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NSUPDATE(1)                                   BIND9                                   NSUPDATE(1)



NAME
       nsupdate - Dynamic DNS update utility

SYNOPSIS
       nsupdate [-d] [-D] [[-g] | [-o] | [-l] | [-y [hmac:]keyname:secret] | [-k keyfile]]
                [-t timeout] [-u udptimeout] [-r udpretries] [-R randomdev] [-v] [filename]

DESCRIPTION
       nsupdate is used to submit Dynamic DNS Update requests as defined in RFC 2136 to a name
       server. This allows resource records to be added or removed from a zone without manually
       editing the zone file. A single update request can contain requests to add or remove more
       than one resource record.

       Zones that are under dynamic control via nsupdate or a DHCP server should not be edited by
       hand. Manual edits could conflict with dynamic updates and cause data to be lost.

       The resource records that are dynamically added or removed with nsupdate have to be in the
       same zone. Requests are sent to the zone's master server. This is identified by the MNAME
       field of the zone's SOA record.

       The -d option makes nsupdate operate in debug mode. This provides tracing information
       about the update requests that are made and the replies received from the name server.

       The -D option makes nsupdate report additional debugging information to -d.

       The -L option with an integer argument of zero or higher sets the logging debug level. If
       zero, logging is disabled.

       Transaction signatures can be used to authenticate the Dynamic DNS updates. These use the
       TSIG resource record type described in RFC 2845 or the SIG(0) record described in RFC 2535
       and RFC 2931 or GSS-TSIG as described in RFC 3645. TSIG relies on a shared secret that
       should only be known to nsupdate and the name server. Currently, the only supported
       encryption algorithm for TSIG is HMAC-MD5, which is defined in RFC 2104. Once other
       algorithms are defined for TSIG, applications will need to ensure they select the
       appropriate algorithm as well as the key when authenticating each other. For instance,
       suitable key and server statements would be added to /etc/named.conf so that the name
       server can associate the appropriate secret key and algorithm with the IP address of the
       client application that will be using TSIG authentication. SIG(0) uses public key
       cryptography. To use a SIG(0) key, the public key must be stored in a KEY record in a zone
       served by the name server.  nsupdate does not read /etc/named.conf.

       GSS-TSIG uses Kerberos credentials. Standard GSS-TSIG mode is switched on with the -g
       flag. A non-standards-compliant variant of GSS-TSIG used by Windows 2000 can be switched
       on with the -o flag.

       nsupdate uses the -y or -k option to provide the shared secret needed to generate a TSIG
       record for authenticating Dynamic DNS update requests, default type HMAC-MD5. These
       options are mutually exclusive.

       When the -y option is used, a signature is generated from [hmac:]keyname:secret.  keyname
       is the name of the key, and secret is the base64 encoded shared secret. Use of the -y
       option is discouraged because the shared secret is supplied as a command line argument in
       clear text. This may be visible in the output from ps(1) or in a history file maintained
       by the user's shell.

       With the -k option, nsupdate reads the shared secret from the file keyfile. Keyfiles may
       be in two formats: a single file containing a named.conf-format key statement, which may
       be generated automatically by ddns-confgen, or a pair of files whose names are of the
       format K{name}.+157.+{random}.key and K{name}.+157.+{random}.private, which can be
       generated by dnssec-keygen. The -k may also be used to specify a SIG(0) key used to
       authenticate Dynamic DNS update requests. In this case, the key specified is not an
       HMAC-MD5 key.

       nsupdate can be run in a local-host only mode using the -l flag. This sets the server
       address to localhost (disabling the server so that the server address cannot be
       overridden). Connections to the local server will use a TSIG key found in
       /var/run/named/session.key, which is automatically generated by named if any local master
       zone has set update-policy to local. The location of this key file can be overridden with
       the -k option.

       By default, nsupdate uses UDP to send update requests to the name server unless they are
       too large to fit in a UDP request in which case TCP will be used. The -v option makes
       nsupdate use a TCP connection. This may be preferable when a batch of update requests is
       made.

       The -p sets the default port number to use for connections to a name server. The default
       is 53.

       The -t option sets the maximum time an update request can take before it is aborted. The
       default is 300 seconds. Zero can be used to disable the timeout.

       The -u option sets the UDP retry interval. The default is 3 seconds. If zero, the interval
       will be computed from the timeout interval and number of UDP retries.

       The -r option sets the number of UDP retries. The default is 3. If zero, only one update
       request will be made.

       The -R randomdev option specifies a source of randomness. If the operating system does not
       provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source of randomness is keyboard
       input.  randomdev specifies the name of a character device or file containing random data
       to be used instead of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
       input should be used. This option may be specified multiple times.

INPUT FORMAT
       nsupdate reads input from filename or standard input. Each command is supplied on exactly
       one line of input. Some commands are for administrative purposes. The others are either
       update instructions or prerequisite checks on the contents of the zone. These checks set
       conditions that some name or set of resource records (RRset) either exists or is absent
       from the zone. These conditions must be met if the entire update request is to succeed.
       Updates will be rejected if the tests for the prerequisite conditions fail.

       Every update request consists of zero or more prerequisites and zero or more updates. This
       allows a suitably authenticated update request to proceed if some specified resource
       records are present or missing from the zone. A blank input line (or the send command)
       causes the accumulated commands to be sent as one Dynamic DNS update request to the name
       server.

       The command formats and their meaning are as follows:

       server {servername} [port]
           Sends all dynamic update requests to the name server servername. When no server
           statement is provided, nsupdate will send updates to the master server of the correct
           zone. The MNAME field of that zone's SOA record will identify the master server for
           that zone.  port is the port number on servername where the dynamic update requests
           get sent. If no port number is specified, the default DNS port number of 53 is used.

       local {address} [port]
           Sends all dynamic update requests using the local address. When no local statement is
           provided, nsupdate will send updates using an address and port chosen by the system.
           port can additionally be used to make requests come from a specific port. If no port
           number is specified, the system will assign one.

       zone {zonename}
           Specifies that all updates are to be made to the zone zonename. If no zone statement
           is provided, nsupdate will attempt determine the correct zone to update based on the
           rest of the input.

       class {classname}
           Specify the default class. If no class is specified, the default class is IN.

       ttl {seconds}
           Specify the default time to live for records to be added. The value none will clear
           the default ttl.

       key {name} {secret}
           Specifies that all updates are to be TSIG-signed using the keyname keysecret pair. The
           key command overrides any key specified on the command line via -y or -k.

       gsstsig
           Use GSS-TSIG to sign the updated. This is equivalent to specifying -g on the
           commandline.

       oldgsstsig
           Use the Windows 2000 version of GSS-TSIG to sign the updated. This is equivalent to
           specifying -o on the commandline.

       realm {[realm_name]}
           When using GSS-TSIG use realm_name rather than leaving the realm detection up to
           GSSAPI. If no realm is specified the saved realm is cleared.

       [prereq] nxdomain {domain-name}
           Requires that no resource record of any type exists with name domain-name.

       [prereq] yxdomain {domain-name}
           Requires that domain-name exists (has as at least one resource record, of any type).

       [prereq] nxrrset {domain-name} [class] {type}
           Requires that no resource record exists of the specified type, class and domain-name.
           If class is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.

       [prereq] yxrrset {domain-name} [class] {type}
           This requires that a resource record of the specified type, class and domain-name must
           exist. If class is omitted, IN (internet) is assumed.

       [prereq] yxrrset {domain-name} [class] {type} {data...}
           The data from each set of prerequisites of this form sharing a common type, class, and
           domain-name are combined to form a set of RRs. This set of RRs must exactly match the
           set of RRs existing in the zone at the given type, class, and domain-name. The data
           are written in the standard text representation of the resource record's RDATA.

       [update] del[ete] {domain-name} [ttl] [class] [type [data...]]
           Deletes any resource records named domain-name. If type and data is provided, only
           matching resource records will be removed. The internet class is assumed if class is
           not supplied. The ttl is ignored, and is only allowed for compatibility.

       [update] add {domain-name} {ttl} [class] {type} {data...}
           Adds a new resource record with the specified ttl, class and data.

       show
           Displays the current message, containing all of the prerequisites and updates
           specified since the last send.

       send
           Sends the current message. This is equivalent to entering a blank line.

       answer
           Displays the answer.

       debug
           Turn on debugging.

       Lines beginning with a semicolon are comments and are ignored.

EXAMPLES
       The examples below show how nsupdate could be used to insert and delete resource records
       from the example.com zone. Notice that the input in each example contains a trailing blank
       line so that a group of commands are sent as one dynamic update request to the master name
       server for example.com.

           # nsupdate
           > update delete oldhost.example.com A
           > update add newhost.example.com 86400 A 172.16.1.1
           > send


       Any A records for oldhost.example.com are deleted. And an A record for newhost.example.com
       with IP address 172.16.1.1 is added. The newly-added record has a 1 day TTL (86400
       seconds).

           # nsupdate
           > prereq nxdomain nickname.example.com
           > update add nickname.example.com 86400 CNAME somehost.example.com
           > send


       The prerequisite condition gets the name server to check that there are no resource
       records of any type for nickname.example.com. If there are, the update request fails. If
       this name does not exist, a CNAME for it is added. This ensures that when the CNAME is
       added, it cannot conflict with the long-standing rule in RFC 1034 that a name must not
       exist as any other record type if it exists as a CNAME. (The rule has been updated for
       DNSSEC in RFC 2535 to allow CNAMEs to have RRSIG, DNSKEY and NSEC records.)

FILES
       /etc/resolv.conf
           used to identify default name server

       /var/run/named/session.key
           sets the default TSIG key for use in local-only mode

       K{name}.+157.+{random}.key
           base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by dnssec-keygen(8).

       K{name}.+157.+{random}.private
           base-64 encoding of HMAC-MD5 key created by dnssec-keygen(8).

SEE ALSO
       RFC 2136, RFC 3007, RFC 2104, RFC 2845, RFC 1034, RFC 2535, RFC 2931, named(8),
       ddns-confgen(8), dnssec-keygen(8).

BUGS
       The TSIG key is redundantly stored in two separate files. This is a consequence of
       nsupdate using the DST library for its cryptographic operations, and may change in future
       releases.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2004-2012 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright (C) 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.



BIND9                                      Aug 25, 2009                               NSUPDATE(1)

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