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PATCH(1)                                                              PATCH(1)



NAME
       patch - apply a diff file to an original

SYNOPSIS
       patch [options] [originalfile [patchfile]]

       but usually just

       patch -pnum <patchfile

DESCRIPTION
       patch  takes a patch file patchfile containing a difference listing produced by the
       diff program and applies those differences to one or more original files, producing
       patched versions.  Normally the patched versions are put in place of the originals.
       Backups can be made; see the -b or --backup option.  The names of the files  to  be
       patched  are  usually taken from the patch file, but if there's just one file to be
       patched it can be specified on the command line as originalfile.

       Upon startup, patch attempts to determine the type  of  the  diff  listing,  unless
       overruled  by a -c (--context), -e (--ed), -n (--normal), or -u (--unified) option.
       Context diffs (old-style, new-style, and unified) and normal diffs are  applied  by
       the  patch  program itself, while ed diffs are simply fed to the ed(1) editor via a
       pipe.

       patch tries to skip any leading garbage, apply the diff, and then skip any trailing
       garbage.   Thus  you  could feed an article or message containing a diff listing to
       patch, and it should work.  If the entire diff is indented by a consistent  amount,
       or  if  a context diff contains lines ending in CRLF or is encapsulated one or more
       times by prepending "- " to lines starting with "-" as specified  by  Internet  RFC
       934,  this is taken into account.  After removing indenting or encapsulation, lines
       beginning with # are ignored, as they are considered to be comments.

       With context diffs, and to a lesser extent with normal diffs, patch can detect when
       the  line  numbers  mentioned  in the patch are incorrect, and attempts to find the
       correct place to apply each hunk of the patch.  As a first guess, it takes the line
       number mentioned for the hunk, plus or minus any offset used in applying the previ-
       ous hunk.  If that is not the correct place, patch scans both  forwards  and  back-
       wards for a set of lines matching the context given in the hunk.  First patch looks
       for a place where all lines of the context match.  If no such place is  found,  and
       it's  a context diff, and the maximum fuzz factor is set to 1 or more, then another
       scan takes place ignoring the first and last line of context.  If that  fails,  and
       the  maximum  fuzz  factor is set to 2 or more, the first two and last two lines of
       context are ignored, and another scan is made.  (The default maximum fuzz factor is
       2.)

       Hunks with less prefix context than suffix context (after applying fuzz) must apply
       at the start of the file if their first line number is 1.  Hunks with  more  prefix
       context  than  suffix  context  (after  applying fuzz) must apply at the end of the
       file.

       If patch cannot find a place to install that hunk of the patch, it  puts  the  hunk
       out  to  a  reject  file, which normally is the name of the output file plus a .rej
       suffix, or # if .rej would generate a file name that is too long (if even appending
       the  single  character  #  makes  the  file name too long, then # replaces the file
       name's last character).

       The rejected hunk comes out in unified or context diff format.  If the input was  a
       normal  diff,  many of the contexts are simply null.  The line numbers on the hunks
       in the reject file may be different than  in  the  patch  file:  they  reflect  the
       approximate  location  patch  thinks the failed hunks belong in the new file rather
       than the old one.

       As each hunk is completed, you are told if the hunk failed, and if  so  which  line
       (in the new file) patch thought the hunk should go on.  If the hunk is installed at
       a different line from the line number specified in the diff, you are told the  off-
       set.   A  single  large  offset may indicate that a hunk was installed in the wrong
       place.  You are also told if a fuzz factor was used to make  the  match,  in  which
       case you should also be slightly suspicious.  If the --verbose option is given, you
       are also told about hunks that match exactly.

       If no original file origfile is specified on the command line, patch tries to  fig-
       ure  out  from  the leading garbage what the name of the file to edit is, using the
       following rules.

       First, patch takes an ordered list of candidate file names as follows:

        ? If the header is that of a context diff, patch takes the old and new file  names
          in  the header.  A name is ignored if it does not have enough slashes to satisfy
          the -pnum or --strip=num option.  The name /dev/null is also ignored.

        ? If there is an Index: line in the leading garbage and if either the old and  new
          names  are  both absent or if patch is conforming to POSIX, patch takes the name
          in the Index: line.

        ? For the purpose of the following rules, the candidate file names are  considered
          to  be  in the order (old, new, index), regardless of the order that they appear
          in the header.

       Then patch selects a file name from the candidate list as follows:

        ? If some of the named files exist, patch selects the first name if conforming  to
          POSIX, and the best name otherwise.

        ? If  patch  is not ignoring RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, and SCCS (see the -g num or
          --get=num option), and no named files exist but an RCS, ClearCase, Perforce,  or
          SCCS master is found, patch selects the first named file with an RCS, ClearCase,
          Perforce, or SCCS master.

        ? If no named files exist, no RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS master was  found,
          some names are given, patch is not conforming to POSIX, and the patch appears to
          create a file, patch selects the best name requiring the creation of the  fewest
          directories.

        ? If no file name results from the above heuristics, you are asked for the name of
          the file to patch, and patch selects that name.

       To determine the best of a nonempty list of file names, patch first takes  all  the
       names  with  the fewest path name components; of those, it then takes all the names
       with the shortest basename; of  those,  it  then  takes  all  the  shortest  names;
       finally, it takes the first remaining name.

       Additionally, if the leading garbage contains a Prereq: line, patch takes the first
       word from the prerequisites line (normally a version number) and checks the  origi-
       nal  file  to  see  if that word can be found.  If not, patch asks for confirmation
       before proceeding.

       The upshot of all this is that you should be able to say, while in  a  news  inter-
       face, something like the following:

          | patch -d /usr/src/local/blurfl

       and  patch  a file in the blurfl directory directly from the article containing the
       patch.

       If the patch file contains more than one patch, patch tries to apply each  of  them
       as if they came from separate patch files.  This means, among other things, that it
       is assumed that the name of the file to patch must  be  determined  for  each  diff
       listing,  and that the garbage before each diff listing contains interesting things
       such as file names and revision level, as mentioned previously.

OPTIONS
       -b  or  --backup
          Make backup files.  That is, when patching a file, rename or copy  the  original
          instead  of  removing it.  When backing up a file that does not exist, an empty,
          unreadable backup file is created as a placeholder to represent the  nonexistent
          file.   See the -V or --version-control option for details about how backup file
          names are determined.

       --backup-if-mismatch
          Back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if  backups  are
          not  otherwise  requested.   This  is  the default unless patch is conforming to
          POSIX.

       --no-backup-if-mismatch
          Do not back up a file if the patch does not match the file exactly and if  back-
          ups  are not otherwise requested.  This is the default if patch is conforming to
          POSIX.

       -B pref  or  --prefix=pref
          Use the simple method to determine backup file  names  (see  the  -V  method  or
          --version-control method option), and append pref to a file name when generating
          its backup file name.  For example, with -B /junk/ the simple backup  file  name
          for src/patch/util.c is /junk/src/patch/util.c.

       --binary
          Write  all  files in binary mode, except for standard output and /dev/tty.  When
          reading, disable the heuristic for transforming CRLF line endings into  LF  line
          endings.   (On  POSIX-conforming  systems, reads and writes never transform line
          endings. On Windows, reads and writes do transform line endings by default,  and
          patches should be generated by diff --binary when line endings are significant.)

       -c  or  --context
          Interpret the patch file as a ordinary context diff.

       -d dir  or  --directory=dir
          Change to the directory dir immediately, before doing anything else.

       -D define  or  --ifdef=define
          Use the #ifdef ... #endif construct to mark changes, with define as the  differ-
          entiating symbol.

       --dry-run
          Print the results of applying the patches without actually changing any files.

       -e  or  --ed
          Interpret the patch file as an ed script.

       -E  or  --remove-empty-files
          Remove  output  files  that are empty after the patches have been applied.  Nor-
          mally this option is unnecessary, since patch can examine the time stamps on the
          header to determine whether a file should exist after patching.  However, if the
          input is not a context diff or if patch is conforming to POSIX, patch  does  not
          remove  empty  patched  files unless this option is given.  When patch removes a
          file, it also attempts to remove any empty ancestor directories.

       -f  or  --force
          Assume that the user knows exactly what he or she is doing, and do not  ask  any
          questions.   Skip  patches whose headers do not say which file is to be patched;
          patch files even though they have the wrong version for the Prereq: line in  the
          patch; and assume that patches are not reversed even if they look like they are.
          This option does not suppress commentary; use -s for that.

       -F num  or  --fuzz=num
          Set the maximum fuzz factor.  This option only applies to diffs that  have  con-
          text,  and causes patch to ignore up to that many lines in looking for places to
          install a hunk.  Note that a larger fuzz factor increases the odds of  a  faulty
          patch.   The  default  fuzz  factor is 2, and it may not be set to more than the
          number of lines of context in the context diff, ordinarily 3.

       -g num  or  --get=num
          This option controls patch's actions when a file is under RCS or  SCCS  control,
          and  does  not  exist or is read-only and matches the default version, or when a
          file is under ClearCase or Perforce control and does not exist.  If num is posi-
          tive,  patch  gets (or checks out) the file from the revision control system; if
          zero, patch ignores RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, and SCCS  and  does  not  get  the
          file; and if negative, patch asks the user whether to get the file.  The default
          value of this option is given by the value of the PATCH_GET environment variable
          if it is set; if not, the default value is zero.

       --help
          Print a summary of options and exit.

       -i patchfile  or  --input=patchfile
          Read the patch from patchfile.  If patchfile is -, read from standard input, the
          default.

       -l  or  --ignore-whitespace
          Match patterns loosely, in case tabs or spaces have been munged in  your  files.
          Any sequence of one or more blanks in the patch file matches any sequence in the
          original file, and sequences of blanks at the ends of lines are ignored.  Normal
          characters  must still match exactly.  Each line of the context must still match
          a line in the original file.

       --merge
          Merge a patch file into the original files similar to merge(1). If a conflict is
          found,  patch  outputs  a  warning  and  brackets  the conflict with <<<<<<< and
          >>>>>>> lines.  A typical conflict will look like this:

              <<<<<<<
              lines from the original file
              =======
              lines from the patch
              >>>>>>>

          If there are conflicts, the user should edit the result and delete  one  of  the
          alternatives.   This  option  implies --forward and does not take the --fuzz=num
          option into account.

       -n  or  --normal
          Interpret the patch file as a normal diff.

       -N  or  --forward
          Ignore patches that seem to be reversed or already applied.  See also -R.

       -o outfile  or  --output=outfile
          Send output to outfile instead of patching files in  place.   Do  not  use  this
          option  if  outfile  is one of the files to be patched.  When outfile is -, send
          output to standard output, and send any messages that would usually go to  stan-
          dard output to standard error.

       -pnum  or  --strip=num
          Strip  the  smallest  prefix  containing num leading slashes from each file name
          found in the patch file.  A sequence of one or more adjacent slashes is  counted
          as  a  single  slash.   This controls how file names found in the patch file are
          treated, in case you keep your files in a different directory  than  the  person
          who  sent out the patch.  For example, supposing the file name in the patch file
          was

             /u/howard/src/blurfl/blurfl.c

          setting -p0 gives the entire file name unmodified, -p1 gives

             u/howard/src/blurfl/blurfl.c

          without the leading slash, -p4 gives

             blurfl/blurfl.c

          and not specifying -p at all just gives you blurfl.c.  Whatever you end up  with
          is looked for either in the current directory, or the directory specified by the
          -d option.

       --posix
          Conform more strictly to the POSIX standard, as follows.

           ? Take the first existing file from the list (old, new, index)  when  intuiting
             file names from diff headers.

           ? Do not remove files that are empty after patching.

           ? Do not ask whether to get files from RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS.

           ? Require that all options precede the files in the command line.

           ? Do not backup files when there is a mismatch.

       --quoting-style=word
          Use style word to quote output names.  The word should be one of the following:

          literal
                 Output names as-is.

          shell  Quote  names  for the shell if they contain shell metacharacters or would
                 cause ambiguous output.

          shell-always
                 Quote names for the shell, even if they would normally not require  quot-
                 ing.

          c      Quote names as for a C language string.

          escape Quote as with c except omit the surrounding double-quote characters.

          You  can  specify the default value of the --quoting-style option with the envi-
          ronment variable QUOTING_STYLE.  If that environment variable is  not  set,  the
          default value is shell.

       -r rejectfile  or  --reject-file=rejectfile
          Put  rejects  into rejectfile instead of the default .rej file.  When rejectfile
          is -, discard rejects.

       -R  or  --reverse
          Assume that this patch was created with the old and new  files  swapped.   (Yes,
          I'm afraid that does happen occasionally, human nature being what it is.)  patch
          attempts to swap each hunk around before applying it.  Rejects come out  in  the
          swapped  format.  The -R option does not work with ed diff scripts because there
          is too little information to reconstruct the reverse operation.

          If the first hunk of a patch fails, patch reverses the hunk to see if it can  be
          applied  that  way.   If it can, you are asked if you want to have the -R option
          set.  If it can't, the patch continues to  be  applied  normally.   (Note:  this
          method  cannot  detect  a reversed patch if it is a normal diff and if the first
          command is an append (i.e. it should have been a delete)  since  appends  always
          succeed,  due  to  the fact that a null context matches anywhere.  Luckily, most
          patches add or change lines rather than delete them,  so  most  reversed  normal
          diffs begin with a delete, which fails, triggering the heuristic.)

       --reject-format=format
          Produce reject files in the specified format (either context or unified).  With-
          out this option, rejected hunks come out in unified diff  format  if  the  input
          patch was of that format, otherwise in ordinary context diff form.

       -s  or  --silent  or  --quiet
          Work silently, unless an error occurs.

       -t  or  --batch
          Suppress  questions  like  -f, but make some different assumptions: skip patches
          whose headers do not contain file names (the same as -f); skip patches for which
          the  file  has  the  wrong version for the Prereq: line in the patch; and assume
          that patches are reversed if they look like they are.

       -T  or  --set-time
          Set the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in
          context  diff  headers,  assuming  that the context diff headers use local time.
          This option is not recommended, because patches using local time  cannot  easily
          be used by people in other time zones, and because local time stamps are ambigu-
          ous when local clocks move backwards during  daylight-saving  time  adjustments.
          Instead  of  using  this  option,  generate  patches  with UTC and use the -Z or
          --set-utc option instead.

       -u  or  --unified
          Interpret the patch file as a unified context diff.

       -v  or  --version
          Print out patch's revision header and patch level, and exit.

       -V method  or  --version-control=method
          Use method to determine backup file names.  The method can also be given by  the
          PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL  (or,  if that's not set, the VERSION_CONTROL) environment
          variable, which is overridden by  this  option.   The  method  does  not  affect
          whether  backup  files  are  made; it affects only the names of any backup files
          that are made.

          The value of method is like the GNU Emacs 'version-control' variable; patch also
          recognizes  synonyms that are more descriptive.  The valid values for method are
          (unique abbreviations are accepted):

          existing  or  nil
             Make numbered backups of files that already have them, otherwise simple back-
             ups.  This is the default.

          numbered  or  t
             Make  numbered backups.  The numbered backup file name for F is F.~N~ where N
             is the version number.

          simple  or  never
             Make simple backups.  The -B or --prefix, -Y or --basename-prefix, and -z  or
             --suffix  options  specify  the  simple  backup  file name.  If none of these
             options are given, then a simple backup suffix is used; it is  the  value  of
             the SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX environment variable if set, and is .orig otherwise.

          With numbered or simple backups, if the backup file name is too long, the backup
          suffix ~ is used instead; if even appending ~ would make the name too long, then
          ~ replaces the last character of the file name.

       --verbose
          Output extra information about the work being done.

       -x num  or  --debug=num
          Set internal debugging flags of interest only to patch patchers.

       -Y pref  or  --basename-prefix=pref
          Use the simple method to determine backup file  names  (see  the  -V  method  or
          --version-control method option), and prefix pref to the basename of a file name
          when generating its backup file name.  For example,  with  -Y .del/  the  simple
          backup file name for src/patch/util.c is src/patch/.del/util.c.

       -z suffix  or  --suffix=suffix
          Use  the  simple  method  to  determine  backup file names (see the -V method or
          --version-control method option), and use suffix as the  suffix.   For  example,
          with -z - the backup file name for src/patch/util.c is src/patch/util.c-.

       -Z  or  --set-utc
          Set the modification and access times of patched files from time stamps given in
          context diff headers, assuming that the context  diff  headers  use  Coordinated
          Universal Time (UTC, often known as GMT).  Also see the -T or --set-time option.

          The -Z or --set-utc and -T or --set-time options normally refrain from setting a
          file's  time  if  the  file's original time does not match the time given in the
          patch header, or if its contents do not match the patch  exactly.   However,  if
          the -f or --force option is given, the file time is set regardless.

          Due  to  the  limitations of diff output format, these options cannot update the
          times of files whose contents have not changed.  Also, if you use these options,
          you  should  remove  (e.g. with make clean) all files that depend on the patched
          files, so that later invocations of make do not  get  confused  by  the  patched
          files' times.

ENVIRONMENT
       PATCH_GET
          This  specifies  whether  patch  gets  missing  or  read-only  files  from  RCS,
          ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS by default; see the -g or --get option.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
          If set, patch conforms more strictly to the POSIX standard by default:  see  the
          --posix option.

       QUOTING_STYLE
          Default value of the --quoting-style option.

       SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX
          Extension to use for simple backup file names instead of .orig.

       TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP
          Directory  to  put temporary files in; patch uses the first environment variable
          in this list that is set.  If none are set, the default is system-dependent;  it
          is normally /tmp on Unix hosts.

       VERSION_CONTROL or PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL
          Selects version control style; see the -v or --version-control option.

FILES
       $TMPDIR/p*
          temporary files

       /dev/tty
          controlling terminal; used to get answers to questions asked of the user

SEE ALSO
       diff(1), ed(1), merge(1).

       Marshall  T.  Rose and Einar A. Stefferud, Proposed Standard for Message Encapsula-
       tion, Internet RFC 934 <URL:ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/rfc934.txt> (1985-01).

NOTES FOR PATCH SENDERS
       There are several things you should bear in mind if you are going to be sending out
       patches.

       Create  your patch systematically.  A good method is the command diff -Naur old new
       where old and new identify the old and new directories.   The  names  old  and  new
       should  not  contain any slashes.  The diff command's headers should have dates and
       times in Universal Time using traditional Unix format, so that patch recipients can
       use  the  -Z  or  --set-utc option.  Here is an example command, using Bourne shell
       syntax:

          LC_ALL=C TZ=UTC0 diff -Naur gcc-2.7 gcc-2.8

       Tell your recipients how to apply the patch by telling them which directory  to  cd
       to,  and  which patch options to use.  The option string -Np1 is recommended.  Test
       your procedure by pretending to be a recipient and applying your patch to a copy of
       the original files.

       You  can save people a lot of grief by keeping a patchlevel.h file which is patched
       to increment the patch level as the first diff in the patch file you send out.   If
       you  put  a  Prereq: line in with the patch, it won't let them apply patches out of
       order without some warning.

       You can create a file by sending out a diff that compares  /dev/null  or  an  empty
       file  dated  the  Epoch  (1970-01-01  00:00:00 UTC) to the file you want to create.
       This only works if the file you want to create doesn't exist already in the  target
       directory.   Conversely,  you  can remove a file by sending out a context diff that
       compares the file to be deleted with an empty file dated the Epoch.  The file  will
       be  removed  unless patch is conforming to POSIX and the -E or --remove-empty-files
       option is not given.  An easy way to generate patches that create and remove  files
       is to use GNU diff's -N or --new-file option.

       If  the  recipient is supposed to use the -pN option, do not send output that looks
       like this:

          diff -Naur v2.0.29/prog/README prog/README
          --- v2.0.29/prog/README   Mon Mar 10 15:13:12 1997
          +++ prog/README   Mon Mar 17 14:58:22 1997

       because the two file names have different numbers of slashes,  and  different  ver-
       sions of patch interpret the file names differently.  To avoid confusion, send out-
       put that looks like this instead:

          diff -Naur v2.0.29/prog/README v2.0.30/prog/README
          --- v2.0.29/prog/README   Mon Mar 10 15:13:12 1997
          +++ v2.0.30/prog/README   Mon Mar 17 14:58:22 1997


       Avoid sending patches that compare backup file names like README.orig,  since  this
       might confuse patch into patching a backup file instead of the real file.  Instead,
       send patches that compare the same base file names in different  directories,  e.g.
       old/README and new/README.

       Take  care  not  to send out reversed patches, since it makes people wonder whether
       they already applied the patch.

       Try not to have your patch modify derived files  (e.g.  the  file  configure  where
       there  is  a  line  configure:  configure.in in your makefile), since the recipient
       should be able to regenerate the derived files anyway.  If you must send  diffs  of
       derived  files,  generate  the diffs using UTC, have the recipients apply the patch
       with the -Z or --set-utc option, and have them  remove  any  unpatched  files  that
       depend on patched files (e.g. with make clean).

       While  you may be able to get away with putting 582 diff listings into one file, it
       may be wiser to group related patches into separate files in  case  something  goes
       haywire.

DIAGNOSTICS
       Diagnostics generally indicate that patch couldn't parse your patch file.

       If the --verbose option is given, the message Hmm... indicates that there is unpro-
       cessed text in the patch file and that patch is attempting to intuit whether  there
       is a patch in that text and, if so, what kind of patch it is.

       patch's  exit  status  is  0 if all hunks are applied successfully, 1 if some hunks
       cannot be applied or there were merge conflicts, and 2 if  there  is  more  serious
       trouble.   When  applying  a set of patches in a loop it behooves you to check this
       exit status so you don't apply a later patch to a partially patched file.

CAVEATS
       Context diffs cannot reliably represent the creation or deletion  of  empty  files,
       empty directories, or special files such as symbolic links.  Nor can they represent
       changes to file metadata like ownership, permissions, or whether one file is a hard
       link  to  another.   If changes like these are also required, separate instructions
       (e.g. a shell script) to accomplish them should accompany the patch.

       patch cannot tell if the line numbers are off in an ed script, and can  detect  bad
       line  numbers  in a normal diff only when it finds a change or deletion.  A context
       diff using fuzz factor 3 may have the same problem.  You should probably do a  con-
       text  diff  in  these cases to see if the changes made sense.  Of course, compiling
       without errors is a pretty good indication that the patch worked, but not always.

       patch usually produces the correct results, even when it has to do a lot of  guess-
       ing.   However,  the  results  are  guaranteed to be correct only when the patch is
       applied to exactly the same version of the file that the patch was generated  from.

COMPATIBILITY ISSUES
       The  POSIX standard specifies behavior that differs from patch's traditional behav-
       ior.  You should be aware of these differences if you must interoperate with  patch
       versions 2.1 and earlier, which do not conform to POSIX.

        ? In  traditional  patch,  the -p option's operand was optional, and a bare -p was
          equivalent to -p0.  The -p option now requires  an  operand,  and  -p 0  is  now
          equivalent to -p0.  For maximum compatibility, use options like -p0 and -p1.

          Also,  traditional  patch  simply  counted slashes when stripping path prefixes;
          patch now counts pathname components.  That is, a sequence of one or more  adja-
          cent slashes now counts as a single slash.  For maximum portability, avoid send-
          ing patches containing // in file names.

        ? In traditional patch, backups were enabled by default.   This  behavior  is  now
          enabled with the -b or --backup option.

          Conversely,  in  POSIX  patch, backups are never made, even when there is a mis-
          match.  In GNU patch, this behavior is enabled with the  --no-backup-if-mismatch
          option,  or  by  conforming  to  POSIX with the --posix option or by setting the
          POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.

          The -b suffix option of traditional patch  is  equivalent  to  the  -b -z suffix
          options of GNU patch.

        ? Traditional  patch  used  a  complicated (and incompletely documented) method to
          intuit the name of the file to be patched from the patch  header.   This  method
          did  not  conform  to POSIX, and had a few gotchas.  Now patch uses a different,
          equally complicated (but better documented) method that is optionally POSIX-con-
          forming;  we  hope  it has fewer gotchas.  The two methods are compatible if the
          file names in the context diff header and the  Index:  line  are  all  identical
          after prefix-stripping.  Your patch is normally compatible if each header's file
          names all contain the same number of slashes.

        ? When traditional patch asked the user a question, it sent the question to  stan-
          dard  error  and  looked for an answer from the first file in the following list
          that was a terminal: standard error, standard  output,  /dev/tty,  and  standard
          input.   Now  patch  sends  questions  to  standard output and gets answers from
          /dev/tty.  Defaults for some answers have been changed so that patch never  goes
          into an infinite loop when using default answers.

        ? Traditional  patch  exited  with  a  status value that counted the number of bad
          hunks, or with status 1 if there was real trouble.  Now patch exits with  status
          1 if some hunks failed, or with 2 if there was real trouble.

        ? Limit  yourself  to  the following options when sending instructions meant to be
          executed by anyone running GNU patch, traditional patch, or a  patch  that  con-
          forms  to POSIX.  Spaces are significant in the following list, and operands are
          required.

             -c
             -d dir
             -D define
             -e
             -l
             -n
             -N
             -o outfile
             -pnum
             -R
             -r rejectfile

BUGS
       Please report bugs via email to <bug-patch AT gnu.org>.

       If code has been duplicated  (for  instance  with  #ifdef  OLDCODE  ...  #else  ...
       #endif),  patch  is  incapable  of patching both versions, and, if it works at all,
       will likely patch the wrong one, and tell you that it succeeded to boot.

       If you apply a patch you've already applied, patch thinks it is a  reversed  patch,
       and offers to un-apply the patch.  This could be construed as a feature.

       Computing how to merge a hunk is significantly harder than using the standard fuzzy
       algorithm.  Bigger hunks, more context, a bigger offset from the original location,
       and a worse match all slow the algorithm down.

COPYING
       Copyright (C) 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988 Larry Wall.
       Copyright  (C)  1989,  1990,  1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
       2000, 2001, 2002, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of  this  manual  pro-
       vided  the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this manual under
       the  conditions  for  verbatim  copying, provided that the entire resulting derived
       work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and  distribute  translations  of  this  manual  into
       another  language,  under  the  above conditions for modified versions, except that
       this permission notice may be included in translations approved  by  the  copyright
       holders instead of in the original English.

AUTHORS
       Larry  Wall wrote the original version of patch.  Paul Eggert removed patch's arbi-
       trary limits; added support for binary files,  setting  file  times,  and  deleting
       files; and made it conform better to POSIX.  Other contributors include Wayne Davi-
       son, who added unidiff support, and David MacKenzie, who  added  configuration  and
       backup support.  Andreas Grunbacher added support for merging.



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