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SELECT(2)                  Linux Programmer's Manual                 SELECT(2)



NAME
       select, pselect, FD_CLR, FD_ISSET, FD_SET, FD_ZERO - synchronous I/O multiplexing

SYNOPSIS
       /* According to POSIX.1-2001 */
       #include <sys/select.h>

       /* According to earlier standards */
       #include <sys/time.h>
       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       int select(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds,
                  fd_set *exceptfds, struct timeval *timeout);

       void FD_CLR(int fd, fd_set *set);
       int  FD_ISSET(int fd, fd_set *set);
       void FD_SET(int fd, fd_set *set);
       void FD_ZERO(fd_set *set);

       #include <sys/select.h>

       int pselect(int nfds, fd_set *readfds, fd_set *writefds,
                   fd_set *exceptfds, const struct timespec *timeout,
                   const sigset_t *sigmask);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       pselect(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 600

DESCRIPTION
       select()  and pselect() allow a program to monitor multiple file descriptors, wait-
       ing until one or more of the file descriptors become "ready" for some class of  I/O
       operation  (e.g.,  input possible).  A file descriptor is considered ready if it is
       possible to perform the corresponding I/O operation (e.g., read(2)) without  block-
       ing.

       The operation of select() and pselect() is identical, with three differences:

       (i)    select() uses a timeout that is a struct timeval (with seconds and microsec-
              onds), while pselect() uses a struct timespec  (with  seconds  and  nanosec-
              onds).

       (ii)   select() may update the timeout argument to indicate how much time was left.
              pselect() does not change this argument.

       (iii)  select() has no sigmask argument, and behaves as pselect() called with  NULL
              sigmask.

       Three  independent  sets  of file descriptors are watched.  Those listed in readfds
       will be watched to see if characters become available for reading (more  precisely,
       to  see if a read will not block; in particular, a file descriptor is also ready on
       end-of-file), those in writefds will be watched to see if a write will  not  block,
       and those in exceptfds will be watched for exceptions.  On exit, the sets are modi-
       fied in place to indicate which file descriptors actually changed status.  Each  of
       the  three file descriptor sets may be specified as NULL if no file descriptors are
       to be watched for the corresponding class of events.

       Four macros are provided to manipulate the sets.  FD_ZERO() clears a set.  FD_SET()
       and  FD_CLR()  respectively  add  and  remove  a  given file descriptor from a set.
       FD_ISSET() tests to see if a file descriptor is part of the  set;  this  is  useful
       after select() returns.

       nfds is the highest-numbered file descriptor in any of the three sets, plus 1.

       timeout  is  an  upper bound on the amount of time elapsed before select() returns.
       If both fields of the timeval stucture are zero, then select() returns immediately.
       (This  is useful for polling.)  If timeout is NULL (no timeout), select() can block
       indefinitely.

       sigmask is a pointer to a signal mask (see sigprocmask(2)); if it is not NULL, then
       pselect()  first replaces the current signal mask by the one pointed to by sigmask,
       then does the "select" function, and then restores the original signal mask.

       Other than the difference in the precision of the timeout argument,  the  following
       pselect() call:

           ready = pselect(nfds, &readfds, &writefds, &exceptfds,
                           timeout, &sigmask);

       is equivalent to atomically executing the following calls:

           sigset_t origmask;

           sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &sigmask, &origmask);
           ready = select(nfds, &readfds, &writefds, &exceptfds, timeout);
           sigprocmask(SIG_SETMASK, &origmask, NULL);

       The  reason that pselect() is needed is that if one wants to wait for either a sig-
       nal or for a file descriptor to become ready, then an atomic test is needed to pre-
       vent  race conditions.  (Suppose the signal handler sets a global flag and returns.
       Then a test of this global flag followed by a call of select() could  hang  indefi-
       nitely if the signal arrived just after the test but just before the call.  By con-
       trast, pselect() allows one to first block signals, handle the  signals  that  have
       come in, then call pselect() with the desired sigmask, avoiding the race.)

   The timeout
       The time structures involved are defined in <sys/time.h> and look like

           struct timeval {
               long    tv_sec;         /* seconds */
               long    tv_usec;        /* microseconds */
           };

       and

           struct timespec {
               long    tv_sec;         /* seconds */
               long    tv_nsec;        /* nanoseconds */
           };

       (However, see below on the POSIX.1-2001 versions.)

       Some code calls select() with all three sets empty, nfds zero, and a non-NULL time-
       out as a fairly portable way to sleep with subsecond precision.

       On Linux, select() modifies timeout to reflect the amount of time not  slept;  most
       other  implementations  do  not  do  this.  (POSIX.1-2001 permits either behavior.)
       This causes problems both when Linux code which reads timeout is  ported  to  other
       operating  systems,  and  when code is ported to Linux that reuses a struct timeval
       for multiple select()s in a loop without reinitializing it.  Consider timeout to be
       undefined after select() returns.

RETURN VALUE
       On  success, select() and pselect() return the number of file descriptors contained
       in the three returned descriptor sets (that is, the total number of bits  that  are
       set  in  readfds,  writefds,  exceptfds)  which  may be zero if the timeout expires
       before anything interesting happens.  On error, -1 is returned, and  errno  is  set
       appropriately;  the sets and timeout become undefined, so do not rely on their con-
       tents after an error.

ERRORS
       EBADF  An invalid file descriptor was given in one of the sets.   (Perhaps  a  file
              descriptor  that was already closed, or one on which an error has occurred.)

       EINTR  A signal was caught; see signal(7).

       EINVAL nfds is negative or the value contained within timeout is invalid.

       ENOMEM unable to allocate memory for internal tables.

VERSIONS
       pselect() was added to Linux in kernel 2.6.16.  Prior to this, pselect()  was  emu-
       lated in glibc (but see BUGS).

CONFORMING TO
       select()  conforms  to POSIX.1-2001 and 4.4BSD (select() first appeared in 4.2BSD).
       Generally portable to/from non-BSD systems supporting  clones  of  the  BSD  socket
       layer (including System V variants).  However, note that the System V variant typi-
       cally sets the timeout variable before exit, but the BSD variant does not.

       pselect() is defined in POSIX.1g, and in POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       An fd_set is a fixed size buffer.  Executing FD_CLR() or FD_SET() with a  value  of
       fd  that  is negative or is equal to or larger than FD_SETSIZE will result in unde-
       fined behavior.  Moreover, POSIX requires fd to be a valid file descriptor.

       Concerning the types involved, the classical situation is that the two fields of  a
       timeval  structure are typed as long (as shown above), and the structure is defined
       in <sys/time.h>.  The POSIX.1-2001 situation is

           struct timeval {
               time_t         tv_sec;     /* seconds */
               suseconds_t    tv_usec;    /* microseconds */
           };

       where the structure is defined in <sys/select.h> and  the  data  types  time_t  and
       suseconds_t are defined in <sys/types.h>.

       Concerning  prototypes, the classical situation is that one should include <time.h>
       for select().  The POSIX.1-2001 situation is that one should include <sys/select.h>
       for select() and pselect().

       Libc4 and libc5 do not have a <sys/select.h> header; under glibc 2.0 and later this
       header exists.  Under glibc 2.0 it unconditionally gives the  wrong  prototype  for
       pselect().   Under  glibc  2.1  to  2.2.1  it  gives  pselect() when _GNU_SOURCE is
       defined.  Since glibc 2.2.2 the requirements are as shown in the SYNOPSIS.

   Linux Notes
       The Linux pselect() system call modifies its timeout argument.  However, the  glibc
       wrapper  function  hides  this  behavior  by using a local variable for the timeout
       argument that is passed to the system call.  Thus,  the  glibc  pselect()  function
       does   not   modify  its  timeout  argument;  this  is  the  behavior  required  by
       POSIX.1-2001.

BUGS
       Glibc 2.0 provided a version of pselect() that did not take a sigmask argument.

       Since version 2.1, glibc has provided an emulation of pselect() that is implemented
       using  sigprocmask(2)  and select().  This implementation remains vulnerable to the
       very race condition that pselect() was designed to prevent.  On systems  that  lack
       pselect(),  reliable  (and more portable) signal trapping can be achieved using the
       self-pipe trick (where a signal handler writes a byte to a pipe whose other end  is
       monitored by select() in the main program.)

       Under  Linux,  select() may report a socket file descriptor as "ready for reading",
       while nevertheless a subsequent read blocks.  This could for  example  happen  when
       data  has  arrived but upon examination has wrong checksum and is discarded.  There
       may be other circumstances in which a file descriptor  is  spuriously  reported  as
       ready.  Thus it may be safer to use O_NONBLOCK on sockets that should not block.

       On  Linux,  select()  also  modifies timeout if the call is interrupted by a signal
       handler (i.e., the EINTR error return).  This is  not  permitted  by  POSIX.1-2001.
       The  Linux pselect() system call has the same behavior, but the glibc wrapper hides
       this behavior by internally copying the timeout to a  local  variable  and  passing
       that variable to the system call.

EXAMPLE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <sys/time.h>
       #include <sys/types.h>
       #include <unistd.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           fd_set rfds;
           struct timeval tv;
           int retval;

           /* Watch stdin (fd 0) to see when it has input. */
           FD_ZERO(&rfds);
           FD_SET(0, &rfds);

           /* Wait up to five seconds. */
           tv.tv_sec = 5;
           tv.tv_usec = 0;

           retval = select(1, &rfds, NULL, NULL, &tv);
           /* Don't rely on the value of tv now! */

           if (retval == -1)
               perror("select()");
           else if (retval)
               printf("Data is available now.\n");
               /* FD_ISSET(0, &rfds) will be true. */
           else
               printf("No data within five seconds.\n");

           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       For a tutorial with discussion and examples, see select_tut(2).

       For  vaguely  related  stuff, see accept(2), connect(2), poll(2), read(2), recv(2),
       send(2), sigprocmask(2), write(2), epoll(7), time(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the  project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2008-12-05                         SELECT(2)

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