matthew Skala, Michael Roth, Niklas Hernaeus, Nils
Ellmenreich, Rémi Guyomarch, Stefan Bellon, Timo Schulz and Werner Koch
wrote the code.  Birger Langkjer, Daniel Resare, Dokianakis Theofanis,
Edmund GRIMLEY EVANS, Gaël Quéri, Gregory Steuck, Nagy Ferenc László,
Ivo Timmermans, Jacobo Tarri'o Barreiro, Janusz Aleksander Urbanowicz,
Jedi Lin, Jouni Hiltunen, Laurentiu Buzdugan, Magda Procha'zkova',
Michael Anckaert, Michal Majer, Marco d'Itri, Nilgun Belma Buguner,
Pedro Morais, Tedi Heriyanto, Thiago Jung Bauermann, Rafael Caetano dos
Santos, Toomas Soome, Urko Lusa, Walter Koch, Yosiaki IIDA did the
official translations. Mike Ashley wrote and maintains the GNU Privacy
Handbook. David Scribner is the current FAQ editor.  Lorenzo
Cappelletti maintains the web site.

   The new modularized architecture of gnupg 1.9 as well as the
X.509/CMS part has been developed as part of the Ägypten project.
Direct contributors to this project are: Bernhard Herzog, who did
extensive testing and tracked down a lot of bugs.  Bernhard Reiter, who
made sure that we met the specifications and the deadlines. He did
extensive testing and came up with a lot of suggestions. Jan-Oliver
Wagner made sure that we met the specifications and the deadlines.  He
also did extensive testing and came up with a lot of suggestions.
Karl-Heinz Zimmer and Marc Mutz had to struggle with all the bugs and
misconceptions while working on KDE integration. Marcus Brinkman
extended GPGME, cleaned up the Assuan code and fixed bugs all over the
place. Moritz Schulte took over Libgcrypt maintenance and developed it
into a stable an useful library.  Steffen Hansen had a hard time to
write the dirmngr due to underspecified interfaces. Thomas Koester did
extensive testing and tracked down a lot of bugs.  Werner Koch designed
the system and wrote most of the code.

   The following people helped greatly by suggesting improvements,
testing, fixing bugs, providing resources and doing other important
tasks: Adam Mitchell, Albert Chin, Alec Habig, Allan Clark, Anand
Kumria, Andreas Haumer, Anthony Mulcahy, Ariel T Glenn, Bob Mathews,
Bodo Moeller, Brendan O'Dea, Brenno de Winter, Brian M. Carlson, Brian
Moore, Brian Warner, Bryan Fullerton, Caskey L. Dickson, Cees van de
Griend, Charles Levert, Chip Salzenberg, Chris Adams, Christian Biere,
Christian Kurz, Christian von Roques, Christopher Oliver, Christian
Recktenwald, Dan Winship, Daniel Eisenbud, Daniel Koening, Dave
Dykstra, David C Niemi, David Champion, David Ellement, David Hallinan,
David Hollenberg, David Mathog, David R. Bergstein, Detlef Lannert,
Dimitri, Dirk Lattermann, Dirk Meyer, Disastry, Douglas Calvert, Ed
Boraas, Edmund GRIMLEY EVANS, Edwin Woudt, Enzo Michelangeli, Ernst
Molitor, Fabio Coatti, Felix von Leitner, fish stiqz, Florian Weimer,
Francesco Potorti, Frank Donahoe, Frank Heckenbach, Frank Stajano,
Frank Tobin, Gabriel Rosenkoetter, Gaël Quéri, Gene Carter, Geoff
Keating, Georg Schwarz, Giampaolo Tomassoni, Gilbert Fernandes, Greg
Louis, Greg Troxel, Gregory Steuck, Gregery Barton, Harald Denker,
Holger Baust, Hendrik Buschkamp, Holger Schurig, Holger Smolinski,
Holger Trapp, Hugh Daniel, Huy Le, Ian McKellar, Ivo Timmermans, Jan
Krueger, Jan Niehusmann, Janusz A. Urbanowicz, James Troup, Jean-loup
Gailly, Jeff Long, Jeffery Von Ronne, Jens Bachem, Jeroen C. van
Gelderen, J Horacio MG, J. Michael Ashley, Jim Bauer, Jim Small,
Joachim Backes, Joe Rhett, John A. Martin, Johnny Teveßen, Jörg
Schilling, Jos Backus, Joseph Walton, Juan F. Codagnone, Jun Kuriyama,
Kahil D. Jallad, Karl Fogel, Karsten Thygesen, Katsuhiro Kondou, Kazu
Yamamoto, Keith Clayton, Kevin Ryde, Klaus Singvogel, Kurt Garloff,
Lars Kellogg-Stedman, L. Sassaman, M Taylor, Marcel Waldvogel, Marco
d'Itri, Marco Parrone, Marcus Brinkmann, Mark Adler, Mark Elbrecht,
Mark Pettit, Markus Friedl, Martin Kahlert, Martin Hamilton, Martin
Schulte, Matt Kraai, Matthew Skala, Matthew Wilcox, Matthias Urlichs,
Max Valianskiy, Michael Engels, Michael Fischer v. Mollard, Michael
Roth, Michael Sobolev, Michael Tokarev, Nicolas Graner, Mike McEwan,
Neal H Walfield, Nelson H. F. Beebe, NIIBE Yutaka, Niklas Hernaeus,
Nimrod Zimerman, N J Doye, Oliver Haakert, Oskari Jääskeläinen, Pascal
Scheffers, Paul D. Smith, Per Cederqvist, Phil Blundell, Philippe
Laliberte, Peter Fales, Peter Gutmann, Peter Marschall, Peter Valchev,
Piotr Krukowiecki, QingLong, Ralph Gillen, Rat, Reinhard Wobst, Rémi
Guyomarch, Reuben Sumner, Richard Outerbridge, Robert Joop, Roddy
Strachan, Roger Sondermann, Roland Rosenfeld, Roman Pavlik, Ross
Golder, Ryan Malayter, Sam Roberts, Sami Tolvanen, Sean MacLennan,
Sebastian Klemke, Serge Munhoven, SL Baur, Stefan Bellon,
Dr.Stefan.Dalibor, Stefan Karrmann, Stefan Keller, Steffen Ullrich,
Steffen Zahn, Steven Bakker, Steven Murdoch, Susanne Schultz, Ted
Cabeen, Thiago Jung Bauermann, Thijmen Klok, Thomas Roessler, Tim
Mooney, Timo Schulz, Todd Vierling, TOGAWA Satoshi, Tom Spindler, Tom
Zerucha, Tomas Fasth, Tommi Komulainen, Thomas Klausner, Tomasz
Kozlowski, Thomas Mikkelsen, Ulf Möller, Urko Lusa, Vincent P. Broman,
Volker Quetschke, W Lewis, Walter Hofmann, Walter Koch, Wayne
Chapeskie, Wim Vandeputte, Winona Brown, Yosiaki IIDA, Yoshihiro Kajiki
and Gerlinde Klaes.

   This software has been made possible by the previous work of Chris
Wedgwood, Jean-loup Gailly, Jon Callas, Mark Adler, Martin Hellmann
Paul Kendall, Philip R. Zimmermann, Peter Gutmann, Philip A. Nelson,
Taher ElGamal, Torbjorn Granlund, Whitfield Diffie, some unknown NSA
mathematicians and all the folks who have worked hard to create
complete and free operating systems.

   And finally we'd like to thank everyone who uses these tools, submits
bug reports and generally reminds us why we're doing this work in the
first place.

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Glossary,  Next: Option Index,  Prev: Contributors,  Up: Top

Glossary
********

`ARL'
     The _Authority Revocation List_ is technical identical to a CRL
     but used for CAs and not for end user certificates.

`Chain model'
     Verification model for X.509 which uses the creation date of a
     signature as the date the validation starts and in turn checks
     that each certificate has been issued within the time frame, the
     issuing certificate was valid.  This allows the verification of
     signatures after the CA's certificate expired.  The validation
     test also required an online check of the certificate status.  The
     chain model is required by the German signature law.  See also
     _Shell model_.

`CMS'
     The _Cryptographic Message Standard_ describes a message format
     for encryption and digital signing.  It is closely related to the
     X.509 certificate format.  CMS was formerly known under the name
     `PKCS#7' and is described by `RFC3369'.

`CRL'
     The _Certificate Revocation List_ is a list containing
     certificates revoked by the issuer.

`CSR'
     The _Certificate Signing Request_ is a message send to a CA to ask
     them to issue a new certificate.  The data format of such a signing
     request is called PCKS#10.

`OpenPGP'
     A data format used to build a PKI and to exchange encrypted or
     signed messages.  In contrast to X.509, OpenPGP also includes the
     message format but does not explicitly demand a specific PKI.
     However any kind of PKI may be build upon the OpenPGP protocol.

`Keygrip'
     This term is used by GnuPG to describe a 20 byte hash value used
     to identify a certain key without referencing to a concrete
     protocol.  It is used internally to access a private key.  Usually
     it is shown and entered as a 40 character hexadecimal formatted
     string.

`OCSP'
     The _Online Certificate Status Protocol_ is used as an alternative
     to a CRL.  It is described in `RFC 2560'.

`PSE'
     The _Personal Security Environment_ describes a database to store
     private keys.  This is either a smartcard or a collection of files
     on a disk; the latter is often called a Soft-PSE.

`Shell model'
     The standard model for validation of certificates under X.509.  At
     the time of the verification all certificates must be valid and
     not expired.  See also _Chain mode_.

`X.509'
     Description of a PKI used with CMS.  It is for example defined by
     `RFC3280'.


File: gnupg.info,  Node: Option Index,  Next: Index,  Prev: Glossary,  Up: Top

Option Index
************

[index]
* Menu:

* --enarmor:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 311)
* -a:                                    Input and Output.    (line   8)
* -u:                                    Input and Output.    (line  42)
* agent-program:                         Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  34)
* allow-admin:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 171)
* allow-mark-trusted:                    Agent Options.       (line 144)
* armor <1>:                             Input and Output.    (line   8)
* armor:                                 GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line   8)
* assume-armor:                          Input and Output.    (line  14)
* assume-base64:                         Input and Output.    (line  18)
* assume-binary:                         Input and Output.    (line  21)
* auto-issuer-key-retrieve:              Certificate Options. (line  50)
* base64:                                Input and Output.    (line  11)
* batch <1>:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  39)
* batch:                                 Agent Options.       (line  33)
* c:                                     Agent Options.       (line 118)
* call-dirmngr:                          Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  27)
* call-protect-tool:                     Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  41)
* card-edit:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 157)
* card-status:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 163)
* card-timeout:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 155)
* change-pin:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 166)
* check-passphrase-pattern:              Agent Options.       (line 188)
* check-sigs:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 126)
* check-trustdb:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 257)
* cipher-algo:                           CMS Options.         (line  14)
* clearsign:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  17)
* csh:                                   Agent Options.       (line 118)
* ctapi-driver:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 133)
* daemon <1>:                            Scdaemon Commands.   (line  31)
* daemon:                                Agent Commands.      (line  27)
* debug <1>:                             Scdaemon Options.    (line  61)
* debug <2>:                             Esoteric Options.    (line  58)
* debug <3>:                             GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  51)
* debug:                                 Agent Options.       (line  71)
* debug-all <1>:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line  93)
* debug-all <2>:                         Esoteric Options.    (line  92)
* debug-all:                             Agent Options.       (line 103)
* debug-allow-core-dump <1>:             Scdaemon Options.    (line 110)
* debug-allow-core-dump:                 Esoteric Options.    (line  95)
* debug-disable-ticker:                  Scdaemon Options.    (line 106)
* debug-ignore-expiration:               Esoteric Options.    (line 106)
* debug-level <1>:                       Scdaemon Options.    (line  28)
* debug-level <2>:                       Esoteric Options.    (line  29)
* debug-level <3>:                       GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  22)
* debug-level:                           Agent Options.       (line  42)
* debug-log-tid:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line 116)
* debug-no-chain-validation:             Esoteric Options.    (line 102)
* debug-wait <1>:                        Scdaemon Options.    (line  96)
* debug-wait:                            Agent Options.       (line 106)
* decode:                                Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  63)
* decrypt <1>:                           gpg-zip.             (line  22)
* decrypt <2>:                           Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* decrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  52)
* decrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  87)
* default-cache-ttl:                     Agent Options.       (line 155)
* default-key <1>:                       Input and Output.    (line  34)
* default-key:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  10)
* default-keyserver-url:                 GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 454)
* default-preference-list:               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 449)
* default-recipient:                     GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  15)
* default-recipient-self:                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* delete-key:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 171)
* delete-keys:                           Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  57)
* delete-secret-and-public-key:          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 180)
* delete-secret-key:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 176)
* deny-admin:                            Scdaemon Options.    (line 171)
* desig-revoke:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  21)
* detach-sign:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  27)
* dirmnr-program:                        Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  40)
* disable-application:                   Scdaemon Options.    (line 181)
* disable-ccid:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 138)
* disable-crl-checks:                    Certificate Options. (line  13)
* disable-keypad:                        Scdaemon Options.    (line 168)
* disable-ocsp:                          Certificate Options. (line  41)
* disable-policy-checks:                 Certificate Options. (line   8)
* disable-scdaemon:                      Agent Options.       (line 228)
* disable-trusted-cert-crl-check:        Certificate Options. (line  19)
* display:                               Agent Options.       (line 250)
* dry-run:                               GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* dump-cert:                             Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  33)
* dump-chain:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  37)
* dump-external-keys:                    Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  44)
* dump-keys:                             Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  33)
* dump-options <1>:                      Scdaemon Commands.   (line  18)
* dump-options <2>:                      General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  19)
* dump-options <3>:                      General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  19)
* dump-options:                          Agent Commands.      (line  19)
* dump-secret-keys:                      Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  40)
* edit-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  26)
* enable-crl-checks:                     Certificate Options. (line  13)
* enable-ocsp:                           Certificate Options. (line  41)
* enable-passphrase-history:             Agent Options.       (line 207)
* enable-policy-checks:                  Certificate Options. (line   8)
* enable-ssh-support:                    Agent Options.       (line 260)
* enable-trusted-cert-crl-check:         Certificate Options. (line  19)
* enarmor:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 311)
* encrypt <1>:                           gpg-zip.             (line  17)
* encrypt <2>:                           Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* encrypt:                               Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  31)
* encrypt-files:                         Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  84)
* enforce-passphrase-constraints:        Agent Options.       (line 173)
* exec:                                  Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  38)
* export <1>:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  66)
* export:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 185)
* export-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 272)
* export-secret-keys:                    Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 201)
* export-secret-subkeys:                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 201)
* extra-digest-algo:                     Esoteric Options.    (line   7)
* faked-system-time <1>:                 Esoteric Options.    (line  18)
* faked-system-time:                     Agent Options.       (line  37)
* fetch-keys:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 242)
* fingerprint:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 146)
* fixed-list-mode:                       GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 117)
* fixed-passphrase:                      Esoteric Options.    (line 111)
* force:                                 watchgnupg.          (line  22)
* force-crl-refresh:                     Certificate Options. (line  30)
* forget:                                Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  24)
* gen-key <1>:                           Certificate Management.
                                                              (line   7)
* gen-key:                               OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line   9)
* gen-prime:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 305)
* gen-random:                            Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 299)
* gen-revoke:                            OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  17)
* gnupg:                                 OpenPGP Options.     (line 108)
* gpg:                                   gpg-zip.             (line  50)
* gpg-args:                              gpg-zip.             (line  53)
* gpgconf-list:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 467)
* gpgconf-test:                          GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 471)
* help <1>:                              gpg-zip.             (line  65)
* help <2>:                              watchgnupg.          (line  31)
* help <3>:                              Scdaemon Commands.   (line  14)
* help <4>:                              General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  11)
* help <5>:                              General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  12)
* help:                                  Agent Commands.      (line  15)
* hex:                                   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  59)
* hidden-recipient:                      GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  14)
* homedir <1>:                           Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  38)
* homedir <2>:                           Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  22)
* homedir <3>:                           gpgv.                (line  53)
* homedir <4>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line  13)
* homedir <5>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  16)
* homedir <6>:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 217)
* homedir:                               Agent Options.       (line  13)
* ignore-cache-for-signing:              Agent Options.       (line 149)
* ignore-cert-extension:                 Certificate Options. (line  69)
* ignore-time-conflict:                  gpgv.                (line  47)
* import <1>:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  87)
* import:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 211)
* import-ownertrust:                     Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 278)
* include-certs:                         CMS Options.         (line   7)
* interactive:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line  19)
* keep-display:                          Agent Options.       (line 255)
* keep-tty:                              Agent Options.       (line 255)
* keydb-clear-some-cert-flags:           Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  49)
* keyedit:addcardkey:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 163)
* keyedit:addkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 160)
* keyedit:addphoto:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  81)
* keyedit:addrevoker:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 211)
* keyedit:adduid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  78)
* keyedit:bkuptocard:                    OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 177)
* keyedit:check:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  75)
* keyedit:clean:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 223)
* keyedit:cross-certify:                 OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 237)
* keyedit:delkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 188)
* keyedit:delsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  65)
* keyedit:deluid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  91)
* keyedit:disable:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 207)
* keyedit:enable:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 207)
* keyedit:expire:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 196)
* keyedit:key:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  35)
* keyedit:keyserver:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 108)
* keyedit:keytocard:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 166)
* keyedit:lsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  46)
* keyedit:minimize:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 232)
* keyedit:notation:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 115)
* keyedit:nrsign:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  51)
* keyedit:passwd:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 217)
* keyedit:pref:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 123)
* keyedit:primary:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 100)
* keyedit:quit:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 248)
* keyedit:revkey:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 193)
* keyedit:revsig:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  70)
* keyedit:revuid:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  97)
* keyedit:save:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 245)
* keyedit:setpref:                       OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 135)
* keyedit:showphoto:                     OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  88)
* keyedit:showpref:                      OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 127)
* keyedit:sign:                          OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  39)
* keyedit:toggle:                        OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 220)
* keyedit:trust:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 202)
* keyedit:tsign:                         OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  55)
* keyedit:uid:                           OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line  31)
* keyring:                               gpgv.                (line  34)
* lc-ctype:                              Agent Options.       (line 250)
* lc-messages:                           Agent Options.       (line 250)
* learn-card:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  92)
* list-archive:                          gpg-zip.             (line  43)
* list-chain:                            Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  29)
* list-config:                           GPG Esoteric Options.
                                                              (line 459)
* list-keys <1>:                         Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  14)
* list-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  92)
* list-options:                          GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  59)
* list-options:show-notations:           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  78)
* list-options:show-photos:              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  67)
* list-options:show-policy-urls:         GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  72)
* list-options:show-std-notations:       GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  78)
* list-options:show-user-notations:      GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  78)
* list-packets:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 153)
* list-secret-keys <1>:                  Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  21)
* list-secret-keys:                      Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 102)
* list-sigs:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 108)
* local-user <1>:                        gpg-zip.             (line  40)
* local-user <2>:                        Input and Output.    (line  42)
* local-user:                            GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line  63)
* locate-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 139)
* log-file <1>:                          Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  46)
* log-file <2>:                          Scdaemon Options.    (line 123)
* log-file <3>:                          Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  59)
* log-file:                              Agent Options.       (line 140)
* logger-fd:                             gpgv.                (line  44)
* lsign-key:                             OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 283)
* mangle-dos-filenames:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* max-cache-ttl:                         Agent Options.       (line 163)
* max-cache-ttl-ssh:                     Agent Options.       (line 168)
* max-output:                            GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  19)
* max-passphrase-days:                   Agent Options.       (line 202)
* min-passphrase-len:                    Agent Options.       (line 177)
* min-passphrase-nonalpha:               Agent Options.       (line 182)
* multi-server:                          Scdaemon Commands.   (line  26)
* multifile:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  73)
* no:                                    GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  56)
* no-batch:                              GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  39)
* no-common-certs-import:                Esoteric Options.    (line 116)
* no-default-recipient:                  GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  25)
* no-detach <1>:                         Scdaemon Options.    (line 119)
* no-detach:                             Agent Options.       (line 111)
* no-ext-connect:                        Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  45)
* no-grab:                               Agent Options.       (line 136)
* no-mangle-dos-filenames:               GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line 288)
* no-secmem-warning:                     Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  55)
* no-tty:                                GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  48)
* no-use-standard-socket:                Agent Options.       (line 235)
* no-verbose:                            GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  32)
* openpgp:                               OpenPGP Options.     (line 116)
* options <1>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line   7)
* options <2>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  10)
* options:                               Agent Options.       (line   7)
* output <1>:                            gpg-zip.             (line  47)
* output <2>:                            Input and Output.    (line  52)
* output:                                GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line  16)
* p12-charset:                           Input and Output.    (line  24)
* passphrase:                            Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  35)
* passwd:                                Certificate Management.
                                                              (line  97)
* pcsc-driver:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 127)
* pgp2:                                  OpenPGP Options.     (line 134)
* pgp6:                                  OpenPGP Options.     (line 147)
* pgp7:                                  OpenPGP Options.     (line 158)
* pgp8:                                  OpenPGP Options.     (line 164)
* pinentry-program:                      Agent Options.       (line 210)
* pinentry-touch-file:                   Agent Options.       (line 214)
* policy-file:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  31)
* prefer-system-dirmngr:                 Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  46)
* preset:                                Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  20)
* print-md:                              Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 294)
* q <1>:                                 Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  35)
* q <2>:                                 Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  19)
* q:                                     Agent Options.       (line  30)
* quiet <1>:                             Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  35)
* quiet <2>:                             Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  19)
* quiet <3>:                             gpgv.                (line  31)
* quiet <4>:                             GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  35)
* quiet:                                 Agent Options.       (line  30)
* raw-socket:                            Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  31)
* reader-port:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line 144)
* rebuild-keydb-caches:                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 288)
* recipient <1>:                         gpg-zip.             (line  36)
* recipient <2>:                         Input and Output.    (line  47)
* recipient:                             GPG Key related Options.
                                                              (line   8)
* recv-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 220)
* refresh-keys:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 224)
* rfc1991:                               OpenPGP Options.     (line 131)
* rfc2440:                               OpenPGP Options.     (line 127)
* rfc4880:                               OpenPGP Options.     (line 122)
* run:                                   Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  50)
* S:                                     Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  31)
* s:                                     Agent Options.       (line 118)
* scdaemon-program:                      Agent Options.       (line 223)
* search-keys:                           Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 233)
* send-keys:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 192)
* server <1>:                            Scdaemon Commands.   (line  22)
* server <2>:                            Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  24)
* server:                                Agent Commands.      (line  23)
* sh:                                    Agent Options.       (line 118)
* sign <1>:                              Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  16)
* sign:                                  Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   8)
* sign-key:                              OpenPGP Key Management.
                                                              (line 279)
* status-fd:                             gpgv.                (line  40)
* store:                                 Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  48)
* subst:                                 Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  56)
* symmetric:                             Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  39)
* tar:                                   gpg-zip.             (line  56)
* tar-args:                              gpg-zip.             (line  59)
* ttyname:                               Agent Options.       (line 250)
* ttytype:                               Agent Options.       (line 250)
* update-trustdb:                        Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line 247)
* use-standard-socket:                   Agent Options.       (line 235)
* v <1>:                                 Scdaemon Options.    (line  23)
* v <2>:                                 Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  26)
* v:                                     Agent Options.       (line  23)
* validation-model:                      Certificate Options. (line  61)
* verbose <1>:                           Invoking symcryptrun.
                                                              (line  30)
* verbose <2>:                           Invoking gpg-connect-agent.
                                                              (line  14)
* verbose <3>:                           Invoking gpg-preset-passphrase.
                                                              (line  31)
* verbose <4>:                           gpgv.                (line  26)
* verbose <5>:                           watchgnupg.          (line  25)
* verbose <6>:                           Scdaemon Options.    (line  23)
* verbose <7>:                           Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  26)
* verbose <8>:                           GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  28)
* verbose:                               Agent Options.       (line  23)
* verify <1>:                            Operational GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  20)
* verify:                                Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  60)
* verify-files:                          Operational GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  81)
* version <1>:                           gpg-zip.             (line  62)
* version <2>:                           watchgnupg.          (line  28)
* version <3>:                           Scdaemon Commands.   (line  10)
* version <4>:                           General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* version <5>:                           General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line   7)
* version:                               Agent Commands.      (line  10)
* warranty <1>:                          General GPGSM Commands.
                                                              (line  15)
* warranty:                              General GPG Commands.
                                                              (line  16)
* with-colons:                           GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 109)
* with-ephemeral-keys:                   Esoteric Options.    (line  24)
* with-fingerprint:                      GPG Input and Output.
                                                              (line 123)
* with-key-data:                         Input and Output.    (line  55)
* with-validation:                       Input and Output.    (line  61)
* write-env-file:                        Agent Options.       (line 124)
* xauthority:                            Agent Options.       (line 250)
* yes:                                   GPG Configuration Options.
                                                              (line  53)

File: gnupg.info,  Node: Index,  Prev: Option Index,  Up: Top

Index
*****

[index]
* Menu:

* com-certs.pem:                         GPGSM Configuration. (line  84)
* command options <1>:                   Invoking SCDAEMON.   (line   6)
* command options <2>:                   Invoking GPGSM.      (line   6)
* command options <3>:                   Invoking GPG.        (line   6)
* command options:                       Invoking GPG-AGENT.  (line   6)
* contributors:                          Contributors.        (line   6)
* GPG command options:                   Invoking GPG.        (line   6)
* GPG-AGENT command options:             Invoking GPG-AGENT.  (line   6)
* gpg-agent.conf:                        Agent Configuration. (line  11)
* gpg.conf:                              GPG Configuration.   (line  11)
* gpgconf.conf:                          Files used by gpgconf.
                                                              (line   7)
* GPGSM command options:                 Invoking GPGSM.      (line   6)
* gpgsm.conf:                            GPGSM Configuration. (line  11)
* help.txt:                              GPGSM Configuration. (line  72)
* options, GPG command:                  Invoking GPG.        (line   6)
* options, GPG-AGENT command:            Invoking GPG-AGENT.  (line   6)
* options, GPGSM command:                Invoking GPGSM.      (line   6)
* options, SCDAEMON command:             Invoking SCDAEMON.   (line   6)
* policies.txt:                          GPGSM Configuration. (line  18)
* pubring.kbx:                           GPGSM Configuration. (line 101)
* qualified.txt:                         GPGSM Configuration. (line  33)
* random_seed:                           GPGSM Configuration. (line 107)
* S.gpg-agent:                           GPGSM Configuration. (line 112)
* scd-event:                             Scdaemon Configuration.
                                                              (line  18)
* SCDAEMON command options:              Invoking SCDAEMON.   (line   6)
* scdaemon.conf:                         Scdaemon Configuration.
                                                              (line  11)
* SIGHUP:                                Agent Signals.       (line  12)
* SIGINT:                                Agent Signals.       (line  28)
* SIGTERM:                               Agent Signals.       (line  23)
* SIGUSR1:                               Agent Signals.       (line  31)
* SIGUSR2:                               Agent Signals.       (line  34)



Generated by $Id: phpMan.php,v 4.55 2007/09/05 04:42:51 chedong Exp $ Author: Che Dong
On Apache
Under GNU General Public License
2017-05-28 02:50 @127.0.0.1 CrawledBy CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)
Valid XHTML 1.0!Valid CSS!