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CONNECT(2)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                CONNECT(2)



NAME
       connect - initiate a connection on a socket

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/types.h>          /* See NOTES */
       #include <sys/socket.h>

       int connect(int sockfd, const struct sockaddr *addr,
                   socklen_t addrlen);

DESCRIPTION
       The  connect()  system  call connects the socket referred to by the file descriptor
       sockfd to the address specified by addr.  The addrlen argument specifies  the  size
       of  addr.   The format of the address in addr is determined by the address space of
       the socket sockfd; see socket(2) for further details.

       If the socket sockfd is of type SOCK_DGRAM then addr is the address to which  data-
       grams  are sent by default, and the only address from which datagrams are received.
       If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM or SOCK_SEQPACKET, this call attempts to  make
       a connection to the socket that is bound to the address specified by addr.

       Generally,  connection-based protocol sockets may successfully connect() only once;
       connectionless protocol sockets may use connect() multiple times  to  change  their
       association.   Connectionless sockets may dissolve the association by connecting to
       an address with the sa_family member of sockaddr set  to  AF_UNSPEC  (supported  on
       Linux since kernel 2.2).

RETURN VALUE
       If the connection or binding succeeds, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned,
       and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       The following are general socket errors only.  There may be  other  domain-specific
       error codes.

       EACCES For  Unix domain sockets, which are identified by pathname: Write permission
              is denied on the socket file, or search permission is denied for one of  the
              directories in the path prefix.  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EACCES, EPERM
              The  user  tried to connect to a broadcast address without having the socket
              broadcast flag enabled or the connection request failed because of  a  local
              firewall rule.

       EADDRINUSE
              Local address is already in use.

       EAFNOSUPPORT
              The  passed  address didn't have the correct address family in its sa_family
              field.

       EADDRNOTAVAIL
              Non-existent interface was requested or the requested address was not local.

       EALREADY
              The  socket  is  non-blocking  and a previous connection attempt has not yet
              been completed.

       EBADF  The file descriptor is not a valid index in the descriptor table.

       ECONNREFUSED
              No-one listening on the remote address.

       EFAULT The socket structure address is outside the user's address space.

       EINPROGRESS
              The socket is non-blocking and the connection cannot  be  completed  immedi-
              ately.   It  is possible to select(2) or poll(2) for completion by selecting
              the socket for writing.  After select(2) indicates writability, use getsock-
              opt(2)  to read the SO_ERROR option at level SOL_SOCKET to determine whether
              connect()  completed  successfully  (SO_ERROR  is  zero)  or  unsuccessfully
              (SO_ERROR is one of the usual error codes listed here, explaining the reason
              for the failure).

       EINTR  The system call was interrupted by a signal that was caught; see  signal(7).

       EISCONN
              The socket is already connected.

       ENETUNREACH
              Network is unreachable.

       ENOTSOCK
              The file descriptor is not associated with a socket.

       ETIMEDOUT
              Timeout  while  attempting connection.  The server may be too busy to accept
              new connections.  Note that for IP sockets the timeout may be very long when
              syncookies are enabled on the server.

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.4BSD, (the connect() function first appeared in 4.2BSD), POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       POSIX.1-2001  does not require the inclusion of <sys/types.h>, and this header file
       is not required on Linux.  However, some historical (BSD) implementations  required
       this header file, and portable applications are probably wise to include it.

       The  third argument of connect() is in reality an int (and this is what 4.x BSD and
       libc4 and libc5 have).  Some POSIX confusion resulted  in  the  present  socklen_t,
       also used by glibc.  See also accept(2).

EXAMPLE
       An example of the use of connect() is shown in getaddrinfo(3).

SEE ALSO
       accept(2), bind(2), getsockname(2), listen(2), socket(2), path_resolution(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2008-12-03                        CONNECT(2)

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