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Info: An Introduction

The GNU Project distributes most of its on-line manuals in the "Info
format", which you read using an "Info reader".  You are probably using
an Info reader to read this now.

   There are two primary Info readers: 'info', a stand-alone program
designed just to read Info files (*note What is Info?: (info-stnd)Top.),
and the 'info' package in GNU Emacs, a general-purpose editor.  At
present, only the Emacs reader supports using a mouse.

   If you are new to the Info reader and want to learn how to use it,
type the command 'h' now.  It brings you to a programmed instruction

   To read about advanced Info commands, type 'n' twice.  This brings
you to 'Advanced Info Commands', skipping over the 'Getting Started'

   This file describes how to use Info, the on-line, menu-driven GNU
documentation system.

   Copyright (C) 1989, 1992, 1996-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts
     being "A GNU Manual," and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a)
     below.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled
     "GNU Free Documentation License" in the Emacs manual.

     (a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: "You have the freedom to copy and
     modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
     developing GNU and promoting software freedom."

     This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU
     Free Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this
     document separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a
     copy of the license to the document, as described in section 6 of
     the license.

* Menu:

* Getting Started::             Getting started using an Info reader.
* Advanced::                    Advanced Info commands.
* Expert Info::                 Info commands for experts.
* Index::                       An index of topics, commands, and variables.

File:,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Advanced,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Getting Started

This first part of this Info manual describes how to get around inside
of Info.  The second part of the manual describes various advanced Info
commands.  The third part briefly explains how to generate Info files
from Texinfo files, and describes how to write an Info file by hand.

* Menu:

* Help-Small-Screen::   Starting Info on a Small Screen.
* Help::                How to use Info.
* Help-P::              Returning to the Previous node.
* Help-^L::             The Space, DEL, B and ^L commands.
* Help-Inv::            Invisible text in Emacs Info.
* Help-M::              Menus.
* Help-Xref::           Following cross-references.
* Help-Int::            Some intermediate Info commands.
* Help-Q::              Quitting Info.

File:,  Node: Help-Small-Screen,  Next: Help,  Up: Getting Started

1.1 Starting Info on a Small Screen

Since your terminal has a relatively small number of lines on its
screen, it is necessary to give you special advice at the beginning.

   If the entire text you are looking at fits on the screen, the text
'All' will be displayed at the bottom of the screen.  In the stand-alone
Info reader, it is displayed at the bottom right corner of the screen;
in Emacs, it is displayed on the modeline.  If you see the text 'Top'
instead, it means that there is more text below that does not fit.  To
move forward through the text and see another screen full, press <SPC>,
the Space bar.  To move back up, press the key labeled 'Backspace' or
'DEL' (on some keyboards, this key might be labeled 'Delete').

   Here are 40 lines of junk, so you can try <SPC> and <DEL> and see
what they do.  At the end are instructions of what you should do next.

This is line 20
This is line 21
This is line 22
This is line 23
This is line 24
This is line 25
This is line 26
This is line 27
This is line 28
This is line 29
This is line 30
This is line 31
This is line 32
This is line 33
This is line 34
This is line 35
This is line 36
This is line 37
This is line 38
This is line 39
This is line 40
This is line 41
This is line 42
This is line 43
This is line 44
This is line 45
This is line 46
This is line 47
This is line 48
This is line 49
This is line 50
This is line 51
This is line 52
This is line 53
This is line 54
This is line 55
This is line 56
This is line 57
This is line 58
This is line 59

   If you have managed to get here, go back to the beginning with 'DEL'
(or <BACKSPACE>), and come back here again, then you understand the
about the 'Space' and 'Backspace' keys.  So now type an 'n'--just one
character; don't type the quotes and don't type the Return key
afterward--to get to the normal start of the course.

File:,  Node: Help,  Next: Help-P,  Prev: Help-Small-Screen,  Up: Getting Started

1.2 How to use Info

You are talking to the program Info, for reading documentation.

   There are two ways to use Info: from within Emacs or as a stand-alone
reader that you can invoke from a shell using the command 'info'.

   Right now you are looking at one "Node" of Information.  A node
contains text describing a specific topic at a specific level of detail.
This node's topic is "how to use Info".  The mode line says that this is
node 'Help' in the file 'info'.

   The top line of a node is its "header".  This node's header (look at
it now) says that the 'Next' node after this one is the node called
'Help-P'.  An advanced Info command lets you go to any node whose name
you know.  In the stand-alone Info reader program, the header line shows
the names of this node and the Info file as well.  In Emacs, the header
line is displayed with a special typeface, and remains at the top of the
window all the time even if you scroll through the node.

   Besides a 'Next', a node can have a 'Previous' link, or an 'Up' link,
or both.  As you can see, this node has all of these links.

   Now it is time to move on to the 'Next' node, named 'Help-P'.

>> Type 'n' to move there.  Type just one character;
   do not type the quotes and do not type a <RET> afterward.

'>>' in the margin means it is really time to try a command.

>> If you are in Emacs and have a mouse, and if you already practiced
   typing 'n' to get to the next node, click now with the left
   mouse button on the 'Next' link to do the same "the mouse way".

File:,  Node: Help-P,  Next: Help-^L,  Prev: Help,  Up: Getting Started

1.3 Returning to the Previous node

This node is called 'Help-P'.  The 'Previous' node, as you see, is
'Help', which is the one you just came from using the 'n' command.
Another 'n' command now would take you to the next node, 'Help-^L'.

>> But do not type 'n' yet.  First, try the 'p' command, or
   (in Emacs) click on the 'Prev' link.  That takes you to
   the 'Previous' node.  Then use 'n' to return here.

   If you read this in Emacs, you will see an 'Info' item in the menu
bar, close to its right edge.  Clicking the mouse on the 'Info' menu-bar
item opens a menu of commands which include 'Next' and 'Previous' (and
also some others which you didn't yet learn about).

   This all probably seems insultingly simple so far, but _please don't_
start skimming.  Things will get complicated soon enough!  Also, please
do not try a new command until you are told it is time to.  You could
make Info skip past an important warning that was coming up.

>> Now do an 'n', or (in Emacs) click the middle mouse button on
   the 'Next' link, to get to the node 'Help-^L' and learn more.

File:,  Node: Help-^L,  Next: Help-Inv,  Prev: Help-P,  Up: Getting Started

1.4 The Space, DEL, B and ^L commands

This node's mode line tells you that you are now at node 'Help-^L', and
the header line tells you that 'p' would get you back to 'Help-P'.  The
node's title is highlighted and may be underlined as well; it says what
the node is about.

   This is a big node and it does not all fit on your display screen.
You can tell that there is more that is not visible because you can see
the text 'Top' rather than 'All' near the bottom of the screen.

   The <SPC>, <BACKSPACE> (or <DEL>)(1) and 'b' commands exist to allow
you to "move around" in a node that does not all fit on the screen at
once.  <SPC> moves forward, to show what was below the bottom of the
screen.  <DEL> or <BACKSPACE> moves backward, to show what was above the
top of the screen (there is not anything above the top until you have
typed some spaces).

>> Now try typing a <SPC> (afterward, type a <BACKSPACE> to
   return here).

   When you type the <SPC>, the two lines that were at the bottom of the
screen appear at the top, followed by more lines.  <DEL> or <BACKSPACE>
takes the two lines from the top and moves them to the bottom,
_usually_, but if there are not a full screen's worth of lines above
them they may not make it all the way to the bottom.

   If you are reading this in Emacs, note that the header line is always
visible, never scrolling off the display.  That way, you can always see
the 'Next', 'Prev', and 'Up' links, and you can conveniently go to one
of these links at any time by clicking the middle mouse button on the

   <SPC> and <DEL> not only move forward and backward through the
current node.  They also move between nodes.  <SPC> at the end of a node
moves to the next node; <DEL> (or <BACKSPACE>) at the beginning of a
node moves to the previous node.  In effect, these commands scroll
through all the nodes in an Info file as a single logical sequence.  You
can read an entire manual top to bottom by just typing <SPC>, and move
backward through the entire manual from bottom to top by typing <DEL>

   In this sequence, a node's subnodes appear following their parent.
If a node has a menu, <SPC> takes you into the subnodes listed in the
menu, one by one.  Once you reach the end of a node, and have seen all
of its subnodes, <SPC> takes you to the next node or to the parent's
next node.

   Many keyboards nowadays have two scroll keys labeled 'PageUp' and
'PageDown' (or maybe 'Prior' and 'Next').  If your keyboard has these
keys, you can use them to move forward and backward through the text of
one node, like <SPC> and <BACKSPACE> (or <DEL>).  However, <PAGEUP> and
<PAGEDOWN> keys never scroll beyond the beginning or the end of the
current node.

   If your screen is ever garbaged, you can tell Info to display it
again by typing 'C-l' ('Control-L'--that is, hold down <CTRL> and type
'L' or 'l').

>> Type 'C-l' now.

   To move back to the beginning of the node you are on, you can type
the <BACKSPACE> key (or <DEL>) many times.  You can also type 'b' just
once.  'b' stands for "beginning."

>> Try that now.  (We have put in enough verbiage to push this past
   the first screenful, but screens are so big nowadays that perhaps it
   isn't enough.  You may need to shrink your Emacs or Info window.)
   Then come back, by typing <SPC> one or more times.

   You have just learned a considerable number of commands.  If you want
to use one but have trouble remembering which, you should type '?',
which displays a brief list of commands.  When you are finished looking
at the list, make it go away by typing <SPC> repeatedly.

>> Type a <?> now.  Press <SPC> to see consecutive screenfuls of
   the list until finished.  Then type <SPC> several times.  If
   you are using Emacs, the help will then go away automatically.

   (If you are using the stand-alone Info reader, type 'C-x 0' to return
here, that is--press and hold <CTRL>, type an 'x', then release <CTRL>
and 'x', and press '0'; that's a zero, not the letter "o".)

   From now on, you will encounter large nodes without warning, and will
be expected to know how to use <SPC> and <BACKSPACE> to move around in
them without being told.  Since not all terminals have the same size
screen, it would be impossible to warn you anyway.

>> Now type 'n', or click the middle mouse button on the 'Next' link,
   to visit the next node.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) The key which we call "Backspace or DEL" in this manual is
labeled differently on different keyboards.  Look for a key which is a
little ways above the <ENTER> or <RET> key and which you normally use
outside Emacs to erase the character before the cursor, i.e. the
character you typed last.  It might be labeled 'Backspace' or '<-' or
'DEL', or sometimes 'Delete'.

File:,  Node: Help-Inv,  Next: Help-M,  Prev: Help-^L,  Up: Getting Started

1.5 Invisible text in Emacs Info

Before discussing menus, we need to make some remarks that are only
relevant to users reading Info using Emacs.  Users of the stand-alone
version can skip this node by typing ']' now.

   In Emacs, certain text that appears in the stand-alone version is
normally hidden, technically because it has the 'invisibility' property.
Invisible text is really a part of the text.  It becomes visible (by
default) after killing and yanking, it appears in printed output, it
gets saved to file just like any other text, and so on.  Thus it is
useful to know it is there.

   You can make invisible text visible by using the command 'M-x
visible-mode'.  Visible mode is a minor mode, so using the command a
second time will make the text invisible again.  Watch the effects of
the command on the "menu" below and the top line of this node.

   If you prefer to _always_ see the invisible text, you can set
'Info-hide-note-references' to 'nil'.  Enabling Visible mode permanently
is not a real alternative, because Emacs Info also uses (although less
extensively) another text property that can change the text being
displayed, the 'display' property.  Only the invisibility property is
affected by Visible mode.  When, in this tutorial, we refer to the
'Emacs' behavior, we mean the _default_ Emacs behavior.

   Now type ']', to learn about the ']' and '[' commands.

* Menu:

* ]:         Help-].               Node telling about ].
* stuff:     Help-].               Same node.
* Help-]::                         Yet again, same node.

File:,  Node: Help-],  Up: Help-Inv

1.5.1 The ']' and '[' commands

If you type 'n' now, you get an error message saying that this node has
no next node.  Similarly, if you type 'p', the error message tells you
that there is no previous node.  (The exact message depends on the Info
reader you use.)  This is because 'n' and 'p' carry you to the next and
previous node _at the same level_.  The present node is contained in a
menu (see next) of the node you came from, and hence is considered to be
at a lower level.  It is the only node in the previous node's menu (even
though it was listed three times).  Hence it has no next or previous
node that 'n' or 'p' could move to.

   If you systematically move through a manual by typing 'n', you run
the risk of skipping many nodes.  You do not run this risk if you
systematically use '<SPC>', because, when you scroll to the bottom of a
node and type another '<SPC>', then this carries you to the following
node in the manual _regardless of level_.  If you immediately want to go
to that node, without having to scroll to the bottom of the screen
first, you can type ']'.

   Similarly, '<BACKSPACE>' carries you to the preceding node regardless
of level, after you scrolled to the beginning of the present node.  If
you want to go to the preceding node immediately, you can type '['.

   For instance, typing this sequence will come back here in three
steps: '[ n ['.  To do the same backward, type '] p ]'.

   Now type ']' to go to the next node and learn about menus.

File:,  Node: Help-M,  Next: Help-Xref,  Prev: Help-Inv,  Up: Getting Started

1.6 Menus and the 'm' command

With only the 'n' (next), 'p' (previous), '<SPC>', '<BACKSPACE>', ']'
and '[' commands for moving between nodes, nodes are restricted to a
linear sequence.  Menus allow a branching structure.  A menu is a list
of other nodes you can move to.  It is actually just part of the text of
the node formatted specially so that Info can interpret it.  The
beginning of a menu is always identified by a line which starts with
'* Menu:'.  A node contains a menu if and only if it has a line in it
which starts that way.  The only menu you can use at any moment is the
one in the node you are in.  To use a menu in any other node, you must
move to that node first.

   After the start of the menu, each line that starts with a '*'
identifies one subtopic.  The line usually contains a brief name for the
subtopic (followed by a ':', normally hidden in Emacs), the name of the
node that talks about that subtopic (again, normally hidden in Emacs),
and optionally some further description of the subtopic.  Lines in the
menu that do not start with a '*' have no special meaning--they are only
for the human reader's benefit and do not define additional subtopics.
Here is an example:

     * Foo:  Node about FOO.      This tells about FOO.

   The subtopic name is Foo, and the node describing it is 'Node about
FOO'.  The rest of the line is just for the reader's Information.  [[
But this line is not a real menu item, simply because there is no line
above it which starts with '* Menu:'.  Also, in a real menu item, the
'*' would appear at the very start of the line.  This is why the
"normally hidden" text in Emacs, namely ': Node about FOO.', is actually
visible in this example, even when Visible mode is off.]]

   When you use a menu to go to another node (in a way that will be
described soon), what you specify is the subtopic name, the first thing
in the menu line.  Info uses it to find the menu line, extracts the node
name from it, and goes to that node.  The reason that there is both a
subtopic name and a node name is that the node name must be meaningful
to the computer and may therefore have to be ugly looking.  The subtopic
name can be chosen just to be convenient for the user to specify.  Often
the node name is convenient for the user to specify and so both it and
the subtopic name are the same.  There is an abbreviation for this:

     * Foo::   This tells about FOO.

This means that the subtopic name and node name are the same; they are
both 'Foo'.  (The '::' is normally hidden in Emacs.)

>> Now use <SPC> to find the menu in this node, then come back to
   the front with a 'b' and some <SPC>s.  As you see, a menu is
   actually visible in its node.  If you cannot find a menu in a node
   by looking at it, then the node does not have a menu and the
   'm' command is not available.

   If you keep typing <SPC> once the menu appears on the screen, it will
move to another node (the first one in the menu).  If that happens, type
<BACKSPACE> to come back.

   The command to go to one of the subnodes is 'm'.  This is very
different from the commands you have used: it is a command that prompts
you for more input.

   The Info commands you know do not need additional input; when you
type one of them, Info processes it instantly and then is ready for
another command.  The 'm' command is different: it needs to know the
"name of the subtopic".  Once you have typed 'm', Info tries to read the
subtopic name.

   Now, in the stand-alone Info, look for the line containing many
dashes near the bottom of the screen.  (This is the stand-alone
equivalent for the mode line in Emacs.)  There is one more line beneath
that one, but usually it is blank.  (In Emacs, this is the echo area.)
When it is blank, Info is ready for a command, such as 'n' or 'b' or
<SPC> or 'm'.  If that line contains text ending in a colon, it means
Info is reading more input for the last command.  You can't type an Info
command then, because Info is trying to read input, not commands.  You
must either give the input and finish the command you started, or type
'Control-g' to cancel the command.  When you have done one of those
things, the input entry line becomes blank again.  Then you can type
Info commands again.

   The command to go to a subnode via a menu is 'm'.  After you type the
'm', the line at the bottom of the screen says 'Menu item: '.  You must
then type the name of the subtopic you want, and end it with a <RET>.

   You can abbreviate the subtopic name.  If the abbreviation is not
unique, the first matching subtopic is chosen.  Some menus put the
shortest possible abbreviation for each subtopic name in capital
letters, so you can see how much you need to type.  It does not matter
whether you use upper case or lower case when you type the subtopic.
You should not put any spaces at the end, or inside of the item name,
except for one space where a space appears in the item in the menu.

   You can also use the "completion" feature to help enter the subtopic
name.  If you type the <TAB> key after entering part of a name, it will
fill in more of the name--as much as Info can deduce from the part you
have entered.

   If you move the cursor to one of the menu subtopic lines, then you do
not need to type the argument: you just type a <RET>, and it stands for
the subtopic of the line you are on.  You can also click the middle
mouse button directly on the subtopic line to go there.

   Here is a menu to give you a chance to practice.  This menu gives you
three ways of going to one place, Help-FOO:

* Menu:

* Foo:  Help-FOO.       A node you can visit for fun.
* Bar:  Help-FOO.       We have made two ways to get to the same place.
* Help-FOO::            And yet another!

   (Turn Visible mode on if you are using Emacs.)

>>  Now type just an 'm' and see what happens:

   Now you are "inside" an 'm' command.  Commands cannot be used now;
the next thing you will type must be the name of a subtopic.

   You can change your mind about doing the 'm' by typing 'Control-g'.

>> Try that now;  notice the bottom line clear.

>> Then type another 'm'.

>> Now type 'BAR', the item name.  Do not type <RET> yet.

   While you are typing the item name, you can use the <DEL> (or
<BACKSPACE>) key to cancel one character at a time if you make a

>> Press <DEL> to cancel the 'R'.  You could type another 'R'
   to replace it.  But you do not have to, since 'BA' is a valid

>> Now you are ready to go.  Type a <RET>.

   After visiting 'Help-FOO', you should return here.

   Another way to move to the menu subtopic lines and between them is to
type <TAB>.  Each time you type a <TAB>, you move to the next subtopic
line.  To move to a previous subtopic line in the stand-alone reader,
type 'M-<TAB>'--that is, press and hold the <META> key and then press
<TAB>.  (On some keyboards, the <META> key might be labeled 'Alt'.)  In
Emacs Info, type 'S-<TAB>' to move to a previous subtopic line (press
and hold the <Shift> key and then press <TAB>).

   Once you move cursor to a subtopic line, press <RET> to go to that
subtopic's node.

   If your terminal supports a mouse, you have yet another way of going
to a subtopic.  Move your mouse pointer to the subtopic line, somewhere
between the beginning '*' and the colon ':' which ends the subtopic's
brief name.  You will see the subtopic's name change its appearance
(usually, its background color will change), and the shape of the mouse
pointer will change if your platform supports that.  After a while, if
you leave the mouse on that spot, a small window will pop up, saying
"Mouse-2: go to that node," or the same message may appear at the bottom
of the screen.

   'Mouse-2' is the second button of your mouse counting from the
left--the middle button on a 3-button mouse.  (On a 2-button mouse, you
may have to press both buttons together to "press the middle button".)
The message tells you pressing 'Mouse-2' with the current position of
the mouse pointer (on subtopic in the menu) will go to that subtopic.

   More generally, 'Mouse-2' in an Info buffer finds the nearest link to
another node and goes there.  For example, near a cross reference it
acts like 'f', in a menu it acts like 'm', on the node's header line it
acts like 'n', 'p', or 'u', etc.  At end of the node's text 'Mouse-2'
moves to the next node, or up if there's no next node.

>> Type 'n' to see more commands.

File:,  Node: Help-FOO,  Up: Help-M

1.6.1 The 'u' command

Congratulations!  This is the node 'Help-FOO'.  It has an 'Up' pointer
'Help-M', the node you just came from via the 'm' command.  This is the
usual convention--the nodes you reach from a menu have 'Up' nodes that
lead back to the menu.  Menus move Down in the tree, and 'Up' moves Up.
'Previous', on the other hand, is usually used to "stay on the same
level but go backwards".

   You can go back to the node 'Help-M' by typing the command 'u' for
"Up".  This puts you at the menu subtopic line pointing to the subnode
that the 'u' command brought you from.  (Some Info readers may put you
at the _front_ of the node instead--to get back to where you were
reading, you have to type some <SPC>s.)

   Another way to go Up is to click 'Mouse-2' on the 'Up' pointer shown
in the header line (provided that you have a mouse).

>> Now type 'u' to move back up to 'Help-M'.

File:,  Node: Help-Xref,  Next: Help-Int,  Prev: Help-M,  Up: Getting Started

1.7 Following Cross-References

In Info documentation, you will see many "cross references".  Cross
references look like this: *Note Cross: Help-Cross.  That text is a
real, live cross reference, whose name is 'Cross' and which points to
the node named 'Help-Cross'.  (The node name is hidden in Emacs.  Do
'M-x visible-mode' to show or hide it.)

   You can follow a cross reference by moving the cursor to it and press
<RET>, just as in a menu.  In Emacs, you can also click 'Mouse-1' on a
cross reference to follow it; you can see that the cross reference is
mouse-sensitive by moving the mouse pointer to the reference and
watching how the underlying text and the mouse pointer change in

   Another way to follow a cross reference is to type 'f' and then
specify the name of the cross reference (in this case, 'Cross') as an
argument.  For this command, it does not matter where the cursor was.
If the cursor is on or near a cross reference, 'f' suggests that
reference name in parentheses as the default; typing <RET> will follow
that reference.  However, if you type a different reference name, 'f'
will follow the other reference which has that name.

>> Type 'f', followed by 'Cross', and then <RET>.

   As you enter the reference name, you can use the <DEL> (or
<BACKSPACE>) key to edit your input.  If you change your mind about
following any reference, you can use 'Control-g' to cancel the command.
Completion is available in the 'f' command; you can complete among all
the cross reference names in the current node by typing a <TAB>.

   To get a list of all the cross references in the current node, you
can type '?' after an 'f'.  The 'f' continues to await a cross reference
name even after displaying the list, so if you don't actually want to
follow a reference, you should type a 'Control-g' to cancel the 'f'.

>> Type 'f?' to get a list of the cross references in this node.  Then
   type a 'Control-g' and see how the 'f' gives up.

   The <TAB>, 'M-<TAB>' and 'S-<TAB>' keys, which move between menu
items in a menu, also move between cross references outside of menus.

   Sometimes a cross reference (or a node) can lead to another file (in
other words another "manual"), or, on occasion, even a file on a remote
machine (although Info files distributed with Emacs or the stand-alone
Info avoid using remote links).  Such a cross reference looks like this:
*Note Overview of Texinfo: (texinfo)Top.  (After following this link,
type 'l' to get back to this node.)  Here the name 'texinfo' between
parentheses refers to the file name.  This file name appears in cross
references and node names if it differs from the current file, so you
can always know that you are going to be switching to another manual and
which one.

   However, Emacs normally hides some other text in cross-references.
If you put your mouse over the cross reference, then the information
appearing in a separate box (tool tip) or in the echo area will show the
full cross-reference including the file name and the node name of the
cross reference.  If you have a mouse, just leave it over the cross
reference *Note Overview of Texinfo: (texinfo)Top, and watch what
happens.  If you always like to have that information visible without
having to move your mouse over the cross reference, use 'M-x
visible-mode', or set 'Info-hide-note-references' to a value other than
't' (*note Emacs Info Variables::).

>> Now type 'n' to learn more commands.

File:,  Node: Help-Int,  Next: Help-Q,  Prev: Help-Xref,  Up: Getting Started

1.8 Some intermediate Info commands

The introductory course is almost over; please continue a little longer
to learn some intermediate-level commands.

   Most Info files have an index, which is actually a large node
containing little but a menu.  The menu has one menu item for each topic
listed in the index.  (As a special feature, menus for indices may also
include the line number within the node of the index entry.  This allows
Info readers to go to the exact line of an entry, not just the start of
the containing node.)

   You can get to the index from the main menu of the file with the 'm'
command and the name of the index node; then you can use the 'm' command
again in the index node to go to the node that describes the topic you

   There is also a short-cut Info command, 'i', which does all of that
for you.  It searches the index for a given topic (a string) and goes to
the node which is listed in the index for that topic.  *Note Search
Index::, for a full explanation.

   If you have been moving around to different nodes and wish to retrace
your steps, the 'l' command ('l' for "last") will do that, one node-step
at a time.  As you move from node to node, Info records the nodes where
you have been in a special history list.  The 'l' command revisits nodes
in the history list; each successive 'l' command moves one step back
through the history.

>> Try typing 'p p n' and then three 'l''s, pausing in between
to see what each 'l' does.  You should wind up right back here.

   Note the difference between 'l' and 'p': 'l' moves to where _you_
last were, whereas 'p' always moves to the node which the header says is
the 'Previous' node (from this node, the 'Prev' link leads to

   You can use the 'r' command ('Info-history-forward' in Emacs) to
revisit nodes in the history list in the forward direction, so that 'r'
will return you to the node you came from by typing 'l'.

   The 'L' command ('Info-history' in Emacs) creates a virtual node that
contains a list of all nodes you visited.  You can select a previously
visited node from this menu to revisit it.

   The 'd' command ('Info-directory' in Emacs) gets you instantly to the
Directory node.  This node, which is the first one you saw when you
entered Info, has a menu which leads (directly or indirectly, through
other menus), to all the nodes that exist.  The Directory node lists all
the manuals and other Info documents that are, or could be, installed on
your system.

>> Try doing a 'd', then do an 'l' to return here (yes,
   _do_ return).

   The 't' command moves to the 'Top' node of the manual.  This is
useful if you want to browse the manual's main menu, or select some
specific top-level menu item.  The Emacs command run by 't' is

>> Now type 'n' to see the last node of the course.

   *Note Advanced::, for more advanced Info features.

File:,  Node: Help-Q,  Prev: Help-Int,  Up: Getting Started

1.9 Quitting Info

To get out of Info, back to what you were doing before, type 'q' for
"Quit".  This runs 'Info-exit' in Emacs.

   This is the end of the basic course on using Info.  You have learned
how to move in an Info document, and how to follow menus and cross
references.  This makes you ready for reading manuals top to bottom, as
new users should do when they learn a new package.

   Another set of Info commands is useful when you need to find
something quickly in a manual--that is, when you need to use a manual as
a reference rather than as a tutorial.  We urge you to learn these
search commands as well.  If you want to do that now, follow this cross
reference to *note Advanced::.

   Yet another set of commands are meant for experienced users; you can
find them by looking in the Directory node for documentation on Info.
Finding them will be a good exercise in using Info in the usual manner.

>> Type 'd' to go to the Info directory node; then type
   'mInfo' and Return, to get to the node about Info and
   see what other help is available.

File:,  Node: Advanced,  Next: Expert Info,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Top

2 Advanced Info Commands

This chapter describes various advanced Info commands.  (If you are
using a stand-alone Info reader, there are additional commands specific
to it, which are documented in several chapters of *note GNU Info:

   One advanced command useful with most of the others described here is
'C-q', which "quotes" the next character so that it is entered literally
(*note (emacs)Inserting Text::).  For example, pressing '?' ordinarily
brings up a list of completion possibilities.  If you want to (for
example) search for an actual '?' character, the simplest way is to
insert it using 'C-q ?'.  This works the same in Emacs and stand-alone

* Menu:

* Search Text::          How to search Info documents.
* Search Index::         How to search the indices for specific subjects.
* Go to node::           How to go to a node by name.
* Choose menu subtopic:: How to choose a menu subtopic by its number.
* Create Info buffer::   How to create a new Info buffer in Emacs.
* Emacs Info Variables:: Variables modifying the behavior of Emacs Info.

File:,  Node: Search Text,  Next: Search Index,  Up: Advanced

2.1 's' searches Info documents

The commands which move between and inside nodes allow you to read the
entire manual or its large portions.  But what if you need to find some
information in the manual as fast as you can, and you don't know or
don't remember in what node to look for it?  This need arises when you
use a manual as a "reference", or when it is impractical to read the
entire manual before you start using the programs it describes.

   Info has powerful searching facilities that let you find things
quickly.  You can search either the manual text or its indices.

   The 's' command allows you to search a whole Info file for a string.
It switches to the next node if and when that is necessary.  You type
's' followed by the string to search for, terminated by <RET>.  To
search for the same string again, just 's' followed by <RET> will do.
The file's nodes are scanned in the order they are in the file, which
has no necessary relationship to the order that they may be in the tree
structure of menus and 'next' pointers.  But normally the two orders are
not very different.  In any case, you can always look at the mode line
to find out what node you have reached, if the header is not visible
(this can happen, because 's' puts your cursor at the occurrence of the
string, not at the beginning of the node).

   Instead of using 's' in Emacs Info and in the stand-alone Info, you
can use an incremental search started with 'C-s' or 'C-r'.  It can
search through multiple Info nodes.  *Note (emacs)Incremental Search::.
In Emacs, you can disable this behavior by setting the variable
'Info-isearch-search' to 'nil' (*note Emacs Info Variables::).

File:,  Node: Search Index,  Next: Go to node,  Prev: Search Text,  Up: Advanced

2.2 'i' searches the indices for specific subjects

Since most topics in the manual should be indexed, you should try the
index search first before the text search.  The 'i' command prompts you
for a subject and then looks up that subject in the indices.  If it
finds an index entry with the subject you typed, it goes to the node to
which that index entry points.  You should browse through that node to
see whether the issue you are looking for is described there.  If it
isn't, type ',' one or more times to go through additional index entries
which match your subject.

   The 'i' command and subsequent ',' commands find all index entries
which include the string you typed _as a substring_.  For each match,
Info shows in the echo area the full index entry it found.  Often, the
text of the full index entry already gives you enough information to
decide whether it is relevant to what you are looking for, so we
recommend that you read what Info shows in the echo area before looking
at the node it displays.

   Since 'i' looks for a substring, you can search for subjects even if
you are not sure how they are spelled in the index.  For example,
suppose you want to find something that is pertinent to commands which
complete partial input (e.g., when you type <TAB>).  If you want to
catch index entries that refer to "complete," "completion," and
"completing," you could type 'icomplet<RET>'.

   Info documents which describe programs should index the commands,
options, and key sequences that the program provides.  If you are
looking for a description of a command, an option, or a key, just type
their names when 'i' prompts you for a topic.  For example, if you want
to read the description of what the 'C-l' key does, type 'iC-l<RET>'

   Emacs provides the command 'Info-virtual-index', bound to the 'I'
key.  This behaves like 'i', but constructs a virtual info node
displaying the results of an index search, making it easier to select
the one you want.

   If you aren't sure which manual documents the topic you are looking
for, try the 'M-x info-apropos' command in Emacs, or the 'M-x
index-apropos' command in the stand-alone reader.  It prompts for a
string and then looks up that string in all the indices of all the Info
documents installed on your system.

File:,  Node: Go to node,  Next: Choose menu subtopic,  Prev: Search Index,  Up: Advanced

2.3 'g' goes to a node by name

If you know a node's name, you can go there by typing 'g', the name, and
<RET>.  Thus, 'gTop<RET>' would go to the node called 'Top' in this
file.  (This is equivalent to 't', see *note Help-Int::.)  'gGo to
node<RET>' would come back here.

   Unlike 'm', 'g' does not allow the use of abbreviations.  But it does
allow completion, so you can type <TAB> to complete a partial node name.

   To go to a node in another file, you can include the file name in the
node name by putting it at the front, in parentheses.  Thus,
'g(dir)Top<RET>' would go to the Info Directory node, which is the node
'Top' in the Info file 'dir'.  Likewise, 'g(emacs)Top<RET>' goes to the
top node of the Emacs manual.

   The node name '*' specifies the whole file.  So you can look at all
of the current file by typing 'g*<RET>' or all of any other file with

File:,  Node: Choose menu subtopic,  Next: Create Info buffer,  Prev: Go to node,  Up: Advanced

2.4 '1'-'9' choose a menu subtopic by its number

If you begrudge each character of type-in which your system requires,
you might like to use the commands '1', '2', '3', '4', ..., '9'.  They
are short for the 'm' command together with a name of a menu subtopic.
'1' goes through the first item in the current node's menu; '2' goes
through the second item, etc.  In the stand-alone reader, '0' goes
through the last menu item; this is so you need not count how many
entries are there.

   If your display supports multiple fonts, colors or underlining, and
you are using Emacs's Info mode to read Info files, the third, sixth and
ninth menu items have a '*' that stands out, either in color or in some
other attribute, such as underline; this makes it easy to see at a
glance which number to use for an item.

   Some terminals don't support either multiple fonts, colors or
underlining.  If you need to actually count items, it is better to use
'm' instead, and specify the name, or use <TAB> to quickly move between
menu items.

File:,  Node: Create Info buffer,  Next: Emacs Info Variables,  Prev: Choose menu subtopic,  Up: Advanced

2.5 'M-n' creates a new independent Info buffer in Emacs

If you are reading Info in Emacs, you can select a new independent Info
buffer in a new Emacs window by typing 'M-n'.  The new buffer starts out
as an exact copy of the old one, but you will be able to move
independently between nodes in the two buffers.  (In Info mode, 'M-n'
runs the Emacs command 'clone-buffer'.)

   In Emacs Info, you can also produce new Info buffers by giving a
numeric prefix argument to the 'm' and 'g' commands.  'C-u m' and 'C-u
g' go to a new node in exactly the same way that 'm' and 'g' do, but
they do so in a new Info buffer which they select in another window.

   Another way to produce new Info buffers in Emacs is to use a numeric
prefix argument for the 'C-h i' command ('info') which switches to the
Info buffer with that number.  Thus, 'C-u 2 C-h i' switches to the
buffer '*info*<2>', creating it if necessary.

   If you have created many Info buffers in Emacs, you might find it
difficult to remember which buffer is showing which manual.  You can use
the command 'M-x info-display-manual' to show an Info manual by name,
reusing an existing buffer if there is one.

File:,  Node: Emacs Info Variables,  Prev: Create Info buffer,  Up: Advanced

2.6 Emacs Info-mode Variables

The following variables may modify the behavior of Info-mode in Emacs;
you may wish to set one or several of these variables interactively, or
in your init file.  *Note Examining and Setting Variables:
(emacs)Examining.  The stand-alone Info reader program has its own set
of variables, described in *note Manipulating Variables:

     The list of directories to search for Info files.  Each element is
     a string (directory name) or 'nil' (try default directory).  If not
     initialized Info uses the environment variable 'INFOPATH' to
     initialize it, or 'Info-default-directory-list' if there is no
     'INFOPATH' variable in the environment.

     If you wish to customize the Info directory search list for both
     Emacs Info and stand-alone Info, it is best to set the 'INFOPATH'
     environment variable, since that applies to both programs.

     A list of additional directories to search for Info documentation
     files.  These directories are not searched for merging the 'dir'

     Hooks run when 'Info-mode' is called.  By default, it contains the
     hook 'turn-on-font-lock' which enables highlighting of Info files.
     You can change how the highlighting looks by customizing the faces
     'info-node', 'info-xref', 'info-xref-visited', 'info-header-xref',
     'info-header-node', 'info-menu-header', 'info-menu-star', and
     'info-title-N' (where N is the level of the section, a number
     between 1 and 4).  To customize a face, type 'M-x customize-face
     <RET> FACE <RET>', where FACE is one of the face names listed here.

     Maximum size of menu to fontify if 'font-lock-mode' is non-'nil'.

     If non-'nil', menu items and cross-references pointing to visited
     nodes are displayed in the 'info-xref-visited' face.

     If non-'nil', Emacs puts in the Info buffer a header line showing
     the 'Next', 'Prev', and 'Up' links.  A header line does not scroll
     with the rest of the buffer, making these links always visible.

     As explained in earlier nodes, the Emacs version of Info normally
     hides some text in menus and cross-references.  You can completely
     disable this feature, by setting this option to 'nil'.  Setting it
     to a value that is neither 'nil' nor 't' produces an intermediate
     behavior, hiding a limited amount of text, but showing all text
     that could potentially be useful.

     If set to a non-'nil' value, <SPC> and <BACKSPACE> (or <DEL>) keys
     in a menu visit subnodes of the current node before scrolling to
     its end or beginning, respectively.  For example, if the node's
     menu appears on the screen, the next <SPC> moves to a subnode
     indicated by the following menu item.  Setting this option to 'nil'
     results in behavior similar to the stand-alone Info reader program,
     which visits the first subnode from the menu only when you hit the
     end of the current node.  The default is 'nil'.

     If non-'nil', isearch in Info searches through multiple nodes.

     When set to a non-'nil' value, allows Info to execute Lisp code
     associated with nodes.  The Lisp code is executed when the node is
     selected.  The Lisp code to be executed should follow the node
     delimiter (the 'DEL' character) and an 'execute: ' tag, like this:

          ^_execute: (message "This is an active node!")

File:,  Node: Expert Info,  Next: Index,  Prev: Advanced,  Up: Top

3 Info for Experts

This chapter explains how to write an Info file by hand.  However, in
most cases, writing a Texinfo file is better, since you can use it to
make a printed manual or produce other formats, such as HTML and
DocBook, as well as for generating Info files.

   The 'makeinfo' command converts a Texinfo file into an Info file;
'texinfo-format-region' and 'texinfo-format-buffer' are GNU Emacs
functions that do the same.

   *Note Overview of Texinfo: (texinfo)Top, for how to write a Texinfo

   *Note (texinfo)Creating an Info File::, for how to create an Info
file from a Texinfo file.

   *Note (texinfo)Installing an Info File::, for how to install an Info
file after you have created one.

   However, if you want to edit an Info file manually and install it
manually, here is how.

* Menu:

* Add::                   Describes how to add new nodes to the hierarchy.
                            Also tells what nodes look like.
* Menus::                 How to add to or create menus in Info nodes.
* Cross-refs::            How to add cross-references to Info nodes.
* Tags::                  How to make tags tables for Info files.
* Checking::              Checking an Info File.

File:,  Node: Add,  Next: Menus,  Up: Expert Info

3.1 Adding a new node to Info

To add a new topic to the list in the Info directory, you must:

  1. Create some nodes, in some file, to document that topic.
  2. Put that topic in the menu in the directory.  *Note Menu: Menus.

   The new node can live in an existing documentation file, or in a new
one.  It must have a '^_' character before it (invisible to the user;
this node has one but you cannot see it), and it ends with either a
'^_', a '^L' ("formfeed"), or the end of file.(1)

   The '^_' starting a node must be followed by a newline or a '^L'
newline, after which comes the node's header line.  The header line must
give the node's name (by which Info finds it), and state the names of
the 'Next', 'Previous', and 'Up' nodes (if there are any).  As you can
see, this node's 'Up' node is the node 'Expert Info'.  The 'Next' node
is 'Menus'.

   The keywords "Node", "Next", "Previous", and "Up" may appear in any
order, anywhere in the header line, but the recommended order is the one
in this sentence.  Each keyword must be followed by a colon, spaces and
tabs, and then the appropriate name.  The name may be terminated with a
tab, a comma, or a newline.  A space does not end it; node names may
contain spaces.  The case of letters in the names is insignificant.

   A node name has two forms.  A node in the current file is named by
what appears after the 'Node: ' in that node's first line.  For example,
this node's name is 'Add'.  A node in another file is named by
'(FILENAME)NODE-WITHIN-FILE', as in '(info)Add' for this node.  If the
file name starts with './', then it is relative to the current
directory; otherwise, it is relative starting from the standard
directory for Info files of your site.  The name '(FILENAME)Top' can be
abbreviated to just '(FILENAME)'.  By convention, the name 'Top' is used
for the "highest" node in any single file--the node whose 'Up' points
out of the file.  The 'Directory' node is '(dir)', it points to a file
'dir' which holds a large menu listing all the Info documents installed
on your site.  The 'Top' node of a document file listed in the
'Directory' should have an 'Up: (dir)' in it.

   The node name '*' is special: it refers to the entire file.  Thus,
'g*' shows you the whole current file.  The use of the node '*' is to
make it possible to make old-fashioned, unstructured files into nodes of
the tree.

   The 'Node:' name, in which a node states its own name, must not
contain a file name, since when Info searches for a node, it does not
expect a file name to be there.  The 'Next', 'Previous' and 'Up' names
may contain them.  In this node, since the 'Up' node is in the same
file, it was not necessary to use one.

   Note that the nodes in this file have a file name in the header line.
The file names are ignored by Info, but they serve as comments to help
identify the node for the user.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) If you put in a '^L' to end a new node, be sure that there is a
'^_' after it to start the next one, since '^L' cannot _start_ a node.
Also, a nicer way to make a node boundary be a page boundary as well is
to put a '^L' _right after_ the '^_'.

File:,  Node: Menus,  Next: Cross-refs,  Prev: Add,  Up: Expert Info

3.2 How to Create Menus

Any node in the Info hierarchy may have a "menu"--a list of subnodes.
The 'm' command searches the current node's menu for the topic which it
reads from the terminal.

   A menu begins with a line starting with '* Menu:'.  The rest of the
line is a comment.  After the starting line, every line that begins with
a '* ' lists a single topic.  The name of the topic--what the user must
type at the 'm''s command prompt to select this topic--comes right after
the star and space, and is followed by a colon, spaces and tabs, and the
name of the node which discusses that topic.  The node name, like node
names following 'Next', 'Previous' and 'Up', may be terminated with a
tab, comma, or newline; it may also be terminated with a period.

   If the node name and topic name are the same, then rather than giving
the name twice, the abbreviation '* NAME::' may be used (and should be
used, whenever possible, as it reduces the visual clutter in the menu).

   It is considerate to choose the topic names so that they differ from
each other very near the beginning--this allows the user to type short
abbreviations.  In a long menu, it is a good idea to capitalize the
beginning of each item name which is the minimum acceptable abbreviation
for it (a long menu is more than 5 or so entries).

   The nodes listed in a node's menu are called its "subnodes," and it
is their "superior".  They should each have an 'Up:' pointing at the
superior.  It is often useful to arrange all or most of the subnodes in
a sequence of 'Next' and 'Previous' pointers so that someone who wants
to see them all need not keep revisiting the Menu.

   The Info Directory is simply the menu of the node '(dir)Top'--that
is, node 'Top' in file '.../info/dir'.  You can put new entries in that
menu just like any other menu.  The Info Directory is _not_ the same as
the file directory called 'info'.  It happens that many of Info's files
live in that file directory, but they do not have to; and files in that
directory are not automatically listed in the Info Directory node.

   Also, although the Info node graph is claimed to be a "hierarchy," in
fact it can be _any_ directed graph.  Shared structures and pointer
cycles are perfectly possible, and can be used if they are appropriate
to the meaning to be expressed.  There is no need for all the nodes in a
file to form a connected structure.  In fact, this file has two
connected components.  You are in one of them, which is under the node
'Top'; the other contains the node 'Help' which the 'h' command goes to.
In fact, since there is no garbage collector on the node graph, nothing
terrible happens if a substructure is not pointed to, but such a
substructure is rather useless since nobody can ever find out that it

File:,  Node: Cross-refs,  Next: Tags,  Prev: Menus,  Up: Expert Info

3.3 Creating Cross References

A cross reference can be placed anywhere in the text, unlike a menu item
which must go at the front of a line.  A cross reference looks like a
menu item except that it has '*note' instead of '*'.  It _cannot_ be
terminated by a ')', because ')''s are so often part of node names.  If
you wish to enclose a cross reference in parentheses, terminate it with
a period first.  Here are two examples of cross references pointers:

     *Note details: commands.  (See *note 3: Full Proof.)

_These are just examples._  The places they "lead to" do not really

* Menu:

* Help-Cross::                  Target of a cross-reference.

File:,  Node: Help-Cross,  Up: Cross-refs

3.3.1 The node reached by the cross reference in Info

This is the node reached by the cross reference named 'Cross'.

   While this node is specifically intended to be reached by a cross
reference, most cross references lead to nodes that "belong" someplace
else far away in the structure of an Info document.  So you cannot
expect this node to have a 'Next', 'Previous' or 'Up' links pointing
back to where you came from.  In general, the 'l' (el) command is the
only way to get back there.

>> Type 'l' to return to the node where the cross reference was.

File:,  Node: Tags,  Next: Checking,  Prev: Cross-refs,  Up: Expert Info

3.4 Tags Tables for Info Files

You can speed up the access to nodes of a large Info file by giving it a
tags table.  Unlike the tags table for a program, the tags table for an
Info file lives inside the file itself and is used automatically
whenever Info reads in the file.

   To make a tags table, go to a node in the file using Emacs Info mode
and type 'M-x Info-tagify'.  Then you must use 'C-x C-s' to save the
file.  Info files produced by the 'makeinfo' command that is part of the
Texinfo package always have tags tables to begin with.

   Once the Info file has a tags table, you must make certain it is up
to date.  If you edit an Info file directly (as opposed to editing its
Texinfo source), and, as a result of deletion of text, any node moves
back more than a thousand characters in the file from the position
recorded in the tags table, Info will no longer be able to find that
node.  To update the tags table, use the 'Info-tagify' command again.

   An Info file tags table appears at the end of the file and looks like

     Tag Table:
     File: info, Node: Cross-refs^?21419
     File: info,  Node: Tags^?22145
     End Tag Table

Note that it contains one line per node, and this line contains the
beginning of the node's header (ending just after the node name), a
'DEL' character, and the character position in the file of the beginning
of the node.

File:,  Node: Checking,  Prev: Tags,  Up: Expert Info

3.5 Checking an Info File

When creating an Info file, it is easy to forget the name of a node when
you are making a pointer to it from another node.  If you put in the
wrong name for a node, this is not detected until someone tries to go
through the pointer using Info.  Verification of the Info file is an
automatic process which checks all pointers to nodes and reports any
pointers which are invalid.  Every 'Next', 'Previous', and 'Up' is
checked, as is every menu item and every cross reference.  In addition,
any 'Next' which does not have a 'Previous' pointing back is reported.
Only pointers within the file are checked, because checking pointers to
other files would be terribly slow.  But those are usually few.

   To check an Info file, do 'M-x Info-validate' while looking at any
node of the file with Emacs Info mode.

File:,  Node: Index,  Prev: Expert Info,  Up: Top


This is an alphabetical listing of all the commands, variables, and
topics discussed in this document.

* Menu:

* 1 through 9 (Info mode):               Choose menu subtopic.
                                                              (line   6)
* ? (Info mode):                         Help-^L.             (line  74)
* abbreviating Info subnodes:            Help-M.              (line  89)
* b (Info mode):                         Help-^L.             (line  65)
* BACKSPACE (Info mode):                 Help-^L.             (line  15)
* C-l (Info mode):                       Help-^L.             (line  59)
* C-q (Info mode):                       Advanced.            (line  11)
* C-r (Info mode):                       Search Text.         (line  28)
* C-s (Info mode):                       Search Text.         (line  28)
* clone-buffer:                          Create Info buffer.  (line   6)
* completion of Info node names:         Help-M.              (line  97)
* cross reference format:                Cross-refs.          (line   6)
* cross references in Info documents:    Help-Xref.           (line   6)
* d (Info mode):                         Help-Int.            (line  49)
* DEL (Info mode):                       Help-^L.             (line  15)
* Directory node:                        Add.                 (line  30)
* f (Info mode):                         Help-Xref.           (line  12)
* format of node headers:                Add.                 (line  23)
* g (Info mode):                         Go to node.          (line   6)
* go to a node by name:                  Go to node.          (line   6)
* go to another Info file:               Go to node.          (line  14)
* go to Directory node:                  Help-Int.            (line  49)
* go to Top node:                        Help-Int.            (line  59)
* going back in Info history:            Help-Int.            (line  26)
* going forward in Info history:         Help-Int.            (line  41)
* header of Info node:                   Help.                (line  16)
* history list of visited nodes:         Help-Int.            (line  45)
* i (Info mode):                         Search Index.        (line   6)
* I (Info mode):                         Search Index.        (line  37)
* index-apropos:                         Search Index.        (line  42)
* Info document as a reference:          Search Text.         (line   6)
* Info documents as tutorials:           Help-^L.             (line  37)
* Info menus:                            Help-M.              (line   6)
* Info-additional-directory-list:        Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  24)
* info-apropos:                          Search Index.        (line  42)
* Info-directory:                        Help-Int.            (line  49)
* Info-directory-list:                   Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  13)
* info-display-manual:                   Create Info buffer.  (line  22)
* Info-enable-active-nodes:              Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  72)
* Info-exit:                             Help-Q.              (line   6)
* Info-follow-reference:                 Help-Xref.           (line  12)
* Info-fontify-maximum-menu-size:        Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  39)
* Info-fontify-visited-nodes:            Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  42)
* Info-goto-node:                        Go to node.          (line   6)
* Info-hide-note-references:             Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  51)
* Info-history:                          Help-Int.            (line  45)
* Info-history-back:                     Help-Int.            (line  26)
* Info-history-forward:                  Help-Int.            (line  41)
* Info-index:                            Search Index.        (line   6)
* Info-isearch-search:                   Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  69)
* Info-menu:                             Help-M.              (line  85)
* Info-mode-hook:                        Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  29)
* Info-mouse-follow-nearest-node:        Help-M.              (line 170)
* Info-nth-menu-item:                    Choose menu subtopic.
                                                              (line   6)
* Info-scroll-down:                      Help-^L.             (line  15)
* Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes:           Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  59)
* Info-scroll-up:                        Help-^L.             (line  15)
* Info-search:                           Search Text.         (line  16)
* Info-summary:                          Help-^L.             (line  74)
* Info-tagify:                           Tags.                (line  11)
* Info-top-node:                         Help-Int.            (line  59)
* Info-up:                               Help-FOO.            (line  13)
* Info-use-header-line:                  Emacs Info Variables.
                                                              (line  46)
* Info-validate:                         Checking.            (line  17)
* Info-virtual-index:                    Search Index.        (line  37)
* invisible text in Emacs:               Help-Inv.            (line  10)
* isearch:                               Search Text.         (line  28)
* l (Info mode):                         Help-Int.            (line  26)
* L (Info mode):                         Help-Int.            (line  45)
* m (Info mode):                         Help-M.              (line  62)
* M-n (Info mode):                       Create Info buffer.  (line   6)
* menu and menu entry format:            Menus.               (line  10)
* menus in an Info document:             Help-M.              (line   6)
* mouse support in Info mode:            Help-M.              (line 154)
* Mouse-2 (Info mode):                   Help-M.              (line 154)
* multiple Info buffers:                 Create Info buffer.  (line   6)
* n (Info mode):                         Help.                (line  27)
* node delimiters:                       Add.                 (line  11)
* node header line format:               Add.                 (line  23)
* node name format:                      Add.                 (line  30)
* node, in Info documents:               Help.                (line  11)
* p (Info mode):                         Help-P.              (line   6)
* PAGEDOWN (Info mode):                  Help-^L.             (line  52)
* PAGEUP (Info mode):                    Help-^L.             (line  52)
* q (Info mode):                         Help-Q.              (line   6)
* quitting Info mode:                    Help-Q.              (line   6)
* r (Info mode):                         Help-Int.            (line  41)
* reading Info documents top to bottom:  Help-^L.             (line  37)
* s (Info mode):                         Search Text.         (line  16)
* searching Info documents:              Search Text.         (line   6)
* searching Info indices:                Search Index.        (line   6)
* select N'th menu item:                 Choose menu subtopic.
                                                              (line   6)
* small screen, moving around:           Help-Small-Screen.   (line   6)
* SPC (Info mode):                       Help-^L.             (line  15)
* stale tags tables:                     Tags.                (line  16)
* t (Info mode):                         Help-Int.            (line  59)
* tags tables in Info files:             Tags.                (line   6)
* Texinfo:                               Expert Info.         (line   6)
* u (Info mode):                         Help-FOO.            (line  13)
* unstructured documents:                Add.                 (line  44)
* update Info tags table:                Tags.                (line  16)
* visible-mode:                          Help-Inv.            (line  17)

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