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MAKE(1)                                LOCAL USER COMMANDS                                MAKE(1)

       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

       make [ -f makefile ] [ options ] ... [ targets ] ...

       This  man  page  is an extract of the documentation of GNU make.  It is updated only occa-
       sionally, because the GNU project does not use nroff.  For  complete,  current  documenta-
       tion,  refer  to  the  Info  file  which  is  made from the Texinfo source file

       The purpose of the make utility is to determine automatically which pieces of a large pro-
       gram  need  to  be  recompiled,  and  issue  the  commands  to recompile them.  The manual
       describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland
       McGrath,  and  is currently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since
       they are most common, but you can use make with any programming  language  whose  compiler
       can  be  run with a shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use
       it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from  others  when-
       ever the others change.

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the rela-
       tionships among files in your program, and the states the commands for updating each file.
       In  a  program,  typically  the executable file is updated from object files, which are in
       turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The make program uses the makefile data
       base and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need to  be
       updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the data base.

       make  executes  commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is
       typically a program.  If no -f option is present, make will look for  the  makefiles  GNU-
       makefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally  you  should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We recommend Make-
       file because it appears prominently near the beginning of a directory listing, right  near
       other important files such as README.)  The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recom-
       mended for most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that  is  spe-
       cific  to  GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is
       `-', the standard input is read.

       make updates a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have  been  modified  since
       the target was last modified, or if the target does not exist.

       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If mul-
            tiple -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one:  -C
            / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is typically used with recursive invocations
            of make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging informa-
            tion  says  which files are being considered for remaking, which file-times are being
            compared and with what results,  which  files  actually  need  to  be  remade,  which
            implicit  rules  are  considered and which are applied---everything interesting about
            how make decides what to do.

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omit-
            ted,  then  the  behavior is the same as if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be a for all
            debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose  basic
            debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and
            m for debugging while remaking makefiles.

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If  several  -I  options
            are  used  to  specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order
            specified.  Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories  given  with  -I
            flags  may  come  directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This
            syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than
            one -j option, the last one is effective.  If the -j option is given without an argu-
            ment, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those
            that  depend  on it, cannot be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be
            processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs run-
            ning  and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number).  With no argu-
            ment, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them (except in certain

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do  not  remake  the  file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not
            remake anything on account of changes in file.  Essentially the file  is  treated  as
            very old and its rules are ignored.

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print  the  data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the make-
            files; then execute as usual or as otherwise specified.  This also prints the version
            information  given by the -v switch (see below).  To print the data base without try-
            ing to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question mode''.  Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return  an  exit
            status  that  is zero if the specified targets are already up to date, nonzero other-

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out  the  default  list  of
            suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel  the  effect  of the -k option.  This is never necessary except in a recursive
            make where -k might be inherited from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you  set
            -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch  files  (mark  them up to date without really changing them) instead of running
            their commands.  This is used to pretend that the commands were  done,  in  order  to
            fool future invocations of make.

       -v, --version
            Print  the  version  of  the  make  program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a
            notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print a message containing the working directory before and after  other  processing.
            This  may be useful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend that the target file has just been modified.  When used  with  the  -n  flag,
            this  shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file.  Without -n, it is
            almost the same as running a touch command on the given  file  before  running  make,
            except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no tar-
       gets that were built failed.  A status of one will be returned if the -q flag was used and
       make  determines  that  a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of two will be returned if
       any errors were encountered.

       The GNU Make Manual

       See the chapter `Problems and Bugs' in The GNU Make Manual.

       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  It has been reworked
       by Roland McGrath.  Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger.

       Copyright  (C)  1992,  1993, 1996, 1999, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is
       part of GNU make.

       GNU Make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
       GNU  General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3
       of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU Make is distributed in the hope that it will be  useful,  but  WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.
       If not, see

GNU                                       22 August 1989                                  MAKE(1)

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