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File: libidn.info,  Node: Top,  Next: Introduction,  Up: (dir)

GNU Libidn
**********

This manual is last updated 5 February 2010 for version 1.18 of GNU
Libidn.

   Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
Simon Josefsson.

     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License,
     Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free Software
     Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and
     no Back-Cover Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the
     section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

* Menu:

* Introduction::		How to use this manual.
* Preparation::			What you should do before using the library.
* Utility Functions::		Unicode transformation utility functions.
* Stringprep Functions::	Stringprep functions.
* Punycode Functions::		Punycode functions.
* IDNA Functions::		IDNA functions.
* TLD Functions::		TLD functions.
* PR29 Functions::		Detect strings non-idempotent under NFKC.
* Examples::                    Demonstrate how to use the library.
* Invoking idn::		Command line interface to the library.
* Emacs API::                   Emacs Lisp API for Libidn.
* Java API::                    Notes on the Java port of Libidn.
* C# API::                      Notes on the C# port of Libidn.
* Acknowledgements::            Whom to blame.
* History::                     Rough outline of development history.

Appendices

* PR29 discussion::             Implementation aspects of the PR29 flaw.
* On Label Separators::         Discussions of a flaw in the IDNA spec.
* Copying Information::		License text covering the Libidn library.

Indices

* Function and Variable Index::
* Concept Index::

File: libidn.info,  Node: Introduction,  Next: Preparation,  Prev: Top,  Up: Top

1 Introduction
**************

GNU Libidn is a fully documented implementation of the Stringprep,
Punycode and IDNA specifications.  Libidn's purpose is to encode and
decode internationalized domain names.  The native C, C# and Java
libraries are available under the GNU Lesser General Public License
version 2.1 or later (*note GNU LGPL::).

   The library contains a generic Stringprep implementation.  Profiles
for Nameprep, iSCSI, SASL, XMPP and Kerberos V5 are included.  Punycode
and ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) via IDNA are supported.  A
mechanism to define Top-Level Domain (TLD) specific validation tables,
and to compare strings against those tables, is included.  Default
tables for some TLDs are also included.

   The Stringprep API consists of two main functions, one for converting
data from the system's native representation into UTF-8, and one
function to perform the Stringprep processing.  Adding a new Stringprep
profile for your application within the API is straightforward.  The
Punycode API consists of one encoding function and one decoding
function.  The IDNA API consists of the ToASCII and ToUnicode
functions, as well as an high-level interface for converting entire
domain names to and from the ACE encoded form.  The TLD API consists of
one set of functions to extract the TLD name from a domain string, one
set of functions to locate the proper TLD table to use based on the TLD
name, and core functions to validate a string against a TLD table, and
some utility wrappers to perform all the steps in one call.

   The library is used by, e.g., GNU SASL and Shishi to process user
names and passwords.  Libidn can be built into GNU Libc to enable a new
system-wide getaddrinfo flag for IDN processing.

   Libidn is developed for the GNU/Linux system, but runs on over 20
Unix platforms (including Solaris, IRIX, AIX, and Tru64) and Windows.
The library is written in C and (parts of) the API is also accessible
from C++, Emacs Lisp, Python and Java.  A native Java and C# port is
included.

   Also included is a command line tool, several self tests, code
examples, and more, all licensed under the GNU General Public License
version 3.0 or later (*note GNU GPL::).

* Menu:

* Getting Started::
* Features::
* Library Overview::
* Supported Platforms::
* Getting help::
* Commercial Support::
* Downloading and Installing::
* Bug Reports::
* Contributing::

File: libidn.info,  Node: Getting Started,  Next: Features,  Up: Introduction

1.1 Getting Started
===================

This manual documents the library programming interface.  All functions
and data types provided by the library are explained.  Included are
also examples, and documentation for the command line tool `idn' that
provide a quick interface to the library.  The Emacs Lisp bindings for
the library is also discussed.

   The reader is assumed to possess basic familiarity with
internationalization concepts and network programming in C or C++.

   This manual can be used in several ways.  If read from the beginning
to the end, it gives a good introduction into the library and how it
can be used in an application.  Forward references are included where
necessary.  Later on, the manual can be used as a reference manual to
get just the information needed about any particular interface of the
library.  Experienced programmers might want to start looking at the
examples at the end of the manual (*note Examples::), and then only
read up those parts of the interface which are unclear.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Features,  Next: Library Overview,  Prev: Getting Started,  Up: Introduction

1.2 Features
============

This library might have a couple of advantages over other libraries
doing a similar job.

It's Free Software
     Anybody can use, modify, and redistribute it under the terms of the
     GNU Lesser General Public License version 2.1 or later (*note GNU
     LGPL::).

It's thread-safe
     No global state is kept in the library.  All functions are
     reentrant.

It's portable
     The code is intended to be written in pure ANSI C89.  It has been
     tested on many Unix like operating systems, and Windows.

It's modularized
     The library is composed of several modules, and the only
     interaction between modules is through each modules' public API.
     If you only need one piece of functionality, it is possible to
     take the files you need and incorporate them into your own project.

It's not bloated
     The design of the library is based on the smallest API necessary to
     implement the basic functionality.  It has been carefully extended
     with a small number of high-level wrappers to make it comfortable
     to use the library.  However, it does not implement additional
     functionality just for the sake of completeness.

It's documented
     Sadly, not all software comes with documentation these days.  This
     one does.


File: libidn.info,  Node: Library Overview,  Next: Supported Platforms,  Prev: Features,  Up: Introduction

1.3 Library Overview
====================

The following illustration show the components that make up Libidn, and
how your application relates to the library.  In the illustration,
various components are shown as boxes.  You see the generic StringPrep
component, the various StringPrep profiles including Nameprep, the
Punycode component, the IDNA component, and the TLD component.  The
arrows indicate aggregation, e.g., IDNA uses Punycode and Nameprep, and
in turn Nameprep uses the generic StringPrep interface.  The interfaces
to all components are available for applications, no component within
the library is hidden from the application.

[image src="libidn-components.png"]

File: libidn.info,  Node: Supported Platforms,  Next: Getting help,  Prev: Library Overview,  Up: Introduction

1.4 Supported Platforms
=======================

Libidn has at some point in time been tested on the following
platforms.  Online build reports for each platforms and Libidn version
is available at `http://autobuild.josefsson.org/libidn/'.

  1. Debian GNU/Linux 3.0 (Woody)

     GCC 2.95.4 and GNU Make. This is the main development platform.
     `alphaev67-unknown-linux-gnu', `alphaev6-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `arm-unknown-linux-gnu', `armv4l-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `hppa-unknown-linux-gnu', `hppa64-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `i686-pc-linux-gnu', `ia64-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `m68k-unknown-linux-gnu', `mips-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `mipsel-unknown-linux-gnu', `powerpc-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `s390-ibm-linux-gnu', `sparc-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `sparc64-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  2. Debian GNU/Linux 2.1

     GCC 2.95.1 and GNU Make. `armv4l-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  3. Tru64 UNIX

     Tru64 UNIX C compiler and Tru64 Make. `alphaev67-dec-osf5.1',
     `alphaev68-dec-osf5.1'.

  4. SuSE Linux 7.1

     GCC 2.96 and GNU Make. `alphaev6-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `alphaev67-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  5. SuSE Linux 7.2a

     GCC 3.0 and GNU Make. `ia64-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  6. SuSE Linux

     GCC 3.2.2 and GNU Make.  `x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu' (AMD64 Opteron
     "Melody").

  7. SuSE Enterprise Server 9 on IBM OpenPower 720

     GCC 3.3.3 and GNU Make.  `powerpc64-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  8. RedHat Linux 7.2

     GCC 2.96 and GNU Make. `alphaev6-unknown-linux-gnu',
     `alphaev67-unknown-linux-gnu', `ia64-unknown-linux-gnu'.

  9. RedHat Linux 8.0

     GCC 3.2 and GNU Make. `i686-pc-linux-gnu'.

 10. RedHat Advanced Server 2.1

     GCC 2.96 and GNU Make. `i686-pc-linux-gnu'.

 11. Slackware Linux 8.0.01

     GCC 2.95.3 and GNU Make. `i686-pc-linux-gnu'.

 12. Mandrake Linux 9.0

     GCC 3.2 and GNU Make. `i686-pc-linux-gnu'.

 13. IRIX 6.5

     MIPS C compiler, IRIX Make. `mips-sgi-irix6.5'.

 14. AIX 4.3.2

     IBM C for AIX compiler, AIX Make.  `rs6000-ibm-aix4.3.2.0'.

 15. Microsoft Windows 2000 (Cygwin)

     GCC 3.2, GNU make. `i686-pc-cygwin'.

 16. HP-UX 11

     HP-UX C compiler and HP Make. `ia64-hp-hpux11.22',
     `hppa2.0w-hp-hpux11.11'.

 17. SUN Solaris 2.7

     GCC 3.0.4 and GNU Make. `sparc-sun-solaris2.7'.

 18. SUN Solaris 2.8

     Sun WorkShop Compiler C 6.0 and SUN Make. `sparc-sun-solaris2.8'.

 19. SUN Solaris 2.9

     Sun Forte Developer 7 C compiler and GNU Make.
     `sparc-sun-solaris2.9'.

 20. NetBSD 1.6

     GCC 2.95.3 and GNU Make. `alpha-unknown-netbsd1.6',
     `i386-unknown-netbsdelf1.6'.

 21. OpenBSD 3.1 and 3.2

     GCC 2.95.3 and GNU Make. `alpha-unknown-openbsd3.1',
     `i386-unknown-openbsd3.1'.

 22. FreeBSD 4.7 and 4.8

     GCC 2.95.4 and GNU Make. `alpha-unknown-freebsd4.7',
     `alpha-unknown-freebsd4.8', `i386-unknown-freebsd4.7',
     `i386-unknown-freebsd4.8'.

 23. MacOS X 10.2 Server Edition

     GCC 3.1 and GNU Make. `powerpc-apple-darwin6.5'.

 24. MacOS X 10.4 "Tiger" with Xcode 2.0

     GCC 4.0 and GNU Make. `powerpc-apple-darwin8.0'.

 25. Cross compiled to uClinux/uClibc on Motorola Coldfire

     GCC 3.4 and GNU Make `m68k-uclinux-elf'.

 26. Cross compiled to ARM using Glibc

     GCC 2.95 and GNU Make `arm-linux'.

 27. Cross compiled to Mingw32.

     GCC 3.4.4 and GNU Make `i586-mingw32msvc'.

 28. OS/2

     GCC.


   If you use Libidn on, or port Libidn to, a new platform please report
it to the author.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Getting help,  Next: Commercial Support,  Prev: Supported Platforms,  Up: Introduction

1.5 Getting help
================

A mailing list where users of Libidn may help each other exists, and
you can reach it by sending e-mail to <help-libidn AT gnu.org>.  Archives
of the mailing list discussions, and an interface to manage
subscriptions, is available through the World Wide Web at
`http://lists.gnu.org/mailman/listinfo/help-libidn'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Commercial Support,  Next: Downloading and Installing,  Prev: Getting help,  Up: Introduction

1.6 Commercial Support
======================

Commercial support is available for users of GNU Libidn.  The kind of
support that can be purchased may include:

   * Implement new features.  Such as country code specific profiling
     to support a restricted subset of Unicode.

   * Port Libidn to new platforms.  This could include porting Libidn
     to an embedded platforms that may need memory or size optimization.

   * Integrating IDN support in your existing project.

   * System design of components related to IDN.


   If you are interested, please write to:

Simon Josefsson Datakonsult
Hagagatan 24
113 47 Stockholm
Sweden

E-mail: simon AT josefsson.org

   If your company provides support related to GNU Libidn and would like
to be mentioned here, contact the author (*note Bug Reports::).

File: libidn.info,  Node: Downloading and Installing,  Next: Bug Reports,  Prev: Commercial Support,  Up: Introduction

1.7 Downloading and Installing
==============================

The package can be downloaded from several places, including:

   `ftp://alpha.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libidn/'

   The latest version is stored in a file, e.g., `libidn-1.18.tar.gz'
where the `1.18' value is the highest version number in the directory.

   The package is then extracted, configured and built like many other
packages that use Autoconf.  For detailed information on configuring
and building it, refer to the `INSTALL' file that is part of the
distribution archive.

   Here is an example terminal session that download, configure, build
and install the package.  You will need a few basic tools, such as
`sh', `make' and `cc'.

     $ wget -q ftp://alpha.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libidn/libidn-1.18.tar.gz
     $ tar xfz libidn-1.18.tar.gz
     $ cd libidn-1.18/
     $ ./configure
     ...
     $ make
     ...
     $ make install
     ...

   After that Libidn should be properly installed and ready for use.

   A few `configure' options may be relevant, summarized in the table.

`--enable-java'
     Build the Java port into a *.JAR file.  *Note Java API::, for more
     information.

`--disable-tld'
     Disable the TLD module.  This would typically only be useful if you
     are building on a memory restricted platforms.  *Note TLD
     Functions::, for more information.

`--enable-csharp[=IMPL]'
     Build the `C#' port into a `*.DLL' file.  *Note C# API::, for more
     information.  Here, `IMPL' is `pnet' or `mono', indicating whether
     the PNET `cscc' compiler or the Mono `mcs' compiler should be
     used, respectively.


   For the complete list, refer to the output from `configure --help'.

* Menu:

* Installing under Windows::    Windows specific build instructions.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Installing under Windows,  Up: Downloading and Installing

1.7.1 Installing under Windows
------------------------------

There are two ways to build Libidn on Windows: via MinGW or via Visual
Studio.

   With MinGW, you can build a Libidn DLL and use it from other
applications.  After installing MinGW (`http://mingw.org/') follow the
generic installation instructions (*note Downloading and Installing::).
The DLL is installed by default.

   For information on how to use the DLL in other applications, see:
`http://www.mingw.org/mingwfaq.shtml#faq-msvcdll'.

   You can build Libidn as a native Visual Studio C++ project.  This
allows you to build the code for other platforms that VS supports, such
as Windows Mobile.  You need Visual Studio 2005 or later.

   First download and unpack the archive as described in the generic
installation instructions (*note Downloading and Installing::).  Don't
run `./configure'.  Instead, start Visual Studio and open the project
file `win32/libidn.sln' inside the Libidn directory.  You should be
able to build the project using Build Project.

   Output libraries will be written into the `win32/lib' (or
`win32/lib/debug' for Debug versions) folder.

   When working with Windows you may want to look into the special
memory handling functions that may be needed (*note Memory handling
under Windows::).

File: libidn.info,  Node: Bug Reports,  Next: Contributing,  Prev: Downloading and Installing,  Up: Introduction

1.8 Bug Reports
===============

If you think you have found a bug in Libidn, please investigate it and
report it.

   * Please make sure that the bug is really in Libidn, and preferably
     also check that it hasn't already been fixed in the latest version.

   * You have to send us a test case that makes it possible for us to
     reproduce the bug.

   * You also have to explain what is wrong; if you get a crash, or if
     the results printed are not good and in that case, in what way.
     Make sure that the bug report includes all information you would
     need to fix this kind of bug for someone else.


   Please make an effort to produce a self-contained report, with
something definite that can be tested or debugged.  Vague queries or
piecemeal messages are difficult to act on and don't help the
development effort.

   If your bug report is good, we will do our best to help you to get a
corrected version of the software; if the bug report is poor, we won't
do anything about it (apart from asking you to send better bug reports).

   If you think something in this manual is unclear, or downright
incorrect, or if the language needs to be improved, please also send a
note.

   Send your bug report to:

                         `bug-libidn AT gnu.org'

File: libidn.info,  Node: Contributing,  Prev: Bug Reports,  Up: Introduction

1.9 Contributing
================

If you want to submit a patch for inclusion - from solve a typo you
discovered, up to adding support for a new feature - you should submit
it as a bug report (*note Bug Reports::).  There are some things that
you can do to increase the chances for it to be included in the
official package.

   Unless your patch is very small (say, under 10 lines) we require that
you assign the copyright of your work to the Free Software Foundation.
This is to protect the freedom of the project.  If you have not already
signed papers, we will send you the necessary information when you
submit your contribution.

   For contributions that doesn't consist of actual programming code,
the only guidelines are common sense.  Use it.

   For code contributions, a number of style guides will help you:

   * Coding Style.  Follow the GNU Standards document (*note GNU Coding
     Standards: (standards)top.).

     If you normally code using another coding standard, there is no
     problem, but you should use `indent' to reformat the code (*note
     GNU Indent: (indent)top.) before submitting your work.

   * Use the unified diff format `diff -u'.

   * Return errors.  No reason whatsoever should abort the execution of
     the library.  Even memory allocation errors, e.g. when malloc
     return NULL, should work although result in an error code.

   * Design with thread safety in mind.  Don't use global variables and
     the like.

   * Avoid using the C math library.  It causes problems for embedded
     implementations, and in most situations it is very easy to avoid
     using it.

   * Document your functions.  Use comments before each function
     headers, that, if properly formatted, are extracted into GTK-DOC
     web pages.  Don't forget to update the Texinfo manual as well.

   * Supply a ChangeLog and NEWS entries, where appropriate.


File: libidn.info,  Node: Preparation,  Next: Utility Functions,  Prev: Introduction,  Up: Top

2 Preparation
*************

To use `Libidn', you have to perform some changes to your sources and
the build system.  The necessary changes are small and explained in the
following sections.  At the end of this chapter, it is described how
the library is initialized, and how the requirements of the library are
verified.

   A faster way to find out how to adapt your application for use with
`Libidn' may be to look at the examples at the end of this manual
(*note Examples::).

* Menu:

* Header::
* Initialization::
* Version Check::
* Building the source::
* Autoconf tests::
* Memory handling under Windows::

File: libidn.info,  Node: Header,  Next: Initialization,  Up: Preparation

2.1 Header
==========

The library contains a few independent parts, and each part export the
interfaces (data types and functions) in a header file.  You must
include the appropriate header files in all programs using the library,
either directly or through some other header file, like this:

     #include <stringprep.h>

   The header files and the functions they define are categorized as
follows:

stringprep.h
     The low-level stringprep API entry point.  For IDN applications,
     this is usually invoked via IDNA. Some applications, specifically
     non-IDN ones, may want to prepare strings directly though, and
     should include this header file.

     The name space of the stringprep part of Libidn is `stringprep*'
     for function names, `Stringprep*' for data types and
     `STRINGPREP_*' for other symbols.  In addition, `_stringprep*' is
     reserved for internal use and should never be used by applications.

punycode.h
     The entry point to Punycode encoding and decoding functions.
     Normally punycode is used via the idna.h interface, but some
     application may want to perform raw punycode operations.

     The name space of the punycode part of Libidn is `punycode_*' for
     function names, `Punycode*' for data types and `PUNYCODE_*' for
     other symbols.  In addition, `_punycode*' is reserved for internal
     use and should never be used by applications.

idna.h
     The entry point to the IDNA functions.  This is the normal entry
     point for applications that need IDN functionality.

     The name space of the IDNA part of Libidn is `idna_*' for function
     names, `Idna*' for data types and `IDNA_*' for other symbols.  In
     addition, `_idna*' is reserved for internal use and should never
     be used by applications.

tld.h
     The entry point to the TLD functions.  Normal applications are not
     expected to need this functionality, but it is present for
     applications that are used by TLDs to validate customer input.

     The name space of the TLD part of Libidn is `tld_*' for function
     names, `Tld_*' for data types and `TLD_*' for other symbols.  In
     addition, `_tld*' is reserved for internal use and should never be
     used by applications.

pr29.h
     The entry point to the PR29 functions.  These functions are used to
     detect "problem sequences" (*note PR29 Functions::), mostly for use
     in security critical applications.

     The name space of the PR29 part of Libidn is `pr29_*' for function
     names, `Pr29_*' for data types and `PR29_*' for other symbols.  In
     addition, `_pr29*' is reserved for internal use and should never
     be used by applications.

idn-free.h
     The entry point to the Windows memory de-allocation function
     (*note Memory handling under Windows::).  It contains only one
     function `idn_free'.


   All header files defined and use the symbol `IDNAPI' to decorate the
API functions.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Initialization,  Next: Version Check,  Prev: Header,  Up: Preparation

2.2 Initialization
==================

Libidn is stateless and does not need any initialization.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Version Check,  Next: Building the source,  Prev: Initialization,  Up: Preparation

2.3 Version Check
=================

It is often desirable to check that the version of `Libidn' used is
indeed one which fits all requirements.  Even with binary compatibility
new features may have been introduced but due to problem with the
dynamic linker an old version is actually used.  So you may want to
check that the version is okay right after program startup.

stringprep_check_version
------------------------

 -- Function: const char * stringprep_check_version (const char *
          REQ_VERSION)
     REQ_VERSION: Required version number, or NULL.

     Check that the version of the library is at minimum the requested
     one and return the version string; return NULL if the condition is
     not satisfied.  If a NULL is passed to this function, no check is
     done, but the version string is simply returned.

     See `STRINGPREP_VERSION' for a suitable `req_version' string.

     *Return value:* Version string of run-time library, or NULL if the
     run-time library does not meet the required version number.

   The normal way to use the function is to put something similar to the
following first in your `main':

       if (!stringprep_check_version (STRINGPREP_VERSION))
         {
           printf ("stringprep_check_version() failed:\n"
                   "Header file incompatible with shared library.\n");
           exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
         }

File: libidn.info,  Node: Building the source,  Next: Autoconf tests,  Prev: Version Check,  Up: Preparation

2.4 Building the source
=======================

If you want to compile a source file including e.g. the `idna.h' header
file, you must make sure that the compiler can find it in the directory
hierarchy.  This is accomplished by adding the path to the directory in
which the header file is located to the compilers include file search
path (via the `-I' option).

   However, the path to the include file is determined at the time the
source is configured.  To solve this problem, `Libidn' uses the
external package `pkg-config' that knows the path to the include file
and other configuration options.  The options that need to be added to
the compiler invocation at compile time are output by the `--cflags'
option to `pkg-config libidn'.  The following example shows how it can
be used at the command line:

     gcc -c foo.c `pkg-config libidn --cflags`

   Adding the output of `pkg-config libidn --cflags' to the compilers
command line will ensure that the compiler can find e.g. the idna.h
header file.

   A similar problem occurs when linking the program with the library.
Again, the compiler has to find the library files.  For this to work,
the path to the library files has to be added to the library search
path (via the `-L' option).  For this, the option `--libs' to
`pkg-config libidn' can be used.  For convenience, this option also
outputs all other options that are required to link the program with
the `libidn' libarary.  The example shows how to link `foo.o' with the
`libidn' library to a program `foo'.

     gcc -o foo foo.o `pkg-config libidn --libs`

   Of course you can also combine both examples to a single command by
specifying both options to `pkg-config':

     gcc -o foo foo.c `pkg-config libidn --cflags --libs`

File: libidn.info,  Node: Autoconf tests,  Next: Memory handling under Windows,  Prev: Building the source,  Up: Preparation

2.5 Autoconf tests
==================

If your project uses Autoconf (*note GNU Autoconf: (autoconf)top.)  to
check for installed libraries, you might find the following snippet
illustrative.  It add a new `configure' parameter `--with-libidn', and
check for `idna.h' and `-lidn' (possibly below the directory specified
as the optional argument to `--with-libidn'), and define the CPP symbol
`LIBIDN' if the library is found.  The default behaviour is to search
for the library and enable the functionality (that is, define the
symbol) when the library is found, but if you wish to make the default
behaviour of your package be that Libidn is not used (even if it is
installed on the system), change `libidn=yes' to `libidn=no' on the
third line.

     AC_ARG_WITH(libidn, AC_HELP_STRING([--with-libidn=[DIR]],
                                     [Support IDN (needs GNU Libidn)]),
       libidn=$withval, libidn=yes)
     if test "$libidn" != "no"; then
       if test "$libidn" != "yes"; then
         LDFLAGS="${LDFLAGS} -L$libidn/lib"
         CPPFLAGS="${CPPFLAGS} -I$libidn/include"
       fi
       AC_CHECK_HEADER(idna.h,
         AC_CHECK_LIB(idn, stringprep_check_version,
           [libidn=yes LIBS="${LIBS} -lidn"], libidn=no),
         libidn=no)
     fi
     if test "$libidn" != "no" ; then
       AC_DEFINE(LIBIDN, 1, [Define to 1 if you want IDN support.])
     else
       AC_MSG_WARN([Libidn not found])
     fi
     AC_MSG_CHECKING([if Libidn should be used])
     AC_MSG_RESULT($libidn)

   If you require that your users have installed `pkg-config' (which I
cannot recommend generally), the above can be done more easily as
follows.

     AC_ARG_WITH(libidn, AC_HELP_STRING([--with-libidn=[DIR]],
                                     [Support IDN (needs GNU Libidn)]),
       libidn=$withval, libidn=yes)
     if test "$libidn" != "no" ; then
       PKG_CHECK_MODULES(LIBIDN, libidn >= 0.0.0, [libidn=yes], [libidn=no])
       if test "$libidn" != "yes" ; then
         libidn=no
         AC_MSG_WARN([Libidn not found])
       else
         libidn=yes
         AC_DEFINE(LIBIDN, 1, [Define to 1 if you want Libidn.])
       fi
     fi
     AC_MSG_CHECKING([if Libidn should be used])
     AC_MSG_RESULT($libidn)

File: libidn.info,  Node: Memory handling under Windows,  Prev: Autoconf tests,  Up: Preparation

2.6 Memory handling under Windows
=================================

Several functions in the library allocates memory.  The memory is
expected to be de-allocated using the `free' function.  Under Windows,
it is sometimes necessary to de-allocate memory in the same module that
allocated a memory region.  The reason is that different modules use
separate heap memory regions.  To solve this problem we provide a
function to de-allocate memory inside the library.

   Note that we do not recommend using this interface generally if you
do not care about Windows portability.

2.7 Header file `idn-free.h'
============================

To use the function explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `idn-free.h' using:

     #include <idn-free.h>

2.8 Memory de-allocation function
=================================

idn_free
--------

 -- Function: void idn_free (void * PTR)
     PTR: memory region to deallocate, or `NULL'.

     Deallocates memory region by calling `free()'.  If `ptr' is `NULL'
     no operation is performed.

     Normally applications de-allocate strings allocated by libidn by
     calling `free()' directly.  Under Windows, different parts of the
     same application may use different heap memory, and then it is
     important to deallocate memory allocated within the same module
     that allocated it.  This function makes that possible.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Utility Functions,  Next: Stringprep Functions,  Prev: Preparation,  Up: Top

3 Utility Functions
*******************

The rest of this library makes extensive use of Unicode characters.  In
order to interface this library with the outside world, your
application may need to make various Unicode transformations.

3.1 Header file `stringprep.h'
==============================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `stringprep.h' using:

     #include <stringprep.h>

3.2 Unicode Encoding Transformation
===================================

stringprep_unichar_to_utf8
--------------------------

 -- Function: int stringprep_unichar_to_utf8 (uint32_t C, char * OUTBUF)
     C: a ISO10646 character code

     OUTBUF: output buffer, must have at least 6 bytes of space.  If
     `NULL', the length will be computed and returned and nothing will
     be written to `outbuf'.

     Converts a single character to UTF-8.

     *Return value:* number of bytes written.

stringprep_utf8_to_unichar
--------------------------

 -- Function: uint32_t stringprep_utf8_to_unichar (const char * P)
     P: a pointer to Unicode character encoded as UTF-8

     Converts a sequence of bytes encoded as UTF-8 to a Unicode
     character.  If `p' does not point to a valid UTF-8 encoded
     character, results are undefined.

     *Return value:* the resulting character.

stringprep_ucs4_to_utf8
-----------------------

 -- Function: char * stringprep_ucs4_to_utf8 (const uint32_t * STR,
          ssize_t LEN, size_t * ITEMS_READ, size_t * ITEMS_WRITTEN)
     STR: a UCS-4 encoded string

     LEN: the maximum length of `str' to use. If `len' < 0, then the
     string is terminated with a 0 character.

     ITEMS_READ: location to store number of characters read read, or
     `NULL'.

     ITEMS_WRITTEN: location to store number of bytes written or `NULL'.
     The value here stored does not include the trailing 0 byte.

     Convert a string from a 32-bit fixed width representation as UCS-4.
     to UTF-8. The result will be terminated with a 0 byte.

     *Return value:* a pointer to a newly allocated UTF-8 string.  This
     value must be deallocated by the caller.  If an error occurs,
     `NULL' will be returned and `error' set.

stringprep_utf8_to_ucs4
-----------------------

 -- Function: uint32_t * stringprep_utf8_to_ucs4 (const char * STR,
          ssize_t LEN, size_t * ITEMS_WRITTEN)
     STR: a UTF-8 encoded string

     LEN: the maximum length of `str' to use. If `len' < 0, then the
     string is nul-terminated.

     ITEMS_WRITTEN: location to store the number of characters in the
     result, or `NULL'.

     Convert a string from UTF-8 to a 32-bit fixed width representation
     as UCS-4, assuming valid UTF-8 input.  This function does no error
     checking on the input.

     *Return value:* a pointer to a newly allocated UCS-4 string.  This
     value must be deallocated by the caller.

3.3 Unicode Normalization
=========================

stringprep_ucs4_nfkc_normalize
------------------------------

 -- Function: uint32_t * stringprep_ucs4_nfkc_normalize (uint32_t *
          STR, ssize_t LEN)
     STR: a Unicode string.

     LEN: length of `str' array, or -1 if `str' is nul-terminated.

     Converts UCS4 string into UTF-8 and runs
     `stringprep_utf8_nfkc_normalize()'.

     *Return value:* a newly allocated Unicode string, that is the NFKC
     normalized form of `str'.

stringprep_utf8_nfkc_normalize
------------------------------

 -- Function: char * stringprep_utf8_nfkc_normalize (const char * STR,
          ssize_t LEN)
     STR: a UTF-8 encoded string.

     LEN: length of `str', in bytes, or -1 if `str' is nul-terminated.

     Converts a string into canonical form, standardizing such issues
     as whether a character with an accent is represented as a base
     character and combining accent or as a single precomposed
     character.

     The normalization mode is NFKC (ALL COMPOSE).  It standardizes
     differences that do not affect the text content, such as the
     above-mentioned accent representation. It standardizes the
     "compatibility" characters in Unicode, such as SUPERSCRIPT THREE to
     the standard forms (in this case DIGIT THREE). Formatting
     information may be lost but for most text operations such
     characters should be considered the same. It returns a result with
     composed forms rather than a maximally decomposed form.

     *Return value:* a newly allocated string, that is the NFKC
     normalized form of `str'.

3.4 Character Set Conversion
============================

stringprep_locale_charset
-------------------------

 -- Function: const char * stringprep_locale_charset ( VOID)
     Find out current locale charset.  The function respect the CHARSET
     environment variable, but typically uses nl_langinfo(CODESET) when
     it is supported.  It fall back on "ASCII" if CHARSET isn't set and
     nl_langinfo isn't supported or return anything.

     Note that this function return the application's locale's preferred
     charset (or thread's locale's preffered charset, if your system
     support thread-specific locales).  It does not return what the
     system may be using.  Thus, if you receive data from external
     sources you cannot in general use this function to guess what
     charset it is encoded in.  Use stringprep_convert from the external
     representation into the charset returned by this function, to have
     data in the locale encoding.

     *Return value:* Return the character set used by the current
     locale.  It will never return NULL, but use "ASCII" as a fallback.

stringprep_convert
------------------

 -- Function: char * stringprep_convert (const char * STR, const char *
          TO_CODESET, const char * FROM_CODESET)
     STR: input zero-terminated string.

     TO_CODESET: name of destination character set.

     FROM_CODESET: name of origin character set, as used by `str'.

     Convert the string from one character set to another using the
     system's `iconv()' function.

     *Return value:* Returns newly allocated zero-terminated string
     which is `str' transcoded into to_codeset.

stringprep_locale_to_utf8
-------------------------

 -- Function: char * stringprep_locale_to_utf8 (const char * STR)
     STR: input zero terminated string.

     Convert string encoded in the locale's character set into UTF-8 by
     using `stringprep_convert()'.

     *Return value:* Returns newly allocated zero-terminated string
     which is `str' transcoded into UTF-8.

stringprep_utf8_to_locale
-------------------------

 -- Function: char * stringprep_utf8_to_locale (const char * STR)
     STR: input zero terminated string.

     Convert string encoded in UTF-8 into the locale's character set by
     using `stringprep_convert()'.

     *Return value:* Returns newly allocated zero-terminated string
     which is `str' transcoded into the locale's character set.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Stringprep Functions,  Next: Punycode Functions,  Prev: Utility Functions,  Up: Top

4 Stringprep Functions
**********************

Stringprep describes a framework for preparing Unicode text strings in
order to increase the likelihood that string input and string
comparison work in ways that make sense for typical users throughout
the world. The stringprep protocol is useful for protocol identifier
values, company and personal names, internationalized domain names, and
other text strings.

4.1 Header file `stringprep.h'
==============================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `stringprep.h' using:

     #include <stringprep.h>

4.2 Defining A Stringprep Profile
=================================

Further types and structures are defined for applications that want to
specify their own stringprep profile.  As these are fairly obscure, and
by necessity tied to the implementation, we do not document them here.
Look into the `stringprep.h' header file, and the `profiles.c' source
code for the details.

4.3 Control Flags
=================

 -- Stringprep flags: Stringprep_profile_flags STRINGPREP_NO_NFKC
     Disable the NFKC normalization, as well as selecting the non-NFKC
     case folding tables.  Usually the profile specifies BIDI and NFKC
     settings, and applications should not override it unless in
     special situations.

 -- Stringprep flags: Stringprep_profile_flags STRINGPREP_NO_BIDI
     Disable the BIDI step.  Usually the profile specifies BIDI and NFKC
     settings, and applications should not override it unless in special
     situations.

 -- Stringprep flags: Stringprep_profile_flags STRINGPREP_NO_UNASSIGNED
     Make the library return with an error if string contains unassigned
     characters according to profile.

4.4 Core Functions
==================

stringprep_4i
-------------

 -- Function: int stringprep_4i (uint32_t * UCS4, size_t * LEN, size_t
          MAXUCS4LEN, Stringprep_profile_flags FLAGS, const
          Stringprep_profile * PROFILE)
     UCS4: input/output array with string to prepare.

     LEN: on input, length of input array with Unicode code points, on
     exit, length of output array with Unicode code points.

     MAXUCS4LEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     FLAGS: a `Stringprep_profile_flags' value, or 0.

     PROFILE: pointer to `Stringprep_profile' to use.

     Prepare the input UCS-4 string according to the stringprep profile,
     and write back the result to the input string.

     The input is not required to be zero terminated (`ucs4'[`len'] =
     0).  The output will not be zero terminated unless `ucs4'[`len'] =
     0.  Instead, see `stringprep_4zi()' if your input is zero
     terminated or if you want the output to be.

     Since the stringprep operation can expand the string, `maxucs4len'
     indicate how large the buffer holding the string is.  This function
     will not read or write to code points outside that size.

     The `flags' are one of `Stringprep_profile_flags' values, or 0.

     The `profile' contain the `Stringprep_profile' instructions to
     perform.  Your application can define new profiles, possibly
     re-using the generic stringprep tables that always will be part of
     the library, or use one of the currently supported profiles.

     *Return value:* Returns `STRINGPREP_OK' iff successful, or an
     `Stringprep_rc' error code.

stringprep_4zi
--------------

 -- Function: int stringprep_4zi (uint32_t * UCS4, size_t MAXUCS4LEN,
          Stringprep_profile_flags FLAGS, const Stringprep_profile *
          PROFILE)
     UCS4: input/output array with zero terminated string to prepare.

     MAXUCS4LEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     FLAGS: a `Stringprep_profile_flags' value, or 0.

     PROFILE: pointer to `Stringprep_profile' to use.

     Prepare the input zero terminated UCS-4 string according to the
     stringprep profile, and write back the result to the input string.

     Since the stringprep operation can expand the string, `maxucs4len'
     indicate how large the buffer holding the string is.  This function
     will not read or write to code points outside that size.

     The `flags' are one of `Stringprep_profile_flags' values, or 0.

     The `profile' contain the `Stringprep_profile' instructions to
     perform.  Your application can define new profiles, possibly
     re-using the generic stringprep tables that always will be part of
     the library, or use one of the currently supported profiles.

     *Return value:* Returns `STRINGPREP_OK' iff successful, or an
     `Stringprep_rc' error code.

stringprep
----------

 -- Function: int stringprep (char * IN, size_t MAXLEN,
          Stringprep_profile_flags FLAGS, const Stringprep_profile *
          PROFILE)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     FLAGS: a `Stringprep_profile_flags' value, or 0.

     PROFILE: pointer to `Stringprep_profile' to use.

     Prepare the input zero terminated UTF-8 string according to the
     stringprep profile, and write back the result to the input string.

     Note that you must convert strings entered in the systems locale
     into UTF-8 before using this function, see
     `stringprep_locale_to_utf8()'.

     Since the stringprep operation can expand the string, `maxlen'
     indicate how large the buffer holding the string is.  This function
     will not read or write to characters outside that size.

     The `flags' are one of `Stringprep_profile_flags' values, or 0.

     The `profile' contain the `Stringprep_profile' instructions to
     perform.  Your application can define new profiles, possibly
     re-using the generic stringprep tables that always will be part of
     the library, or use one of the currently supported profiles.

     *Return value:* Returns `STRINGPREP_OK' iff successful, or an
     error code.

stringprep_profile
------------------

 -- Function: int stringprep_profile (const char * IN, char ** OUT,
          const char * PROFILE, Stringprep_profile_flags FLAGS)
     IN: input array with UTF-8 string to prepare.

     OUT: output variable with pointer to newly allocate string.

     PROFILE: name of stringprep profile to use.

     FLAGS: a `Stringprep_profile_flags' value, or 0.

     Prepare the input zero terminated UTF-8 string according to the
     stringprep profile, and return the result in a newly allocated
     variable.

     Note that you must convert strings entered in the systems locale
     into UTF-8 before using this function, see
     `stringprep_locale_to_utf8()'.

     The output `out' variable must be deallocated by the caller.

     The `flags' are one of `Stringprep_profile_flags' values, or 0.

     The `profile' specifies the name of the stringprep profile to use.
     It must be one of the internally supported stringprep profiles.

     *Return value:* Returns `STRINGPREP_OK' iff successful, or an
     error code.

4.5 Error Handling
==================

stringprep_strerror
-------------------

 -- Function: const char * stringprep_strerror (Stringprep_rc RC)
     RC: a `Stringprep_rc' return code.

     Convert a return code integer to a text string.  This string can be
     used to output a diagnostic message to the user.

     *STRINGPREP_OK:* Successful operation.  This value is guaranteed to
     always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold
     non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.

     *STRINGPREP_CONTAINS_UNASSIGNED:* String contain unassigned Unicode
     code points, which is forbidden by the profile.

     *STRINGPREP_CONTAINS_PROHIBITED:* String contain code points
     prohibited by the profile.

     *STRINGPREP_BIDI_BOTH_L_AND_RAL:* String contain code points with
     conflicting bidirection category.

     *STRINGPREP_BIDI_LEADTRAIL_NOT_RAL:* Leading and trailing character
     in string not of proper bidirectional category.

     *STRINGPREP_BIDI_CONTAINS_PROHIBITED:* Contains prohibited code
     points detected by bidirectional code.

     *STRINGPREP_TOO_SMALL_BUFFER:* Buffer handed to function was too
     small.  This usually indicate a problem in the calling application.

     *STRINGPREP_PROFILE_ERROR:* The stringprep profile was
     inconsistent.  This usually indicate an internal error in the
     library.

     *STRINGPREP_FLAG_ERROR:* The supplied flag conflicted with profile.
     This usually indicate a problem in the calling application.

     *STRINGPREP_UNKNOWN_PROFILE:* The supplied profile name was not
     known to the library.

     *STRINGPREP_NFKC_FAILED:* The Unicode NFKC operation failed.  This
     usually indicate an internal error in the library.

     *STRINGPREP_MALLOC_ERROR:* The `malloc()' was out of memory.  This
     is usually a fatal error.

     *Return value:* Returns a pointer to a statically allocated string
     containing a description of the error with the return code `rc'.

4.6 Stringprep Profile Macros
=============================

 -- Function: int stringprep_nameprep_no_unassigned (char * IN, int
          MAXLEN)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     Prepare the input UTF-8 string according to the nameprep profile.
     The AllowUnassigned flag is false, use `stringprep_nameprep' for
     true AllowUnassigned.  Returns 0 iff successful, or an error code.

 -- Function: int stringprep_iscsi (char * IN, int MAXLEN)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     Prepare the input UTF-8 string according to the draft iSCSI
     stringprep profile.  Returns 0 iff successful, or an error code.

 -- Function: int stringprep_plain (char * IN, int MAXLEN)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     Prepare the input UTF-8 string according to the draft SASL
     ANONYMOUS profile.  Returns 0 iff successful, or an error code.

 -- Function: int stringprep_xmpp_nodeprep (char * IN, int MAXLEN)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     Prepare the input UTF-8 string according to the draft XMPP node
     identifier profile.  Returns 0 iff successful, or an error code.

 -- Function: int stringprep_xmpp_resourceprep (char * IN, int MAXLEN)
     IN: input/ouput array with string to prepare.

     MAXLEN: maximum length of input/output array.

     Prepare the input UTF-8 string according to the draft XMPP resource
     identifier profile.  Returns 0 iff successful, or an error code.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Punycode Functions,  Next: IDNA Functions,  Prev: Stringprep Functions,  Up: Top

5 Punycode Functions
********************

Punycode is a simple and efficient transfer encoding syntax designed
for use with Internationalized Domain Names in Applications. It
uniquely and reversibly transforms a Unicode string into an ASCII
string. ASCII characters in the Unicode string are represented
literally, and non-ASCII characters are represented by ASCII characters
that are allowed in host name labels (letters, digits, and hyphens). A
general algorithm called Bootstring allows a string of basic code
points to uniquely represent any string of code points drawn from a
larger set. Punycode is an instance of Bootstring that uses particular
parameter values, appropriate for IDNA.

5.1 Header file `punycode.h'
============================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `punycode.h' using:

     #include <punycode.h>

5.2 Unicode Code Point Data Type
================================

The punycode function uses a special type to denote Unicode code
points.  It is guaranteed to always be a 32 bit unsigned integer.

 -- Punycode Unicode code point: uint32_t punycode_uint
     A unsigned integer that hold Unicode code points.

5.3 Core Functions
==================

Note that the current implementation will fail if the `input_length'
exceed 4294967295 (the size of `punycode_uint').  This restriction may
be removed in the future.  Meanwhile applications are encouraged to not
depend on this problem, and use `sizeof' to initialize `input_length'
and `output_length'.

   The functions provided are the following two entry points:

punycode_encode
---------------

 -- Function: int punycode_encode (size_t INPUT_LENGTH, const
          punycode_uint [] INPUT, const unsigned char [] CASE_FLAGS,
          size_t * OUTPUT_LENGTH, char [] OUTPUT)
     INPUT_LENGTH: The number of code points in the `input' array and
     the number of flags in the `case_flags' array.

     INPUT: An array of code points.  They are presumed to be Unicode
     code points, but that is not strictly REQUIRED.  The array
     contains code points, not code units.  UTF-16 uses code units D800
     through DFFF to refer to code points 10000..10FFFF.  The code
     points D800..DFFF do not occur in any valid Unicode string.  The
     code points that can occur in Unicode strings (0..D7FF and
     E000..10FFFF) are also called Unicode scalar values.

     CASE_FLAGS: A `NULL' pointer or an array of boolean values parallel
     to the `input' array.  Nonzero (true, flagged) suggests that the
     corresponding Unicode character be forced to uppercase after being
     decoded (if possible), and zero (false, unflagged) suggests that
     it be forced to lowercase (if possible).  ASCII code points
     (0..7F) are encoded literally, except that ASCII letters are
     forced to uppercase or lowercase according to the corresponding
     case flags.  If `case_flags' is a `NULL' pointer then ASCII letters
     are left as they are, and other code points are treated as
     unflagged.

     OUTPUT_LENGTH: The caller passes in the maximum number of ASCII
     code points that it can receive.  On successful return it will
     contain the number of ASCII code points actually output.

     OUTPUT: An array of ASCII code points.  It is *not*
     null-terminated; it will contain zeros if and only if the `input'
     contains zeros.  (Of course the caller can leave room for a
     terminator and add one if needed.)

     Converts a sequence of code points (presumed to be Unicode code
     points) to Punycode.

     *Return value:* The return value can be any of the
     `Punycode_status' values defined above except
     `PUNYCODE_BAD_INPUT'.  If not `PUNYCODE_SUCCESS', then
     `output_size' and `output' might contain garbage.

punycode_decode
---------------

 -- Function: int punycode_decode (size_t INPUT_LENGTH, const char []
          INPUT, size_t * OUTPUT_LENGTH, punycode_uint [] OUTPUT,
          unsigned char [] CASE_FLAGS)
     INPUT_LENGTH: The number of ASCII code points in the `input' array.

     INPUT: An array of ASCII code points (0..7F).

     OUTPUT_LENGTH: The caller passes in the maximum number of code
     points that it can receive into the `output' array (which is also
     the maximum number of flags that it can receive into the
     `case_flags' array, if `case_flags' is not a `NULL' pointer).  On
     successful return it will contain the number of code points
     actually output (which is also the number of flags actually
     output, if case_flags is not a null pointer).  The decoder will
     never need to output more code points than the number of ASCII
     code points in the input, because of the way the encoding is
     defined.  The number of code points output cannot exceed the
     maximum possible value of a punycode_uint, even if the supplied
     `output_length' is greater than that.

     OUTPUT: An array of code points like the input argument of
     `punycode_encode()' (see above).

     CASE_FLAGS: A `NULL' pointer (if the flags are not needed by the
     caller) or an array of boolean values parallel to the `output'
     array.  Nonzero (true, flagged) suggests that the corresponding
     Unicode character be forced to uppercase by the caller (if
     possible), and zero (false, unflagged) suggests that it be forced
     to lowercase (if possible).  ASCII code points (0..7F) are output
     already in the proper case, but their flags will be set
     appropriately so that applying the flags would be harmless.

     Converts Punycode to a sequence of code points (presumed to be
     Unicode code points).

     *Return value:* The return value can be any of the
     `Punycode_status' values defined above.  If not
     `PUNYCODE_SUCCESS', then `output_length', `output', and
     `case_flags' might contain garbage.

5.4 Error Handling
==================

punycode_strerror
-----------------

 -- Function: const char * punycode_strerror (Punycode_status RC)
     RC: an `Punycode_status' return code.

     Convert a return code integer to a text string.  This string can be
     used to output a diagnostic message to the user.

     *PUNYCODE_SUCCESS:* Successful operation.  This value is guaranteed
     to always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold
     non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.

     *PUNYCODE_BAD_INPUT:* Input is invalid.

     *PUNYCODE_BIG_OUTPUT:* Output would exceed the space provided.

     *PUNYCODE_OVERFLOW:* Input needs wider integers to process.

     *Return value:* Returns a pointer to a statically allocated string
     containing a description of the error with the return code `rc'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: IDNA Functions,  Next: TLD Functions,  Prev: Punycode Functions,  Up: Top

6 IDNA Functions
****************

Until now, there has been no standard method for domain names to use
characters outside the ASCII repertoire. The IDNA document defines
internationalized domain names (IDNs) and a mechanism called IDNA for
handling them in a standard fashion. IDNs use characters drawn from a
large repertoire (Unicode), but IDNA allows the non-ASCII characters to
be represented using only the ASCII characters already allowed in
so-called host names today. This backward-compatible representation is
required in existing protocols like DNS, so that IDNs can be introduced
with no changes to the existing infrastructure. IDNA is only meant for
processing domain names, not free text.

6.1 Header file `idna.h'
========================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `idna.h' using:

     #include <idna.h>

6.2 Control Flags
=================

The IDNA `flags' parameter can take on the following values, or a
bit-wise inclusive or of any subset of the parameters:

 -- Return code: Idna_flags IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED
     Allow unassigned Unicode code points.

 -- Return code: Idna_flags IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
     Check output to make sure it is a STD3 conforming host name.

6.3 Prefix String
=================

 -- Macro: #define IDNA_ACE_PREFIX
     String with the official IDNA prefix, `xn--'.

6.4 Core Functions
==================

The idea behind the IDNA function names are as follows: the
`idna_to_ascii_4i' and `idna_to_unicode_44i' functions are the core
IDNA primitives.  The `4' indicate that the function takes UCS-4
strings (i.e., Unicode code points encoded in a 32-bit unsigned integer
type) of the specified length.  The `i' indicate that the data is
written "inline" into the buffer.  This means the caller is responsible
for allocating (and deallocating) the string, and providing the library
with the allocated length of the string.  The output length is written
in the output length variable.  The remaining functions all contain the
`z' indicator, which means the strings are zero terminated.  All output
strings are allocated by the library, and must be deallocated by the
caller.  The `4' indicator again means that the string is UCS-4, the
`8' means the strings are UTF-8 and the `l' indicator means the strings
are encoded in the encoding used by the current locale.

   The functions provided are the following entry points:

idna_to_ascii_4i
----------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_ascii_4i (const uint32_t * IN, size_t INLEN,
          char * OUT, int FLAGS)
     IN: input array with unicode code points.

     INLEN: length of input array with unicode code points.

     OUT: output zero terminated string that must have room for at
     least 63 characters plus the terminating zero.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     The ToASCII operation takes a sequence of Unicode code points that
     make up one domain label and transforms it into a sequence of code
     points in the ASCII range (0..7F). If ToASCII succeeds, the
     original sequence and the resulting sequence are equivalent labels.

     It is important to note that the ToASCII operation can fail.
     ToASCII fails if any step of it fails. If any step of the ToASCII
     operation fails on any label in a domain name, that domain name
     MUST NOT be used as an internationalized domain name. The method
     for deadling with this failure is application-specific.

     The inputs to ToASCII are a sequence of code points, the
     AllowUnassigned flag, and the UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag. The output
     of ToASCII is either a sequence of ASCII code points or a failure
     condition.

     ToASCII never alters a sequence of code points that are all in the
     ASCII range to begin with (although it could fail). Applying the
     ToASCII operation multiple times has exactly the same effect as
     applying it just once.

     *Return value:* Returns 0 on success, or an `Idna_rc' error code.

idna_to_unicode_44i
-------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_44i (const uint32_t * IN, size_t
          INLEN, uint32_t * OUT, size_t * OUTLEN, int FLAGS)
     IN: input array with unicode code points.

     INLEN: length of input array with unicode code points.

     OUT: output array with unicode code points.

     OUTLEN: on input, maximum size of output array with unicode code
     points, on exit, actual size of output array with unicode code
     points.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     The ToUnicode operation takes a sequence of Unicode code points
     that make up one domain label and returns a sequence of Unicode
     code points. If the input sequence is a label in ACE form, then the
     result is an equivalent internationalized label that is not in ACE
     form, otherwise the original sequence is returned unaltered.

     ToUnicode never fails. If any step fails, then the original input
     sequence is returned immediately in that step.

     The Punycode decoder can never output more code points than it
     inputs, but Nameprep can, and therefore ToUnicode can.  Note that
     the number of octets needed to represent a sequence of code points
     depends on the particular character encoding used.

     The inputs to ToUnicode are a sequence of code points, the
     AllowUnassigned flag, and the UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag. The output of
     ToUnicode is always a sequence of Unicode code points.

     *Return value:* Returns `Idna_rc' error condition, but it must
     only be used for debugging purposes.  The output buffer is always
     guaranteed to contain the correct data according to the
     specification (sans malloc induced errors).  NB!  This means that
     you normally ignore the return code from this function, as
     checking it means breaking the standard.

6.5 Simplified ToASCII Interface
================================

idna_to_ascii_4z
----------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_ascii_4z (const uint32_t * INPUT, char **
          OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero terminated input Unicode string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert UCS-4 domain name to ASCII string.  The domain name may
     contain several labels, separated by dots.  The output buffer must
     be deallocated by the caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_ascii_8z
----------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_ascii_8z (const char * INPUT, char ** OUTPUT,
          int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero terminated input UTF-8 string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert UTF-8 domain name to ASCII string.  The domain name may
     contain several labels, separated by dots.  The output buffer must
     be deallocated by the caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_ascii_lz
----------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_ascii_lz (const char * INPUT, char ** OUTPUT,
          int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero terminated input string encoded in the current locale's
     character set.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert domain name in the locale's encoding to ASCII string.  The
     domain name may contain several labels, separated by dots.  The
     output buffer must be deallocated by the caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

6.6 Simplified ToUnicode Interface
==================================

idna_to_unicode_4z4z
--------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_4z4z (const uint32_t * INPUT,
          uint32_t ** OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero-terminated Unicode string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output Unicode string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert possibly ACE encoded domain name in UCS-4 format into a
     UCS-4 string.  The domain name may contain several labels,
     separated by dots.  The output buffer must be deallocated by the
     caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_unicode_8z4z
--------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_8z4z (const char * INPUT, uint32_t **
          OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero-terminated UTF-8 string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output Unicode string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert possibly ACE encoded domain name in UTF-8 format into a
     UCS-4 string.  The domain name may contain several labels,
     separated by dots.  The output buffer must be deallocated by the
     caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_unicode_8z8z
--------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_8z8z (const char * INPUT, char **
          OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero-terminated UTF-8 string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output UTF-8 string.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert possibly ACE encoded domain name in UTF-8 format into a
     UTF-8 string.  The domain name may contain several labels,
     separated by dots.  The output buffer must be deallocated by the
     caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_unicode_8zlz
--------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_8zlz (const char * INPUT, char **
          OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero-terminated UTF-8 string.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output string encoded in the
     current locale's character set.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert possibly ACE encoded domain name in UTF-8 format into a
     string encoded in the current locale's character set.  The domain
     name may contain several labels, separated by dots.  The output
     buffer must be deallocated by the caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

idna_to_unicode_lzlz
--------------------

 -- Function: int idna_to_unicode_lzlz (const char * INPUT, char **
          OUTPUT, int FLAGS)
     INPUT: zero-terminated string encoded in the current locale's
     character set.

     OUTPUT: pointer to newly allocated output string encoded in the
     current locale's character set.

     FLAGS: an `Idna_flags' value, e.g., `IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED' or
     `IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES'.

     Convert possibly ACE encoded domain name in the locale's character
     set into a string encoded in the current locale's character set.
     The domain name may contain several labels, separated by dots.  The
     output buffer must be deallocated by the caller.

     *Return value:* Returns `IDNA_SUCCESS' on success, or error code.

6.7 Error Handling
==================

idna_strerror
-------------

 -- Function: const char * idna_strerror (Idna_rc RC)
     RC: an `Idna_rc' return code.

     Convert a return code integer to a text string.  This string can be
     used to output a diagnostic message to the user.

     *IDNA_SUCCESS:* Successful operation.  This value is guaranteed to
     always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold
     non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.

     *IDNA_STRINGPREP_ERROR:* Error during string preparation.

     *IDNA_PUNYCODE_ERROR:* Error during punycode operation.

     *IDNA_CONTAINS_NON_LDH:* For IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES, indicate
     that the string contains non-LDH ASCII characters.

     *IDNA_CONTAINS_MINUS:* For IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES, indicate that
     the string contains a leading or trailing hyphen-minus (U+002D).

     *IDNA_INVALID_LENGTH:* The final output string is not within the
     (inclusive) range 1 to 63 characters.

     *IDNA_NO_ACE_PREFIX:* The string does not contain the ACE prefix
     (for ToUnicode).

     *IDNA_ROUNDTRIP_VERIFY_ERROR:* The ToASCII operation on output
     string does not equal the input.

     *IDNA_CONTAINS_ACE_PREFIX:* The input contains the ACE prefix (for
     ToASCII).

     *IDNA_ICONV_ERROR:* Could not convert string in locale encoding.

     *IDNA_MALLOC_ERROR:* Could not allocate buffer (this is typically a
     fatal error).

     *IDNA_DLOPEN_ERROR:* Could not dlopen the libcidn DSO (only used
     internally in libc).

     *Return value:* Returns a pointer to a statically allocated string
     containing a description of the error with the return code `rc'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: TLD Functions,  Next: PR29 Functions,  Prev: IDNA Functions,  Up: Top

7 TLD Functions
***************

Organizations that manage some Top Level Domains (TLDs) have published
tables with characters they accept within the domain.  The reason may
be to reduce complexity that come from using the full Unicode range,
and to protect themselves from future (backwards incompatible) changes
in the IDN or Unicode specifications.  Libidn implement an
infrastructure for defining and checking strings against such tables.
Libidn also ship some tables from TLDs that we have managed to get
permission to use them from.  Because these tables are even less static
than Unicode or StringPrep tables, it is likely that they will be
updated from time to time (even in backwards incompatibe ways).  The
Libidn interface provide a "version" field for each TLD table, which
can be compared for equality to guarantee the same operation over time.

   From a design point of view, you can regard the TLD tables for IDN
as the "localization" step that come after the "internationalization"
step provided by the IETF standards.

   The TLD functionality rely on up-to-date tables.  The latest version
of Libidn aim to provide these, but tables with unclear copying
conditions, or generally experimental tables, are not included.  Some
such tables can be found at `http://tldchk.berlios.de'.

7.1 Header file `tld.h'
=======================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `tld.h' using:

     #include <tld.h>

7.2 Core Functions
==================

tld_check_4t
------------

 -- Function: int tld_check_4t (const uint32_t * IN, size_t INLEN,
          size_t * ERRPOS, const Tld_table * TLD)
     IN: Array of unicode code points to process. Does not need to be
     zero terminated.

     INLEN: Number of unicode code points.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     TLD: A `Tld_table' data structure representing the restrictions for
     which the input should be tested.

     Test each of the code points in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the data structure in `tld', return the position of the
     first character for which this is not the case in `errpos'.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     code points are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

tld_check_4tz
-------------

 -- Function: int tld_check_4tz (const uint32_t * IN, size_t * ERRPOS,
          const Tld_table * TLD)
     IN: Zero terminated array of unicode code points to process.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     TLD: A `Tld_table' data structure representing the restrictions for
     which the input should be tested.

     Test each of the code points in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the data structure in `tld', return the position of the
     first character for which this is not the case in `errpos'.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     code points are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

7.3 Utility Functions
=====================

tld_get_4
---------

 -- Function: int tld_get_4 (const uint32_t * IN, size_t INLEN, char **
          OUT)
     IN: Array of unicode code points to process. Does not need to be
     zero terminated.

     INLEN: Number of unicode code points.

     OUT: Zero terminated ascii result string pointer.

     Isolate the top-level domain of `in' and return it as an ASCII
     string in `out'.

     *Return value:* Return `TLD_SUCCESS' on success, or the
     corresponding `Tld_rc' error code otherwise.

tld_get_4z
----------

 -- Function: int tld_get_4z (const uint32_t * IN, char ** OUT)
     IN: Zero terminated array of unicode code points to process.

     OUT: Zero terminated ascii result string pointer.

     Isolate the top-level domain of `in' and return it as an ASCII
     string in `out'.

     *Return value:* Return `TLD_SUCCESS' on success, or the
     corresponding `Tld_rc' error code otherwise.

tld_get_z
---------

 -- Function: int tld_get_z (const char * IN, char ** OUT)
     IN: Zero terminated character array to process.

     OUT: Zero terminated ascii result string pointer.

     Isolate the top-level domain of `in' and return it as an ASCII
     string in `out'.  The input string `in' may be UTF-8, ISO-8859-1 or
     any ASCII compatible character encoding.

     *Return value:* Return `TLD_SUCCESS' on success, or the
     corresponding `Tld_rc' error code otherwise.

tld_get_table
-------------

 -- Function: const Tld_table * tld_get_table (const char * TLD, const
          Tld_table ** TABLES)
     TLD: TLD name (e.g. "com") as zero terminated ASCII byte string.

     TABLES: Zero terminated array of `Tld_table' info-structures for
     TLDs.

     Get the TLD table for a named TLD by searching through the given
     TLD table array.

     *Return value:* Return structure corresponding to TLD `tld' by
     going thru `tables', or return `NULL' if no such structure is
     found.

tld_default_table
-----------------

 -- Function: const Tld_table * tld_default_table (const char * TLD,
          const Tld_table ** OVERRIDES)
     TLD: TLD name (e.g. "com") as zero terminated ASCII byte string.

     OVERRIDES: Additional zero terminated array of `Tld_table'
     info-structures for TLDs, or `NULL' to only use library deault
     tables.

     Get the TLD table for a named TLD, using the internal defaults,
     possibly overrided by the (optional) supplied tables.

     *Return value:* Return structure corresponding to TLD `tld_str',
     first looking through `overrides' then thru built-in list, or
     `NULL' if no such structure found.

7.4 High-Level Wrapper Functions
================================

tld_check_4
-----------

 -- Function: int tld_check_4 (const uint32_t * IN, size_t INLEN,
          size_t * ERRPOS, const Tld_table ** OVERRIDES)
     IN: Array of unicode code points to process. Does not need to be
     zero terminated.

     INLEN: Number of unicode code points.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     OVERRIDES: A `Tld_table' array of additional domain restriction
     structures that complement and supersede the built-in information.

     Test each of the code points in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the information in `overrides' or by the built-in TLD
     restriction data. When data for the same TLD is available both
     internally and in `overrides', the information in `overrides' takes
     precedence. If several entries for a specific TLD are found, the
     first one is used.  If `overrides' is `NULL', only the built-in
     information is used.  The position of the first offending character
     is returned in `errpos'.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     code points are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

tld_check_4z
------------

 -- Function: int tld_check_4z (const uint32_t * IN, size_t * ERRPOS,
          const Tld_table ** OVERRIDES)
     IN: Zero-terminated array of unicode code points to process.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     OVERRIDES: A `Tld_table' array of additional domain restriction
     structures that complement and supersede the built-in information.

     Test each of the code points in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the information in `overrides' or by the built-in TLD
     restriction data. When data for the same TLD is available both
     internally and in `overrides', the information in `overrides' takes
     precedence. If several entries for a specific TLD are found, the
     first one is used.  If `overrides' is `NULL', only the built-in
     information is used.  The position of the first offending character
     is returned in `errpos'.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     code points are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

tld_check_8z
------------

 -- Function: int tld_check_8z (const char * IN, size_t * ERRPOS, const
          Tld_table ** OVERRIDES)
     IN: Zero-terminated UTF8 string to process.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     OVERRIDES: A `Tld_table' array of additional domain restriction
     structures that complement and supersede the built-in information.

     Test each of the characters in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the information in `overrides' or by the built-in TLD
     restriction data. When data for the same TLD is available both
     internally and in `overrides', the information in `overrides' takes
     precedence. If several entries for a specific TLD are found, the
     first one is used.  If `overrides' is `NULL', only the built-in
     information is used.  The position of the first offending character
     is returned in `errpos'.  Note that the error position refers to
     the decoded character offset rather than the byte position in the
     string.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     characters are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

tld_check_lz
------------

 -- Function: int tld_check_lz (const char * IN, size_t * ERRPOS, const
          Tld_table ** OVERRIDES)
     IN: Zero-terminated string in the current locales encoding to
     process.

     ERRPOS: Position of offending character is returned here.

     OVERRIDES: A `Tld_table' array of additional domain restriction
     structures that complement and supersede the built-in information.

     Test each of the characters in `in' for whether or not they are
     allowed by the information in `overrides' or by the built-in TLD
     restriction data. When data for the same TLD is available both
     internally and in `overrides', the information in `overrides' takes
     precedence. If several entries for a specific TLD are found, the
     first one is used.  If `overrides' is `NULL', only the built-in
     information is used.  The position of the first offending character
     is returned in `errpos'.  Note that the error position refers to
     the decoded character offset rather than the byte position in the
     string.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Tld_rc' value `TLD_SUCCESS' if all
     characters are valid or when `tld' is null, `TLD_INVALID' if a
     character is not allowed, or additional error codes on general
     failure conditions.

7.5 Error Handling
==================

tld_strerror
------------

 -- Function: const char * tld_strerror (Tld_rc RC)
     RC: tld return code

     Convert a return code integer to a text string.  This string can be
     used to output a diagnostic message to the user.

     *TLD_SUCCESS:* Successful operation.  This value is guaranteed to
     always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold
     non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.

     *TLD_INVALID:* Invalid character found.

     *TLD_NODATA:* No input data was provided.

     *TLD_MALLOC_ERROR:* Error during memory allocation.

     *TLD_ICONV_ERROR:* Error during iconv string conversion.

     *TLD_NO_TLD:* No top-level domain found in domain string.

     *Return value:* Returns a pointer to a statically allocated string
     containing a description of the error with the return code `rc'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: PR29 Functions,  Next: Examples,  Prev: TLD Functions,  Up: Top

8 PR29 Functions
****************

A deficiency in the specification of Unicode Normalization Forms has
been found.  The consequence is that some strings can be normalized
into different strings by different implementations.  In other words,
two different implementations may return different output for the same
input (because the interpretation of the specification is ambiguous).
Further, an implementation invoked again on the one of the output
strings may return a different string (because one of the
interpretation of the ambiguous specification make normalization
non-idempotent).  Fortunately, only a select few character sequence
exhibit this problem, and none of them are expected to occur in natural
languages (due to different linguistic uses of the involved characters).

   A full discussion of the problem may be found at:

   `http://www.unicode.org/review/pr-29.html'

   The PR29 functions below allow you to detect the problem sequence.
So when would you want to use these functions?  For most applications,
such as those using Nameprep for IDN, this is likely only to be an
interoperability problem.  Thus, you may not want to care about it, as
the character sequences will rarely occur naturally.  However, if you
are using a profile, such as SASLPrep, to process authentication
tokens; authorization tokens; or passwords, there is a real danger that
attackers may try to use the peculiarities in these strings to attack
parts of your system.  As only a small number of strings, and no
naturally occurring strings, exhibit this problem, the conservative
approach of rejecting the strings is recommended.  If this approach is
not used, you should instead verify that all parts of your system, that
process the tokens and passwords, use a NFKC implementation that
produce the same output for the same input.

   Technically inclined readers may be interested in knowing more about
the implementation aspects of the PR29 flaw. *Note PR29 discussion::.

8.1 Header file `pr29.h'
========================

To use the functions explained in this chapter, you need to include the
file `pr29.h' using:

     #include <pr29.h>

8.2 Core Functions
==================

pr29_4
------

 -- Function: int pr29_4 (const uint32_t * IN, size_t LEN)
     IN: input array with unicode code points.

     LEN: length of input array with unicode code points.

     Check the input to see if it may be normalized into different
     strings by different NFKC implementations, due to an anomaly in the
     NFKC specifications.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Pr29_rc' value `PR29_SUCCESS' on
     success, and `PR29_PROBLEM' if the input sequence is a "problem
     sequence" (i.e., may be normalized into different strings by
     different implementations).

8.3 Utility Functions
=====================

pr29_4z
-------

 -- Function: int pr29_4z (const uint32_t * IN)
     IN: zero terminated array of Unicode code points.

     Check the input to see if it may be normalized into different
     strings by different NFKC implementations, due to an anomaly in the
     NFKC specifications.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Pr29_rc' value `PR29_SUCCESS' on
     success, and `PR29_PROBLEM' if the input sequence is a "problem
     sequence" (i.e., may be normalized into different strings by
     different implementations).

pr29_8z
-------

 -- Function: int pr29_8z (const char * IN)
     IN: zero terminated input UTF-8 string.

     Check the input to see if it may be normalized into different
     strings by different NFKC implementations, due to an anomaly in the
     NFKC specifications.

     *Return value:* Returns the `Pr29_rc' value `PR29_SUCCESS' on
     success, and `PR29_PROBLEM' if the input sequence is a "problem
     sequence" (i.e., may be normalized into different strings by
     different implementations), or `PR29_STRINGPREP_ERROR' if there
     was a problem converting the string from UTF-8 to UCS-4.

8.4 Error Handling
==================

pr29_strerror
-------------

 -- Function: const char * pr29_strerror (Pr29_rc RC)
     RC: an `Pr29_rc' return code.

     Convert a return code integer to a text string.  This string can be
     used to output a diagnostic message to the user.

     *PR29_SUCCESS:* Successful operation.  This value is guaranteed to
     always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold
     non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.

     *PR29_PROBLEM:* A problem sequence was encountered.

     *PR29_STRINGPREP_ERROR:* The character set conversion failed (only
     for `pr29_8()' and `pr29_8z()').

     *Return value:* Returns a pointer to a statically allocated string
     containing a description of the error with the return code `rc'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Examples,  Next: Invoking idn,  Prev: PR29 Functions,  Up: Top

9 Examples
**********

This chapter contains example code which illustrate how `Libidn' can be
used when writing your own application.

* Menu:

* Example 1::		Example using stringprep.
* Example 2::		Example using punycode.
* Example 3::		Example using IDNA ToASCII.
* Example 4::		Example using IDNA ToUnicode.
* Example 5::		Example using TLD checking.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Example 1,  Next: Example 2,  Up: Examples

9.1 Example 1
=============

This example demonstrates how the stringprep functions are used.

/* example.c --- Example code showing how to use stringprep().
 * Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
 * Simon Josefsson
 *
 * This file is part of GNU Libidn.
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>		/* setlocale() */
#include <stringprep.h>

/*
 * Compiling using libtool and pkg-config is recommended:
 *
 * $ libtool cc -o example example.c `pkg-config --cflags --libs libidn`
 * $ ./example
 * Input string encoded as `ISO-8859-1': ª
 * Before locale2utf8 (length 2): aa 0a
 * Before stringprep (length 3): c2 aa 0a
 * After stringprep (length 2): 61 0a
 * $
 *
 */

int
main (void)
{
  char buf[BUFSIZ];
  char *p;
  int rc;
  size_t i;

  setlocale (LC_ALL, "");

  printf ("Input string encoded as `%s': ", stringprep_locale_charset ());
  fflush (stdout);
  fgets (buf, BUFSIZ, stdin);

  printf ("Before locale2utf8 (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  p = stringprep_locale_to_utf8 (buf);
  if (p)
    {
      strcpy (buf, p);
      free (p);
    }
  else
    printf ("Could not convert string to UTF-8, continuing anyway...\n");

  printf ("Before stringprep (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  rc = stringprep (buf, BUFSIZ, 0, stringprep_nameprep);
  if (rc != STRINGPREP_OK)
    printf ("Stringprep failed (%d): %s\n", rc, stringprep_strerror (rc));
  else
    {
      printf ("After stringprep (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
      for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
	printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
      printf ("\n");
    }

  return 0;
}

File: libidn.info,  Node: Example 2,  Next: Example 3,  Prev: Example 1,  Up: Examples

9.2 Example 2
=============

This example demonstrates how the punycode functions are used.

/* example2.c --- Example code showing how to use punycode.
 * Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
 * Simon Josefsson
 * Copyright (C) 2002  Adam M. Costello
 *
 * This file is part of GNU Libidn.
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 */

#include <locale.h>		/* setlocale() */

/*
 * This file is derived from RFC 3492 written by Adam M. Costello.
 *
 * Disclaimer and license: Regarding this entire document or any
 * portion of it (including the pseudocode and C code), the author
 * makes no guarantees and is not responsible for any damage resulting
 * from its use.  The author grants irrevocable permission to anyone
 * to use, modify, and distribute it in any way that does not diminish
 * the rights of anyone else to use, modify, and distribute it,
 * provided that redistributed derivative works do not contain
 * misleading author or version information.  Derivative works need
 * not be licensed under similar terms.
 *
 */

#include <assert.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <punycode.h>

/* For testing, we'll just set some compile-time limits rather than */
/* use malloc(), and set a compile-time option rather than using a  */
/* command-line option.                                             */

enum
{
  unicode_max_length = 256,
  ace_max_length = 256
};

static void
usage (char **argv)
{
  fprintf (stderr,
	   "\n"
	   "%s -e reads code points and writes a Punycode string.\n"
	   "%s -d reads a Punycode string and writes code points.\n"
	   "\n"
	   "Input and output are plain text in the native character set.\n"
	   "Code points are in the form u+hex separated by whitespace.\n"
	   "Although the specification allows Punycode strings to contain\n"
	   "any characters from the ASCII repertoire, this test code\n"
	   "supports only the printable characters, and needs the Punycode\n"
	   "string to be followed by a newline.\n"
	   "The case of the u in u+hex is the force-to-uppercase flag.\n",
	   argv[0], argv[0]);
  exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
}

static void
fail (const char *msg)
{
  fputs (msg, stderr);
  exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
}

static const char too_big[] =
  "input or output is too large, recompile with larger limits\n";
static const char invalid_input[] = "invalid input\n";
static const char overflow[] = "arithmetic overflow\n";
static const char io_error[] = "I/O error\n";

/* The following string is used to convert printable */
/* characters between ASCII and the native charset:  */

static const char print_ascii[] = "\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n" "\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n\n" " !\"#$%&'()*+,-./" "0123456789:;<=>?" "\0x40"	/* at sign */
  "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNO"
  "PQRSTUVWXYZ[\\]^_" "`abcdefghijklmno" "pqrstuvwxyz{|}~\n";

int
main (int argc, char **argv)
{
  enum punycode_status status;
  int r;
  size_t input_length, output_length, j;
  unsigned char case_flags[unicode_max_length];

  setlocale (LC_ALL, "");

  if (argc != 2)
    usage (argv);
  if (argv[1][0] != '-')
    usage (argv);
  if (argv[1][2] != 0)
    usage (argv);

  if (argv[1][1] == 'e')
    {
      uint32_t input[unicode_max_length];
      unsigned long codept;
      char output[ace_max_length + 1], uplus[3];
      int c;

      /* Read the input code points: */

      input_length = 0;

      for (;;)
	{
	  r = scanf ("%2s%lx", uplus, &codept);
	  if (ferror (stdin))
	    fail (io_error);
	  if (r == EOF || r == 0)
	    break;

	  if (r != 2 || uplus[1] != '+' || codept > (uint32_t) - 1)
	    {
	      fail (invalid_input);
	    }

	  if (input_length == unicode_max_length)
	    fail (too_big);

	  if (uplus[0] == 'u')
	    case_flags[input_length] = 0;
	  else if (uplus[0] == 'U')
	    case_flags[input_length] = 1;
	  else
	    fail (invalid_input);

	  input[input_length++] = codept;
	}

      /* Encode: */

      output_length = ace_max_length;
      status = punycode_encode (input_length, input, case_flags,
				&output_length, output);
      if (status == punycode_bad_input)
	fail (invalid_input);
      if (status == punycode_big_output)
	fail (too_big);
      if (status == punycode_overflow)
	fail (overflow);
      assert (status == punycode_success);

      /* Convert to native charset and output: */

      for (j = 0; j < output_length; ++j)
	{
	  c = output[j];
	  assert (c >= 0 && c <= 127);
	  if (print_ascii[c] == 0)
	    fail (invalid_input);
	  output[j] = print_ascii[c];
	}

      output[j] = 0;
      r = puts (output);
      if (r == EOF)
	fail (io_error);
      return EXIT_SUCCESS;
    }

  if (argv[1][1] == 'd')
    {
      char input[ace_max_length + 2], *p, *pp;
      uint32_t output[unicode_max_length];

      /* Read the Punycode input string and convert to ASCII: */

      fgets (input, ace_max_length + 2, stdin);
      if (ferror (stdin))
	fail (io_error);
      if (feof (stdin))
	fail (invalid_input);
      input_length = strlen (input) - 1;
      if (input[input_length] != '\n')
	fail (too_big);
      input[input_length] = 0;

      for (p = input; *p != 0; ++p)
	{
	  pp = strchr (print_ascii, *p);
	  if (pp == 0)
	    fail (invalid_input);
	  *p = pp - print_ascii;
	}

      /* Decode: */

      output_length = unicode_max_length;
      status = punycode_decode (input_length, input, &output_length,
				output, case_flags);
      if (status == punycode_bad_input)
	fail (invalid_input);
      if (status == punycode_big_output)
	fail (too_big);
      if (status == punycode_overflow)
	fail (overflow);
      assert (status == punycode_success);

      /* Output the result: */

      for (j = 0; j < output_length; ++j)
	{
	  r = printf ("%s+%04lX\n",
		      case_flags[j] ? "U" : "u", (unsigned long) output[j]);
	  if (r < 0)
	    fail (io_error);
	}

      return EXIT_SUCCESS;
    }

  usage (argv);
  return EXIT_SUCCESS;		/* not reached, but quiets compiler warning */
}

File: libidn.info,  Node: Example 3,  Next: Example 4,  Prev: Example 2,  Up: Examples

9.3 Example 3
=============

This example demonstrates how the library is used to convert
internationalized domain names into ASCII compatible names.

/* example3.c --- Example ToASCII() code showing how to use Libidn.
 * Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Simon Josefsson
 *
 * This file is part of GNU Libidn.
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>		/* setlocale() */
#include <stringprep.h>		/* stringprep_locale_charset() */
#include <idna.h>		/* idna_to_ascii_lz() */

/*
 * Compiling using libtool and pkg-config is recommended:
 *
 * $ libtool cc -o example3 example3.c `pkg-config --cflags --libs libidn`
 * $ ./example3
 * Input domain encoded as `ISO-8859-1': www.räksmörgåsª.example
 * Read string (length 23): 77 77 77 2e 72 e4 6b 73 6d f6 72 67 e5 73 aa 2e 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65
 * ACE label (length 33): 'www.xn--rksmrgsa-0zap8p.example'
 * 77 77 77 2e 78 6e 2d 2d 72 6b 73 6d 72 67 73 61 2d 30 7a 61 70 38 70 2e 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65
 * $
 *
 */

int
main (void)
{
  char buf[BUFSIZ];
  char *p;
  int rc;
  size_t i;

  setlocale (LC_ALL, "");

  printf ("Input domain encoded as `%s': ", stringprep_locale_charset ());
  fflush (stdout);
  fgets (buf, BUFSIZ, stdin);
  buf[strlen (buf) - 1] = '\0';

  printf ("Read string (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  rc = idna_to_ascii_lz (buf, &p, 0);
  if (rc != IDNA_SUCCESS)
    {
      printf ("ToASCII() failed (%d): %s\n", rc, idna_strerror (rc));
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

  printf ("ACE label (length %d): '%s'\n", strlen (p), p);
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (p); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", p[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  free (p);

  return 0;
}

File: libidn.info,  Node: Example 4,  Next: Example 5,  Prev: Example 3,  Up: Examples

9.4 Example 4
=============

This example demonstrates how the library is used to convert ASCII
compatible names to internationalized domain names.

/* example4.c --- Example ToUnicode() code showing how to use Libidn.
 * Copyright (C) 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Simon Josefsson
 *
 * This file is part of GNU Libidn.
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>		/* setlocale() */
#include <stringprep.h>		/* stringprep_locale_charset() */
#include <idna.h>		/* idna_to_unicode_lzlz() */

/*
 * Compiling using libtool and pkg-config is recommended:
 *
 * $ libtool cc -o example4 example4.c `pkg-config --cflags --libs libidn`
 * $ ./example4
 * Input domain encoded as `ISO-8859-1': www.xn--rksmrgsa-0zap8p.example
 * Read string (length 33): 77 77 77 2e 78 6e 2d 2d 72 6b 73 6d 72 67 73 61 2d 30 7a 61 70 38 70 2e 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65
 * ACE label (length 23): 'www.räksmörgåsa.example'
 * 77 77 77 2e 72 e4 6b 73 6d f6 72 67 e5 73 61 2e 65 78 61 6d 70 6c 65
 * $
 *
 */

int
main (void)
{
  char buf[BUFSIZ];
  char *p;
  int rc;
  size_t i;

  setlocale (LC_ALL, "");

  printf ("Input domain encoded as `%s': ", stringprep_locale_charset ());
  fflush (stdout);
  fgets (buf, BUFSIZ, stdin);
  buf[strlen (buf) - 1] = '\0';

  printf ("Read string (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  rc = idna_to_unicode_lzlz (buf, &p, 0);
  if (rc != IDNA_SUCCESS)
    {
      printf ("ToUnicode() failed (%d): %s\n", rc, idna_strerror (rc));
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

  printf ("ACE label (length %d): '%s'\n", strlen (p), p);
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (p); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", p[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  free (p);

  return 0;
}

File: libidn.info,  Node: Example 5,  Prev: Example 4,  Up: Examples

9.5 Example 5
=============

This example demonstrates how the library is used to check a string for
invalid characters within a specific TLD.

/* example5.c --- Example TLD checking.
 * Copyright (C) 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Simon
 * Josefsson
 *
 * This file is part of GNU Libidn.
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
 *
 */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

/* Get stringprep_locale_charset, etc. */
#include <stringprep.h>

/* Get idna_to_ascii_8z, etc. */
#include <idna.h>

/* Get tld_check_4z. */
#include <tld.h>

/*
 * Compiling using libtool and pkg-config is recommended:
 *
 * $ libtool cc -o example5 example5.c `pkg-config --cflags --libs libidn`
 * $ ./example5
 * Input domain encoded as `UTF-8': fooß.no
 * Read string (length 8): 66 6f 6f c3 9f 2e 6e 6f
 * ToASCII string (length 8): fooss.no
 * ToUnicode string: U+0066 U+006f U+006f U+0073 U+0073 U+002e U+006e U+006f
 * Domain accepted by TLD check
 *
 * $ ./example5
 * Input domain encoded as `UTF-8': gr€€n.no
 * Read string (length 12): 67 72 e2 82 ac e2 82 ac 6e 2e 6e 6f
 * ToASCII string (length 16): xn--grn-l50aa.no
 * ToUnicode string: U+0067 U+0072 U+20ac U+20ac U+006e U+002e U+006e U+006f
 * Domain rejected by TLD check, Unicode position 2
 *
 */

int
main (void)
{
  char buf[BUFSIZ];
  char *p;
  uint32_t *r;
  int rc;
  size_t errpos, i;

  printf ("Input domain encoded as `%s': ", stringprep_locale_charset ());
  fflush (stdout);
  fgets (buf, BUFSIZ, stdin);
  buf[strlen (buf) - 1] = '\0';

  printf ("Read string (length %d): ", strlen (buf));
  for (i = 0; i < strlen (buf); i++)
    printf ("%02x ", buf[i] & 0xFF);
  printf ("\n");

  p = stringprep_locale_to_utf8 (buf);
  if (p)
    {
      strcpy (buf, p);
      free (p);
    }
  else
    printf ("Could not convert string to UTF-8, continuing anyway...\n");

  rc = idna_to_ascii_8z (buf, &p, 0);
  if (rc != IDNA_SUCCESS)
    {
      printf ("idna_to_ascii_8z failed (%d): %s\n", rc, idna_strerror (rc));
      return 2;
    }

  printf ("ToASCII string (length %d): %s\n", strlen (p), p);

  rc = idna_to_unicode_8z4z (p, &r, 0);
  free (p);
  if (rc != IDNA_SUCCESS)
    {
      printf ("idna_to_unicode_8z4z failed (%d): %s\n",
	      rc, idna_strerror (rc));
      return 2;
    }

  printf ("ToUnicode string: ");
  for (i = 0; r[i]; i++)
    printf ("U+%04x ", r[i]);
  printf ("\n");

  rc = tld_check_4z (r, &errpos, NULL);
  free (r);
  if (rc == TLD_INVALID)
    {
      printf ("Domain rejected by TLD check, Unicode position %d\n", errpos);
      return 1;
    }
  else if (rc != TLD_SUCCESS)
    {
      printf ("tld_check_4z() failed (%d): %s\n", rc, tld_strerror (rc));
      return 2;
    }

  printf ("Domain accepted by TLD check\n");

  return 0;
}

File: libidn.info,  Node: Invoking idn,  Next: Emacs API,  Prev: Examples,  Up: Top

10 Invoking idn
***************

10.1 Name
=========

GNU Libidn (idn) - Internationalized Domain Names command line tool

10.2 Description
================

`idn' allows internationalized string preparation (`stringprep'),
encoding and decoding of punycode data, and IDNA ToASCII/ToUnicode
operations to be performed on the command line.

   If strings are specified on the command line, they are used as input
and the computed output is printed to standard output `stdout'.  If no
strings are specified on the command line, the program read data, line
by line, from the standard input `stdin', and print the computed output
to standard output.  What processing is performed (e.g., ToASCII, or
Punycode encode) is indicated by options.  If any errors are
encountered, the execution of the applications is aborted.

   All strings are expected to be encoded in the preferred charset used
by your locale.  Use `--debug' to find out what this charset is.  You
can override the charset used by setting environment variable `CHARSET'.

   To process a string that starts with `-', for example `-foo', use
`--' to signal the end of parameters, as in `idn --quiet -a -- -foo'.

10.3 Options
============

`idn' recognizes these commands:

  -h, --help               Print help and exit

  -V, --version            Print version and exit

  -s, --stringprep         Prepare string according to nameprep profile

  -d, --punycode-decode    Decode Punycode

  -e, --punycode-encode    Encode Punycode

  -a, --idna-to-ascii      Convert to ACE according to IDNA (default mode)

  -u, --idna-to-unicode    Convert from ACE according to IDNA

      --allow-unassigned   Toggle IDNA AllowUnassigned flag (default off)

      --usestd3asciirules  Toggle IDNA UseSTD3ASCIIRules flag (default off)

      --no-tld             Don't check string for TLD specific rules
                             Only for --idna-to-ascii and --idna-to-unicode

  -n, --nfkc               Normalize string according to Unicode v3.2 NFKC

  -p, --profile=STRING     Use specified stringprep profile instead
                             Valid stringprep profiles: `Nameprep',
                             `iSCSI', `Nodeprep', `Resourceprep',
                             `trace', `SASLprep'

      --debug              Print debugging information

      --quiet              Silent operation

10.4 Environment Variables
==========================

The CHARSET environment variable can be used to override what character
set to be used for decoding incoming data (i.e., on the command line or
on the standard input stream), and to encode data to the standard
output.  If your system is set up correctly, however, the application
will guess which character set is used automatically.  Example usage:

     $ CHARSET=ISO-8859-1 idn --punycode-encode
     ...

10.5 Examples
=============

Standard usage, reading input from standard input:

     jas@latte:~$ idn
     libidn 0.3.5
     Copyright 2002, 2003 Simon Josefsson.
     GNU Libidn comes with NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
     You may redistribute copies of GNU Libidn under the terms of
     the GNU Lesser General Public License.  For more information
     about these matters, see the file named COPYING.LIB.
     Type each input string on a line by itself, terminated by a newline character.
     räksmörgås.se
     xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o.se
     jas@latte:~$

   Reading input from command line, and disabling copyright and license
information:

     jas@latte:~$ idn --quiet räksmörgås.se blåbærgrød.no
     xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o.se
     xn--blbrgrd-fxak7p.no
     jas@latte:~$

   Accessing a specific StringPrep profile directly:

     jas@latte:~$ idn --quiet --profile=SASLprep --stringprep teßtª
     teßta
     jas@latte:~$

10.6 Troubleshooting
====================

Getting character data encoded right, and making sure Libidn use the
same encoding, can be difficult.  The reason for this is that most
systems encode character data in more than one character encoding,
i.e., using `UTF-8' together with `ISO-8859-1' or `ISO-2022-JP'.  This
problem is likely to continue to exist until only one character
encoding come out as the evolutionary winner, or (more likely, at least
to some extents) forever.

   The first step to troubleshooting character encoding problems with
Libidn is to use the `--debug' parameter to find out which character
set encoding `idn' believe your locale uses.

     jas@latte:~$ idn --debug --quiet ""
     system locale uses charset `UTF-8'.

     jas@latte:~$

   If it prints `ANSI_X3.4-1968' (i.e., `US-ASCII'), this indicate you
have not configured your locale properly.  To configure the locale, you
can, for example, use `LANG=sv_SE.UTF-8; export LANG' at a `/bin/sh'
prompt, to set up your locale for a Swedish environment using `UTF-8'
as the encoding.

   Sometimes `idn' appear to be unable to translate from your system
locale into `UTF-8' (which is used internally), and you get an error
like the following:

     jas@latte:~$ idn --quiet foo
     idn: could not convert from ISO-8859-1 to UTF-8.
     jas@latte:~$

   The simplest explanation is that you haven't installed the `iconv'
conversion tools.  You can find it as a standalone library in GNU
Libiconv (`http://www.gnu.org/software/libiconv/').  On many GNU/Linux
systems, this library is part of the system, but you may have to
install additional packages (e.g., `glibc-locale' for Debian) to be
able to use it.

   Another explanation is that the error is correct and you are feeding
`idn' invalid data.  This can happen inadvertently if you are not
careful with the character set encodings you use.  For example, if your
shell run in a `ISO-8859-1' environment, and you invoke `idn' with the
`CHARSET' environment variable as follows, you will feed it
`ISO-8859-1' characters but force it to believe they are `UTF-8'.
Naturally this will lead to an error, unless the byte sequences happen
to be parsable as `UTF-8'.  Note that even if you don't get an error,
the output may be incorrect in this situation, because `ISO-8859-1' and
`UTF-8' does not in general encode the same characters as the same byte
sequences.

     jas@latte:~$ idn --quiet --debug ""
     system locale uses charset `ISO-8859-1'.

     jas@latte:~$ CHARSET=UTF-8 idn --quiet --debug räksmörgås
     system locale uses charset `UTF-8'.
     input[0] = U+0072
     input[1] = U+4af3
     input[2] = U+006d
     input[3] = U+1b29e5
     input[4] = U+0073
     output[0] = U+0078
     output[1] = U+006e
     output[2] = U+002d
     output[3] = U+002d
     output[4] = U+0072
     output[5] = U+006d
     output[6] = U+0073
     output[7] = U+002d
     output[8] = U+0068
     output[9] = U+0069
     output[10] = U+0036
     output[11] = U+0064
     output[12] = U+0035
     output[13] = U+0039
     output[14] = U+0037
     output[15] = U+0035
     output[16] = U+0035
     output[17] = U+0032
     output[18] = U+0061
     xn--rms-hi6d597552a
     jas@latte:~$

   The sense moral here is to forget about `CHARSET' (configure your
locales properly instead) unless you know what you are doing, and if
you want to use it, do it carefully, after verifying with `--debug'
that you get the desired results.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Emacs API,  Next: Java API,  Prev: Invoking idn,  Up: Top

11 Emacs API
************

Included in Libidn are `punycode.el' and `idna.el' that provides an
Emacs Lisp API to (a limited set of) the Libidn API.  This section
describes the API.  Currently the IDNA API always set the
`UseSTD3ASCIIRules' flag and clear the `AllowUnassigned' flag, in the
future there may be functionality to specify these flags via the API.

11.1 Punycode Emacs API
=======================

 -- Variable: punycode-program
     Name of the GNU Libidn `idn' application.  The default is `idn'.
     This variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: punycode-environment
     List of environment variable definitions prepended to
     `process-environment'.  The default is `("CHARSET=UTF-8")'.  This
     variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: punycode-encode-parameters
     List of parameters passed to PUNYCODE-PROGRAM to invoke punycode
     encoding mode.  The default is `("--quiet" "--punycode-encode")'.
     This variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: punycode-decode-parameters
     Parameters passed to PUNYCODE-PROGRAM to invoke punycode decoding
     mode.  The default is `("--quiet" "--punycode-decode")'.  This
     variable can be customized.

 -- Function: punycode-encode string
     Returns a Punycode encoding of the STRING, after converting the
     input into UTF-8.

 -- Function: punycode-decode string
     Returns a possibly multibyte string which is the decoding of the
     STRING which is a punycode encoded string.

11.2 IDNA Emacs API
===================

 -- Variable: idna-program
     Name of the GNU Libidn `idn' application.  The default is `idn'.
     This variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: idna-environment
     List of environment variable definitions prepended to
     `process-environment'.  The default is `("CHARSET=UTF-8")'.  This
     variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: idna-to-ascii-parameters
     List of parameters passed to IDNA-PROGRAM to invoke IDNA ToASCII
     mode.  The default is `("--quiet" "--idna-to-ascii"
     "--usestd3asciirules")'.  This variable can be customized.

 -- Variable: idna-to-unicode-parameters
     Parameters passed IDNA-PROGRAM to invoke IDNA ToUnicode mode.  The
     default is `("--quiet" "--idna-to-unicode"
     "--usestd3asciirules")'.  This variable can be customized.

 -- Function: idna-to-ascii string
     Returns an ASCII Compatible Encoding (ACE) of the string computed
     by the IDNA ToASCII operation on the input STRING, after converting
     the input to UTF-8.

 -- Function: idna-to-unicode string
     Returns a possibly multibyte string which is the output of the IDNA
     ToUnicode operation computed on the input STRING.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Java API,  Next: C# API,  Prev: Emacs API,  Up: Top

12 Java API
***********

Libidn has been ported to the Java programming language, and as a
consequence most of the API is available to native Java applications.
This section contain notes on this support, complete documentation is
pending.

   The Java library, if Libidn has been built with Java support (*note
Downloading and Installing::), will be placed in
`java/libidn-1.18.jar'.  The source code is located in
`java/gnu/inet/encoding/'.

12.1 Overview
=============

This package provides a Java implementation of the Internationalized
Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) standard. It is written entirely in
Java and does not require any additional libraries to be set up.

   The gnu.inet.encoding.IDNA class offers two public functions, toASCII
and toUnicode which can be used as follows:

     gnu.inet.encoding.IDNA.toASCII("blöds.züg");
     gnu.inet.encoding.IDNA.toUnicode("xn--blds-6qa.xn--zg-xka");

12.2 Miscellaneous Programs
===========================

The `misc/' directory contains several programs that are related to the
Java part of GNU Libidn, but that don't need to be included in the main
source tree.

12.2.1 GenerateRFC3454
----------------------

This program parses RFC3454 and creates the RFC3454.java program that
is required during the StringPrep phase.

   The RFC can be found at various locations, for example at
`http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3454.txt'.

   Invoke the program as follows:

     $ java GenerateRFC3454
     Creating RFC3454.java... Ok.

12.2.2 GenerateNFKC
-------------------

The GenerateNFKC program parses the Unicode character database file and
generates all the tables required for NFKC. This program requires the
two files UnicodeData.txt and CompositionExclusions.txt of version 3.2
of the Unicode files. Note that RFC3454 (Stringprep) defines that
Unicode version 3.2 is to be used, not the latest version.

   The Unicode data files can be found at
`http://www.unicode.org/Public/'.

   Invoke the program as follows:

     $ java GenerateNFKC
     Creating CombiningClass.java... Ok.
     Creating DecompositionKeys.java... Ok.
     Creating DecompositionMappings.java... Ok.
     Creating Composition.java... Ok.

12.2.3 TestIDNA
---------------

The TestIDNA program allows to test the IDNA implementation manually or
against Simon Josefsson's test vectors.

   The test vectors can be found at the Libidn homepage,
`http://www.gnu.org/software/libidn/'.

   To test the tranformation manually, use:

     $ java -cp .:../libidn.jar TestIDNA -a <string to test>
     Input: <string to test>
     Output: <toASCII(string to test)>
     $ java -cp .:../libidn.jar TestIDNA -u <string to test>
     Input: <string to test>
     Output: <toUnicode(string to test)>

   To test against draft-josefsson-idn-test-vectors.html, use:

     $ java -cp .:../libidn.jar TestIDNA -t
     No errors detected!

12.2.4 TestNFKC
---------------

The TestNFKC program allows to test the NFKC implementation manually or
against the NormalizationTest.txt file from the Unicode data files.

   To test the normalization manually, use:

     $ java -cp .:../libidn.jar TestNFKC <string to test>
     Input: <string to test>
     Output: <nfkc version of the string to test>

   To test against NormalizationTest.txt:

     $ java -cp .:../libidn.jar TestNFKC
     No errors detected!

12.3 Possible Problems
======================

Beware of Bugs: This Java API needs a lot more testing, especially with
"exotic" character sets. While it works for me, it may not work for you.

   Encoding of your Java sources: If you are using non-ASCII characters
in your Java source code, make sure javac compiles your programs with
the correct encoding. If necessary specify the encoding using the
-encoding parameter.

   Java Unicode handling: Java 1.4 only handles 16-bit Unicode code
points (i.e. characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane), this
implementation therefore ignores all references to so-called
Supplementary Characters (U+10000 to U+10FFFF). Starting from Java 1.5,
these characters will also be supported by Java, but this will require
changes to this library.  See also the next section.

12.4 A Note on Java and Unicode
===============================

This library uses Java's builtin 'char' datatype. Up to Java 1.4, this
datatype only supports 16-bit Unicode code points, also called the
Basic Multilingual Plane. For this reason, this library doesn't work
for Supplementary Characters (i.e. characters from U+10000 to
U+10FFFF). All references to such characters are silently ignored.

   Starting from Java 1.5, also Supplementary Characters will be
supported. However, this will require changes in the present version of
the library. Java 1.5 is currently in beta status.

   For more information refer to the documentation of
java.lang.Character in the JDK API.

File: libidn.info,  Node: C# API,  Next: Acknowledgements,  Prev: Java API,  Up: Top

13 C# API
*********

The Libidn library has been ported to the C# language.  The port reside
in the top-level `csharp/' directory.  Currently, no further
documentation about the implementation or the API is available.
However, the C# port was based on the Java port, and the API is exactly
the same as in the Java version.  The help files for the Java API may
thus be useful.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Acknowledgements,  Next: History,  Prev: C# API,  Up: Top

14 Acknowledgements
*******************

The punycode implementation was taken from the IETF IDN Punycode
specification, by Adam M. Costello.  The TLD code was contributed by
Thomas Jacob.  The Java implementation was contributed by Oliver Hitz.
The C# implementation was contributed by Alexander Gnauck.  The Unicode
tables were provided by Unicode, Inc.  Some functions for dealing with
Unicode (see nfkc.c and toutf8.c) were borrowed from GLib, downloaded
from `http://www.gtk.org/'.  The manual borrowed text from Libgcrypt by
Werner Koch.

   Inspiration for many things that, consciously or not, have gone into
this package is due to a number of free software package that the
author has been exposed to.  The author wishes to acknowledge the free
software community in general, for giving an example on what role
software development can play in the modern society.

   Several people reported bugs, sent patches or suggested improvements,
see the file THANKS in the top-level directory of the source code.

File: libidn.info,  Node: History,  Next: PR29 discussion,  Prev: Acknowledgements,  Up: Top

15 History
**********

The complete history of user visible changes is stored in the file
`NEWS' in the top-level directory of the source code tree.  The
complete history of modifications to each file is stored in the file
`ChangeLog' in the same directory.  This section contain a condensed
version of that information, in the form of "milestones" for the
project.

Stringprep implementation.
     Version 0.0.0 released on 2002-11-05.

IDNA and Punycode implementations, part of the GNU project.
     Version 0.1.0 released on 2003-01-05.

Uses official IDNA ACE prefix `xn--'.
     Version 0.1.7 released on 2003-02-12.

Command line interface.
     Version 0.1.11 released on 2003-02-26.

GNU Libc add-on proposed.
     Version 0.1.12 released on 2003-03-06.

Interoperability testing during IDNConnect.
     Version 0.3.1 released on 2003-10-02.

TLD restriction testing.
     Version 0.4.0 released on 2004-02-28.

GNU Libc add-on integrated.
     Version 0.4.1 released on 2004-03-08.

Native Java implementation.
     Version 0.4.2-0.4.9 released between 2004-03-20 and 2004-06-11.

PR-29 functions for "problem sequences".
     Version 0.5.0 released on 2004-06-26.

Many small portability fixes and wider use.
     Version 0.5.1 through 0.5.20, released between 2004-07-09 and
     2005-10-23.

Native C# implementation.
     Version 0.6.0 released on 2005-12-03.

Windows support through cross-compilation.
     Version 0.6.1 released on 2006-01-20.

Library declared stable by releasing v1.0.
     Version 1.0 released on 2007-07-31.


File: libidn.info,  Node: PR29 discussion,  Next: On Label Separators,  Prev: History,  Up: Top

Appendix A PR29 discussion
**************************

If you wish to experiment with a modified Unicode NFKC implementation
according to the PR29 proposal, you may find the following bug report
useful.  However, I have not verified that the suggested modifications
are correct.  For reference, I'm including my response to the report as
well.

From: Rick McGowan <rick AT unicode.org>
Subject: Possible bug and status of PR 29 change(s)
To: bug-libidn AT gnu.org
Date: Wed, 27 Oct 2004 14:49:17 -0700

Hello. On behalf of the Unicode Consortium editorial committee, I would
like to find out more information about the PR 29 fixes, if any, and
functions in Libidn. Your implementation was listed in the text of PR29 as
needing investigation, so I am following up on several implementations.

The UTC has accepted the proposed fix to D2 as outlined in PR29, and a new
draft of UAX #15 has been issued.

I have looked at Libidn 0.5.8 (today), and there may still be a possible
bug in NFKC.java and nfkc.c.

------------------------------------------------------

1. In NFKC.java, this line in canonicalOrdering():

      if (i > 0 && (last_cc == 0 || last_cc != cc)) {

should perhaps be changed to:

      if (i > 0 && (last_cc == 0 || last_cc < cc)) {

but I'm not sure of the sense of this comparison.

------------------------------------------------------

2. In nfkc.c, function _g_utf8_normalize_wc() has this code:

	  if (i > 0 &&
	      (last_cc == 0 || last_cc != cc) &&
	      combine (wc_buffer[last_start], wc_buffer[i],
		       &wc_buffer[last_start]))
	    {

This appears to have the same bug as the current Python implementation (in
Python 2.3.4). The code should be checking, as per new rule D2 UAX #15
update, that the next combining character is the same or HIGHER than the
current one. It now checks to see if it's non-zero and not equal.

The above line(s) should perhaps be changed to:

	  if (i > 0 &&
	      (last_cc == 0 || last_cc < cc) &&
	      combine (wc_buffer[last_start], wc_buffer[i],
		       &wc_buffer[last_start]))
	    {

but I'm not sure of the sense of the comparison (< or > or <=?) here.

In the text of PR29, I will be marking Libidn as "needs change" and adding
the version number that I checked. If any further change is made, please
let me know the release version, and I'll update again.

Regards,
	Rick McGowan

From: Simon Josefsson <jas AT extundo.com>
Subject: Re: Possible bug and status of PR 29 change(s)
To: Rick McGowan <rick AT unicode.org>
Cc: bug-libidn AT gnu.org
Date: Thu, 28 Oct 2004 09:47:47 +0200

Rick McGowan <rick AT unicode.org> writes:

> Hello. On behalf of the Unicode Consortium editorial committee, I would
> like to find out more information about the PR 29 fixes, if any, and
> functions in Libidn. Your implementation was listed in the text of PR29 as
> needing investigation, so I am following up on several implementations.
>
> The UTC has accepted the proposed fix to D2 as outlined in PR29, and a new
> draft of UAX #15 has been issued.
>
> I have looked at Libidn 0.5.8 (today), and there may still be a possible
> bug in NFKC.java and nfkc.c.

Hello Rick.

I believe the current behavior is intentional.  Libidn do not aim to
implement latest-and-greatest NFKC, it aim to implement the NFKC
functionality required for StringPrep and IDN.  As you may know,
StringPrep/IDN reference Unicode 3.2.0, and explicitly says any later
changes (which I consider PR29 as) do not apply.

In fact, I believe that would I incorporate the changes suggested in
PR29, I would in fact be violating the IDN specifications.

Thanks for looking into the code and finding the place where the
change could be made.  I'll see if I can mention this in the manual
somewhere, for technically interested readers.

Regards,
Simon

File: libidn.info,  Node: On Label Separators,  Next: Copying Information,  Prev: PR29 discussion,  Up: Top

Appendix B On Label Separators
******************************

Some strings contains characters whose NFKC normalized form contain the
ASCII dot (0x2E, ".").  Examples of these characters are U+2024 (ONE
DOT LEADER) and U+248C (DIGIT FIVE FULL STOP).  The strings have the
interesting property that their IDNA ToASCII output will contain
embedded dots.  For example:

     ToASCII (hi U+248C com) = hi5.com
     ToASCII (räksmörgås U+2024 com) = xn--rksmrgs.com-l8as9u

   This demonstrate the two general cases: The first where the ASCII dot
is part of an output that do not begin with the IDN prefix `xn--'.  The
second example illustrate when the dot is part of IDN prefixed with
`xn--'.

   The input strings are, from the DNS point of view, a single label.
The IDNA algorithm translate one label at a time.  Thus, the output is
expected to be only one label.  What is important here is to make sure
the DNS resolver receives the correct query.  The DNS protocol does not
use the dot to delimit labels on the wire, rather it uses length-value
pairs.  Thus the correct query would be for `{7}hi5.com' and
`{22}xn--rksmrgs.com-l8as9u' respectively.

   Some implementations (1) have decided that these inputs strings are
potentially confusing for the user.  The string `hi U+248C com' looks
like `hi5.com' on systems that support Unicode properly.  These
implementations do not follow RFC 3490.  They yield:

     ToASCII (hi U+248C com) = hi5.com
     ToASCII (räksmörgås U+2024 com) = xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o.com

   The DNS query they perform are `{3}hi5{3}com' and
`{18}xn--rksmrgs-5wao1o{3}com' respectively.  Arguably, this leads to a
better user experience, and suggests that the IDNA specification is
sub-optimal in this area.

B.1 Recommended Workaround
==========================

It has been suggested to normalize the entire input string using NFKC
before passing it to IDNA ToASCII.  You may use
`stringprep_utf8_nfkc_normalize' or `stringprep_ucs4_nfkc_normalize'.
This appears to lead to similar behaviour as IE/Firefox, which would
avoid the problem, but this needs to be confirmed.  Feel free to
discuss the issue with us.

   Alternative workarounds are being considered.  Eventually Libidn may
implement a new flag to the `idna_*' functions that implements a
recommended way to work around this problem.

   ---------- Footnotes ----------

   (1) Notably Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Mozilla's Firefox, but
not Apple's Safari.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Copying Information,  Next: Function and Variable Index,  Prev: On Label Separators,  Up: Top

Appendix C Copying Information
******************************

* Menu:

* GNU Free Documentation License::   License for copying this manual.
* GNU LGPL::                         License for copying the library.
* GNU GPL::                          License for copying the programs.

File: libidn.info,  Node: GNU Free Documentation License,  Next: GNU LGPL,  Up: Copying Information

C.1 GNU Free Documentation License
==================================

                     Version 1.3, 3 November 2008

     Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
     `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
     of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.

  0. PREAMBLE

     The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
     functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
     assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
     with or without modifying it, either commercially or
     noncommercially.  Secondarily, this License preserves for the
     author and publisher a way to get credit for their work, while not
     being considered responsible for modifications made by others.

     This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
     works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.
     It complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
     license designed for free software.

     We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for
     free software, because free software needs free documentation: a
     free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms
     that the software does.  But this License is not limited to
     software manuals; it can be used for any textual work, regardless
     of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book.
     We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is
     instruction or reference.

  1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS

     This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium,
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     A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
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ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
====================================================

To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
the License in the document and put the following copyright and license
notices just after the title page:

       Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
       Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
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       with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
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   If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover
Texts, replace the "with...Texts." line with this:

         with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with
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   If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
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situation.

   If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
free software license, such as the GNU General Public License, to
permit their use in free software.

File: libidn.info,  Node: GNU LGPL,  Next: GNU GPL,  Prev: GNU Free Documentation License,  Up: Copying Information

C.2 GNU Lesser General Public License
=====================================

                      Version 2.1, February 1999

     Copyright (C) 1991, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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Preamble
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                      END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Libraries
----------------------------------------------

If you develop a new library, and you want it to be of the greatest
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It is safest to attach them to the start of each source file to most
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     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE LIBRARY'S NAME AND AN IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
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     This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
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     This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
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   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
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if necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

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     SIGNATURE OF TY COON, 1 April 1990
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   That's all there is to it!

File: libidn.info,  Node: GNU GPL,  Prev: GNU LGPL,  Up: Copying Information

C.3 GNU General Public License
==============================

                        Version 3, 29 June 2007

     Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. `http://fsf.org/'

     Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this
     license document, but changing it is not allowed.

Preamble
========

The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software
and other kinds of works.

   The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
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TERMS AND CONDITIONS
====================

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     royalty-free patent license under the contributor's essential
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     contributor version.

     In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any
     express agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to
     enforce a patent (such as an express permission to practice a
     patent or covenant not to sue for patent infringement).  To
     "grant" such a patent license to a party means to make such an
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     If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent
     license, and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available
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     Corresponding Source to be so available, or (2) arrange to deprive
     yourself of the benefit of the patent license for this particular
     work, or (3) arrange, in a manner consistent with the requirements
     of this License, to extend the patent license to downstream
     recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have actual knowledge
     that, but for the patent license, your conveying the covered work
     in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work in a
     country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
     country that you have reason to believe are valid.

     If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
     arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
     covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
     receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate,
     modify or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the
     patent license you grant is automatically extended to all
     recipients of the covered work and works based on it.

     A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
     the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
     conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that
     are specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a
     covered work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third
     party that is in the business of distributing software, under
     which you make payment to the third party based on the extent of
     your activity of conveying the work, and under which the third
     party grants, to any of the parties who would receive the covered
     work from you, a discriminatory patent license (a) in connection
     with copies of the covered work conveyed by you (or copies made
     from those copies), or (b) primarily for and in connection with
     specific products or compilations that contain the covered work,
     unless you entered into that arrangement, or that patent license
     was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

     Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
     any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
     otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

 12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

     If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order,
     agreement or otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this
     License, they do not excuse you from the conditions of this
     License.  If you cannot convey a covered work so as to satisfy
     simultaneously your obligations under this License and any other
     pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not convey it
     at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you to
     collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you
     convey the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those
     terms and this License would be to refrain entirely from conveying
     the Program.

 13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

     Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
     permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
     under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a
     single combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms
     of this License will continue to apply to the part which is the
     covered work, but the special requirements of the GNU Affero
     General Public License, section 13, concerning interaction through
     a network will apply to the combination as such.

 14. Revised Versions of this License.

     The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new
     versions of the GNU General Public License from time to time.
     Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present
     version, but may differ in detail to address new problems or
     concerns.

     Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
     Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU
     General Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you
     have the option of following the terms and conditions either of
     that numbered version or of any later version published by the
     Free Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a
     version number of the GNU General Public License, you may choose
     any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

     If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
     versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that
     proxy's public statement of acceptance of a version permanently
     authorizes you to choose that version for the Program.

     Later license versions may give you additional or different
     permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
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 15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

     THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
     APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE
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     NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

 16. Limitation of Liability.

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     AND/OR CONVEYS THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU
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     CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE
     THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA
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 17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

     If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
     above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
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     approximates an absolute waiver of all civil liability in
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END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
===========================

How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
=============================================

If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
terms.

   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

     ONE LINE TO GIVE THE PROGRAM'S NAME AND A BRIEF IDEA OF WHAT IT DOES.
     Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR

     This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
     it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
     the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at
     your option) any later version.

     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
     WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     General Public License for more details.

     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
     along with this program.  If not, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

   Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper
mail.

   If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

     PROGRAM Copyright (C) YEAR NAME OF AUTHOR
     This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
     This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
     under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

   The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your
program's commands might be different; for a GUI interface, you would
use an "about box".

   You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or
school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
necessary.  For more information on this, and how to apply and follow
the GNU GPL, see `http://www.gnu.org/licenses/'.

   The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your
program into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine
library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the
GNU Lesser General Public License instead of this License.  But first,
please read `http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html'.

File: libidn.info,  Node: Function and Variable Index,  Next: Concept Index,  Prev: Copying Information,  Up: Top

Function and Variable Index
***************************

[index]
* Menu:

* idn_free:                              Memory handling under Windows.
                                                              (line  31)
* idna-to-ascii:                         Emacs API.           (line  65)
* idna-to-unicode:                       Emacs API.           (line  70)
* idna_strerror:                         IDNA Functions.      (line 310)
* idna_to_ascii_4i:                      IDNA Functions.      (line  68)
* idna_to_ascii_4z:                      IDNA Functions.      (line 152)
* idna_to_ascii_8z:                      IDNA Functions.      (line 170)
* idna_to_ascii_lz:                      IDNA Functions.      (line 188)
* idna_to_unicode_44i:                   IDNA Functions.      (line 106)
* idna_to_unicode_4z4z:                  IDNA Functions.      (line 210)
* idna_to_unicode_8z4z:                  IDNA Functions.      (line 229)
* idna_to_unicode_8z8z:                  IDNA Functions.      (line 248)
* idna_to_unicode_8zlz:                  IDNA Functions.      (line 267)
* idna_to_unicode_lzlz:                  IDNA Functions.      (line 287)
* pr29_4:                                PR29 Functions.      (line  55)
* pr29_4z:                               PR29 Functions.      (line  75)
* pr29_8z:                               PR29 Functions.      (line  90)
* pr29_strerror:                         PR29 Functions.      (line 109)
* punycode-decode:                       Emacs API.           (line  39)
* punycode-encode:                       Emacs API.           (line  35)
* punycode_decode:                       Punycode Functions.  (line  96)
* punycode_encode:                       Punycode Functions.  (line  51)
* punycode_strerror:                     Punycode Functions.  (line 140)
* stringprep:                            Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 127)
* stringprep_4i:                         Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line  57)
* stringprep_4zi:                        Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line  96)
* stringprep_check_version:              Version Check.       (line  17)
* stringprep_convert:                    Utility Functions.   (line 163)
* stringprep_iscsi:                      Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 254)
* stringprep_locale_charset:             Utility Functions.   (line 141)
* stringprep_locale_to_utf8:             Utility Functions.   (line 179)
* stringprep_nameprep_no_unassigned:     Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 245)
* stringprep_plain:                      Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 262)
* stringprep_profile:                    Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 161)
* stringprep_strerror:                   Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 194)
* stringprep_ucs4_nfkc_normalize:        Utility Functions.   (line  98)
* stringprep_ucs4_to_utf8:               Utility Functions.   (line  52)
* stringprep_unichar_to_utf8:            Utility Functions.   (line  25)
* stringprep_utf8_nfkc_normalize:        Utility Functions.   (line 113)
* stringprep_utf8_to_locale:             Utility Functions.   (line 191)
* stringprep_utf8_to_ucs4:               Utility Functions.   (line  75)
* stringprep_utf8_to_unichar:            Utility Functions.   (line  39)
* stringprep_xmpp_nodeprep:              Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 270)
* stringprep_xmpp_resourceprep:          Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line 278)
* tld_check_4:                           TLD Functions.       (line 177)
* tld_check_4t:                          TLD Functions.       (line  44)
* tld_check_4tz:                         TLD Functions.       (line  68)
* tld_check_4z:                          TLD Functions.       (line 206)
* tld_check_8z:                          TLD Functions.       (line 232)
* tld_check_lz:                          TLD Functions.       (line 260)
* tld_default_table:                     TLD Functions.       (line 156)
* tld_get_4:                             TLD Functions.       (line  92)
* tld_get_4z:                            TLD Functions.       (line 109)
* tld_get_table:                         TLD Functions.       (line 139)
* tld_get_z:                             TLD Functions.       (line 123)
* tld_strerror:                          TLD Functions.       (line 291)

File: libidn.info,  Node: Concept Index,  Prev: Function and Variable Index,  Up: Top

Concept Index
*************

[index]
* Menu:

* AIX:                                   Supported Platforms. (line  74)
* ARM:                                   Supported Platforms. (line 128)
* Autoconf tests:                        Autoconf tests.      (line   6)
* command line:                          Invoking idn.        (line   6)
* Compiling your application:            Building the source. (line   6)
* Configure tests:                       Autoconf tests.      (line   6)
* Contributing:                          Contributing.        (line   7)
* de-allocation:                         Memory handling under Windows.
                                                              (line   6)
* Debian:                                Supported Platforms. (line  10)
* Download:                              Downloading and Installing.
                                                              (line   6)
* Examples:                              Examples.            (line   6)
* FDL, GNU Free Documentation License:   GNU Free Documentation License.
                                                              (line   6)
* free:                                  Memory handling under Windows.
                                                              (line   6)
* FreeBSD:                               Supported Platforms. (line 110)
* GPL, GNU General Public License:       GNU GPL.             (line   6)
* Hacking:                               Contributing.        (line   7)
* heap memory:                           Memory handling under Windows.
                                                              (line   6)
* HP-UX:                                 Supported Platforms. (line  82)
* IBM:                                   Supported Platforms. (line 136)
* idn:                                   Invoking idn.        (line   6)
* IDNA Functions:                        IDNA Functions.      (line   6)
* Installation:                          Downloading and Installing.
                                                              (line   6)
* invoking idn:                          Invoking idn.        (line   6)
* IRIX:                                  Supported Platforms. (line  70)
* LGPL, GNU Lesser General Public License: GNU LGPL.          (line   6)
* License, GNU GPL:                      GNU GPL.             (line   6)
* License, GNU LGPL:                     GNU LGPL.            (line   6)
* MacOS X:                               Supported Platforms. (line 116)
* Mandrake:                              Supported Platforms. (line  66)
* Memory handling:                       Memory handling under Windows.
                                                              (line   6)
* Microsoft:                             Supported Platforms. (line 132)
* mingw32:                               Supported Platforms. (line 132)
* Motorola Coldfire:                     Supported Platforms. (line 124)
* NetBSD:                                Supported Platforms. (line 100)
* OpenBSD:                               Supported Platforms. (line 105)
* OpenPower 720:                         Supported Platforms. (line  45)
* OS/2:                                  Supported Platforms. (line 136)
* PR29 Functions:                        PR29 Functions.      (line   6)
* Punycode Functions:                    Punycode Functions.  (line   6)
* RedHat:                                Supported Platforms. (line  49)
* RedHat Advanced Server:                Supported Platforms. (line  58)
* Reporting Bugs:                        Bug Reports.         (line   6)
* Solaris:                               Supported Platforms. (line  87)
* Stringprep Functions:                  Stringprep Functions.
                                                              (line   6)
* SuSE:                                  Supported Platforms. (line  31)
* SuSE Linux:                            Supported Platforms. (line  36)
* TLD Functions:                         TLD Functions.       (line   6)
* Tru64:                                 Supported Platforms. (line  26)
* uClibc:                                Supported Platforms. (line 124)
* uClinux:                               Supported Platforms. (line 124)
* Utility Functions:                     Utility Functions.   (line   6)
* Windows:                               Supported Platforms. (line  78)



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