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CLOSE(2)                   Linux Programmer's Manual                  CLOSE(2)

       close - close a file descriptor

       #include <unistd.h>

       int close(int fd);

       close()  closes  a file descriptor, so that it no longer refers to any file and may
       be reused.  Any record locks (see fcntl(2)) held on  the  file  it  was  associated
       with, and owned by the process, are removed (regardless of the file descriptor that
       was used to obtain the lock).

       If fd is the last file descriptor referring to the underlying open file description
       (see  open(2)),  the resources associated with the open file description are freed;
       if the descriptor was the last reference to a file which  has  been  removed  using
       unlink(2) the file is deleted.

       close() returns zero on success.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appro-

       EBADF  fd isn't a valid open file descriptor.

       EINTR  The close() call was interrupted by a signal; see signal(7).

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001.

       Not checking the return value of close() is a common but nevertheless serious  pro-
       gramming  error.  It is quite possible that errors on a previous write(2) operation
       are first reported at the final close().  Not checking the return value when  clos-
       ing the file may lead to silent loss of data.  This can especially be observed with
       NFS and with disk quota.

       A successful close does not guarantee that the data has been successfully saved  to
       disk, as the kernel defers writes.  It is not common for a file system to flush the
       buffers when the stream is closed.  If you need to be sure that the data is  physi-
       cally stored use fsync(2).  (It will depend on the disk hardware at this point.)

       It  is probably unwise to close file descriptors while they may be in use by system
       calls in other threads in the same process.  Since a file  descriptor  may  be  re-
       used,  there  are  some  obscure  race  conditions  that  may cause unintended side

       When dealing with sockets, you have to be sure  that  there  is  no  recv(2)  still
       blocking  on  it on another thread, otherwise it might block forever, since no more
       messages will be sent via the socket. Be sure to use shutdown(2) to shut  down  all
       parts the connection before closing the socket.

       fcntl(2), fsync(2), open(2), shutdown(2), unlink(2), fclose(3)

       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://www.ker-

Linux                             2007-12-28                          CLOSE(2)

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