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CVS(1)                               General Commands Manual                               CVS(1)

NAME
cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage  is  a summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-generated from an
appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth  documentation,  please  consult  the  Ced-
erqvist  manual  (via the info CVS command or otherwise, as described in the SEE ALSO sec-
tion of this manpage).  Cross-references in this man page refer to nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This appendix describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some commands
in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick reference to cvs commands, see node
Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These are described below.

cvs_command

One of several different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have aliases  that  can  be
used  instead;  those aliases are noted in the reference manual for that command.  There
are only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H elicits a list of  avail-
able commands, and cvs -v displays version information on cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There  is  unfortunately  some  confusion between cvs_options and command_options.  When
given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands.  When given  as  a
command_option  it  may  have a different meaning, and be accepted by more commands.  In
other words, do not take the above categorization too seriously.  Look at the documenta-

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs  can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or failed by setting its
exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from one operating system
to another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last com- mand returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differences, or a failure sta- tus if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not necessarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the following line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir Specify legal cvsroot directory. See Password authentication server' in the CVS man- ual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI con- nection (see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. Overrides the setting of the$TMPDIR  environment  variable  and  any precompiled directory.  This parameter
should be specified as an absolute pathname.  (When running  client/server,  -T  affects
only  the  local  process;  specifying -T for the client has no effect on the server and
vice versa.)

-d cvs_root_directory

Use cvs_root_directory as the root directory pathname of the repository.  Overrides  the
setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. See Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR
and $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see Committing your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non- orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off dis- play of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays overall help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD environment variable
is set (see node Environment variables' in the CVS manual).  The  default  is  to  make
working files writable, unless watches are on (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace  program  execution; display messages showing the steps of cvs activity.  Particu-
larly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar command.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make new working files read-write.  Overrides the setting of  the  $CVSREAD environment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD is set or -r is
given.

-x

Encrypt all communication between the client and the server.  Only has an effect on  the
cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection
(see node GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual) or a Kerberos connection  (see  node
Kerberos  authenticated'  in the CVS manual).  Enabling encryption implies that message
traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption support is not available by default; it  must
be enabled using a special configure option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z gzip-level

Set  the  compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9 (low
speed, high compression), or 0 to disable compression (the default).  Only has an effect
on the cvs client.

Common options
Common command options
This section describes the command_options that are available across several cvs commands.
These options are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all commands  support  all
of  these  options; each option is only supported for commands where it makes sense.  How-
ever, when a command has one of these options you can almost  always  count  on  the  same
behavior  of  the  option  as in other commands.  (Other command options, which are listed
with the individual commands, may have different behavior from  one  cvs  command  to  the
other).

The  history  command  is  an  exception; it supports many options that conflict even with
these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than date_spec.  date_spec is a single argument, a
date description specifying a date in the past.

The  specification  is  sticky  when you use it to make a private copy of a source file;
that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs records the date  you  specified,  so
on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual).

-D is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export,  history,  rdiff,  rtag,  and
update commands.  (The history command uses this option in a slightly different way; see
node history options' in the CVS manual).

A wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most standard ones are ISO8601
(from the International Standards Organization) and the Internet e-mail standard (speci-
fied in RFC822 as amended by RFC1123).

ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

1972-09-24
1972-09-24 20:05

There are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs accepts many of them, but you  proba-
bly don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

In  addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also allows some of the
fields to be omitted.  For example:

24 Sep 1972 20:05
24 Sep

The date is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a  specific  timezone  is
specified.

These  two date formats are preferred.  However, cvs currently accepts a wide variety of
other date formats.  They are intentionally not  documented  here  in  any  detail,  and
future versions of cvs might not accept all of them.

One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people who are accustomed to having
the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is January 4, not April 1.

Remember to quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't interpret  spa-
ces as argument separators.  A command using the -D flag can look like this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a different behavior for those commands. See commit options' in the CVS manual, and Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Alter the default processing of keywords. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Your kflag specification is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the checkout or update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag with the file, and continues to use it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, rdiff, import and update com- mands. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through subdirecto- ries. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). This is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See Removing directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is on by default. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default head revision. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two special tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update com- mands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in Tags' in the CVS man- ual, or the name of a branch, as described in Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. This is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap- pers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. add Add files and directories to the repository o Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files... o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: repository, working directory. The add command is used to present new files and directories for addition into the cvs repository. When add is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the reposi- tory immediately. When used on a file, only the working directory is updated. Changes to the repository are not made until the commit command is used on the newly added file. The add command also resurrects files that have been previously removed. This can be done before or after the commit command is used to finalize the removal of files. Res- urrected files are restored into the working directory at the time the add command is executed. add options These standard options are supported by add (see node Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. For more information on the status command, see node Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. add examples Adding a directory$ mkdir doc
$cvs add doc Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository Adding a file$ >TODO
$cvs add TODO cvs add: scheduling file TODO' for addition cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently Undoing a remove command$ rm -f makefile
$cvs remove makefile cvs remove: scheduling makefile' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add makefile
U makefile
cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: repository.

o Synonym: rcs

This is the cvs interface to assorted administrative  facilities.   Some  of  them  have
questionable  usefulness  for  cvs but exist for historical purposes.  Some of the ques-
tionable options are likely to disappear in the future.  This command does  work  recur-
sively, so extreme care should be used.

On  unix,  if  there  is  a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group can run cvs
admin (except for the cvs admin -k command, which can be run by  anybody).   This  group
should  exist on the server, or any system running the non-client/server cvs.  To disal-
low cvs admin for all users, create a group with no users in it.  On  NT,  the  cvsadmin
feature does not exist and all users can run cvs admin.

Some  of  these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical pur-
poses.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect!

-Aoldfile

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the access list of oldfile to the access  list
of the rcs file.

Might  not  work together with cvs.  Append the login names appearing in the comma-sepa-
rated list logins to the access list of the rcs file.

-b[rev]

Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do not manipulate default branches;
sticky  tags (see node Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way to decide which
branch you want to work on.  There is one reason to run cvs admin -b: to revert  to  the
vendor's  version  when using vendor branches (see node Reverting local changes' in the
CVS manual).  There can be no space between -b and its argument.

-cstring

Sets the comment leader to string.  The comment leader is not used by  current  versions
of  cvs  or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it.  See Keyword
substitution' in the CVS manual.

Might not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing  in  the  comma-sepa-
rated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins is omitted, erase the
entire access list.  There can be no space between -e and its argument.

-I

Run interactively, even if the standard input is not a terminal.  This option  does  not
work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future release of cvs.

-i

Useless  with  cvs.   This  creates and initializes a new rcs file, without depositing a
revision.  With cvs, add files with the cvs add command (see node Adding files' in  the
CVS manual).

-ksubst

Set  the  default  keyword substitution to subst.  See Keyword substitution' in the CVS
manual.  Giving an explicit -k option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs  checkout  over-
rides this default.

-l[rev]

Lock  the  revision  with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock the latest revision on
that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default branch.   There
can be no space between -l and its argument.

This  can  be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib directory of
the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one  user  can  be
editing a given file at a time).  See the comments in that file for details (and see the
README file in that directory for disclaimers about the unsupported nature of  contrib).
According to comments in that file, locking must set to strict (which is the default).

-L

Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not exempt
from locking for checkin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discus-
sion under the -l option above.

-mrev:msg

Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

-Nname[:[rev]]

Act  like  -n,  except  override  any  previous  assignment of name.  For use with magic
branches, see Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual.

-nname[:[rev]]

Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It is normally better
to  use  cvs  tag  or  cvs rtag instead.  Delete the symbolic name if both : and rev are
omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already  associated  with  another
number.   If  rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.  A rev consisting of a
branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest revision in the branch.  A :
with an empty rev stands for the current latest revision on the default branch, normally
the trunk.  For example, cvs admin -nname: associates name with the current latest revi-
sion  of all the RCS files; this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it-- there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this command! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to carelessness or (heaven for- bid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the differences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove. ::rev Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself. The branchpoint and rev are left intact. For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact. rev:: Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revision rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted. rev Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4. rev1:rev2 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision num- ber assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead. :rev Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev. rev: Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revisions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the sym- bolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syn- taxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very useful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if it is a branch. See Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus commit; commit a new revi- sion undoing the bogus change instead (see node Merging two revisions' in the CVS manual). -q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is acceptable for state. A use- ful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for stable), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS manual), and in the$Log$and$State$keywords (see node Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node log' in the CVS man- ual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the dis- cussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs. Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notification (see node Get- ting Notified' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -u and its argument. -Vn In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful. annotate What revision modified each line of a file? o Synopsis: annotate [options] files... o Requires: repository. o Synonym: blame o Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line. annotate options These standard options are supported by annotate (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. -F Annotate binary files. -r revision Annotate file as of specified revision/tag. -D date Annotate file as of specified date. annotate example For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line 1 line was  checked  in  by
mary  on  March  27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without modifying
the ssfile line 1 line.  This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been
deleted  or  replaced;  you need to use cvs diff for that (see node diff' in the CVS man-
ual).

The options to cvs annotate are listed in Invoking CVS' in the CVS  manual,  and  can  be
used  to  select  the  files and revisions to annotate.  The options are described in more
detail there and in Common options' in the CVS manual.

checkout
Check out sources for editing
o Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: working directory.

o Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files specified  by
modules.   You  must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs commands, since
most of them operate on your working directory.

The modules are either symbolic names for some  collection  of  source  directories  and
files,  or  paths  to  directories  or  files in the repository.  The symbolic names are
defined in the modules file.  See modules' in the CVS manual.

Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively  create  directories  and
populate  them  with the appropriate source files.  You can then edit these source files
at any time (regardless of whether other  software  developers  are  editing  their  own
copies  of  the  sources);  update  them to include new changes applied by others to the
source repository; or commit your work as a permanent change to the source repository.

Note that checkout is used to create directories.  The top-level  directory  created  is
always  added  to the directory where checkout is invoked, and usually has the same name
as the specified module.  In the case of a module alias, the created  sub-directory  may
have  a  different  name,  but you can be sure that it will be a sub-directory, and that
checkout will show the relative path leading to each file as it is extracted  into  your
private work area (unless you specify the -Q global option).

The  files  created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs (see
node Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD environment  variable
is  specified  (see  node  Environment  variables' in the CVS manual), or a watch is in
effect for that file (see node Watches' in the CVS manual).

Note that running checkout on a directory that was already built by a prior checkout  is
also  permitted.   This  is similar to specifying the -d option to the update command in
the sense that new directories that have been created in the repository will  appear  in
your  work area.  However, checkout takes a module name whereas update takes a directory
name.  Also to use checkout this way it must be run from the top level directory  (where
you  originally  ran  checkout  from),  so before you run checkout to update an existing
directory, don't forget to change your directory to the top level directory.

For the output produced by the checkout command, see node update  output'  in  the  CVS
manual.

checkout options
These  standard  options  are  supported by checkout (see node Common options' in the CVS
manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful  with  the  -D  date  or  -r  tag flags.  If no matching revision is found,
retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in  the  CVS  manual.
This  option  is  sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use
the same kflag.  The status command can be  viewed  to  see  the  sticky  options.   See
Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do  not  run  any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in the modules file;
see node modules' in the CVS manual).

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in the  CVS

In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout:

-A

Reset  any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not reset sticky -k options on modi-
fied files.  See Sticky tags'  in  the  CVS  manual  for  more  information  on  sticky
tags/dates.

-c

Copy  the  module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or modifying
any files or directories in your working directory.

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the  module  name.
In  general,  using  this  flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir followed by the
checkout command without the -d flag.

There is an important exception, however.  It is very convenient  when  checking  out  a
single item to have the output appear in a directory that doesn't contain empty interme-
diate directories.  In this case only, cvs tries to shorten'' pathnames to avoid those
empty directories.

For  example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs co -d dir
foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside.  Similarly,  given  a  module  bar
which  has  subdirectory  baz  wherein there is a file quux.c, the command cvs co -d dir
bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

Using the -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same module  definitions  above,
cvs  co  -N -d dir foo will create directories dir/foo and place bar.c inside, while cvs
co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and place quux.c inside.

-j tag

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j  option
to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified
with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor  revision  is  the  common
ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec-
ified in the -j option.

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when  used
with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  With this option, cvs  will  not  shorten''  module
paths in your working directory when you check out a single module.  See the -d flag for
examples and a discussion.

-s

Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status  string.   See
modules'  in  the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside the mod-
ules file to set the module status.

checkout examples
Get a copy of the module tc:

$cvs checkout tc Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:$ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit
Check files into the repository
o Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...]

o Requires: working directory, repository.

o Changes: repository.

o Synonym: ci

Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your working source files into  the
source repository.

If  you  don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working cur-
rent directory are examined.  commit is careful to change in the repository  only  those
files  that  you  have  really changed.  By default (or if you explicitly specify the -R
option), files in subdirectories are also examined and committed if they  have  changed;
you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current directory only.

commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions in the
source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any of the speci-
fied files must be made current first with update (see node update' in the CVS manual).
commit does not call the update command for you, but rather leaves that for  you  to  do
when the time is right.

When  all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log message that will be
written to one or more logging programs (see node modules' in the CVS manual,  and  see
node  loginfo'  in  the  CVS  manual) and placed in the rcs file inside the repository.
This log message can be retrieved with the log command; see node log' in the  CVS  man-
ual.   You  can  specify the log message on the command line with the -m message option,
and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the -F file  option  to  specify  that  the
argument file contains the log message.

commit options
These  standard options are supported by commit (see node Common options' in the CVS man-
ual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r revision

Commit to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the  main  trunk
that  is higher than any existing revision number (see node Assigning revisions' in the
CVS manual).  You cannot commit to a specific revision on a branch.

commit also supports these options:

-F file

-f

Note that this is not the standard behavior of the  -f  option  as  defined  in  Common
options' in the CVS manual.

Force cvs to commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the file.  If
the current revision of file is 1.7, then the following two commands are equivalent:

$cvs commit -f file$ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs to  commit  a  new
revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R.

-m message

Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

commit examples
Committing to a branch
You  can  commit  to  a  branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with the -r
option.  To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag  commands  (see
node  Branching  and merging' in the CVS manual).  Then, either checkout or update can be
used to base your sources on the newly created branch.  From that  point  on,  all  commit
changes  made  within  these working sources will be automatically added to a branch revi-
sion, thereby not disturbing main-line development in any way.  For example, if you had to
create  a  patch to the 1.2 version of the product, even though the 2.0 version is already
under development, you might do:

$cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cd product_module [[ hack away ]]$ cvs commit

This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

Creating the branch after editing
Say you have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on whatever revi-
sion  you  happened  to checkout last week.  If others in your group would like to work on
this software with you, but without disturbing main-line  development,  you  could  commit
your change to a new branch.  Others can then checkout your experimental stuff and utilize
the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution.  The scenario might look like:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs update -r EXPR1
$cvs commit The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files. Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update command. The commit will auto- matically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky. You could also do like this: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs commit -r EXPR1 but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag. If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may acciden- tally end up on the main trunk. To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do$ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff
Show differences between revisions
o Synopsis:  diff  [-lR]  [-k kflag] [format_options] [[-r rev1 | -D date1] [-r rev2 |  -D
date2]] [files...]

o Requires: working directory, repository.

o Changes: nothing.

The diff command is used to compare different revisions of files.  The default action is
to compare your working files with the revisions they were based on, and report any dif-
ferences that are found.

If any file names are given, only those files are  compared.   If  any  directories  are
given, all files under them will be compared.

The  exit status for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details see node
Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
These standard options are supported by diff (see node Common options' in the CVS  manual
for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this affects the com-
parison.

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Compare with revision tag.  Zero, one or two -r options can  be  present.   With  no  -r
option,  the  working file will be compared with the revision it was based on.  With one
-r, that revision will be compared to your current working file.  With  two  -r  options
those  two revisions will be compared (and your working file will not affect the outcome
in any way).

One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above.

The following options specify the format of the output.  They have the same  meaning  as
in  GNU  diff.   Most options have two equivalent names, one of which is a single letter
preceded by -, and the other of which is a long name preceded by --.

-lines

Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not specify an output format
by  itself;  it has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u.  This option is obso-
lete.  For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of context.

-a

Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not  seem  to  be
text.

-b

Ignore  trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white space
characters to be equivalent.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--binary

Read and write data in binary mode.

--brief

Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

-c

Use the context output format.

-C lines

--context[=lines]

Use the context output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three  if
lines  is  not given.  For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of
context.

--changed-group-format=format

Use format to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in if-then-
else format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

-d

Change  the  algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This makes diff slower
(sometimes much slower).

-e

--ed

Make output that is a valid ed script.

--expand-tabs

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment  of  tabs  in  the  input
files.

-f

Make  output  that  looks  vaguely  like  an ed script but has changes in the order they
appear in the file.

-F regexp

In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last  pre-
ceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make  output  that  looks  vaguely  like  an ed script but has changes in the order they
appear in the file.

-H

Use heuristics to speed handling of large  files  that  have  numerous  scattered  small
changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

Do  not  discard  the last lines lines of the common prefix and the first lines lines of
the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output using name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-blank-lines

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white  space
characters to be equivalent.

--initial-tab

Output  a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context format.
This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

-L label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers.

--label=label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format headers.

--left-column

Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format.

--line-format=format

Use format to output all input lines in if-then-else format.  See Line formats' in  the
CVS manual.

--minimal

Change  the  algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This makes diff slower
(sometimes much slower).

-n

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of  lines
affected.

-N

--new-file

In  directory  comparison, if a file is found in only one directory, treat it as present
but empty in the other directory.

--new-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second  file  in  if-then-else
format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--new-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else format.  See
Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the  first  file  in  if-then-else
format.  See Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-line-format=format

Use  format to output a line taken from just the first file in if-then-else format.  See
Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

--rcs

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of  lines
affected.

--report-identical-files

-s

Report when two files are the same.

--show-c-function

Show which C function each change is in.

--show-function-line=regexp

In  context and unified format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the last pre-
ceding line that matches regexp.

--side-by-side

Use the side by side output format.

--speed-large-files

Use heuristics to speed handling of large  files  that  have  numerous  scattered  small
changes.

--suppress-common-lines

Do not print common lines in side by side format.

-t

Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in  the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the input
files.

-T

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context  format.
This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

--text

Treat  all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear to be
text.

-u

Use the unified output format.

--unchanged-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-else  for-
mat.  see node Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--unchanged-line-format=format

Use format to output a line common to both files in if-then-else format.  see node Line
formats' in the CVS manual.

-U lines

--unified[=lines]

Use the unified output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or three  if
lines  is  not given.  For proper operation, patch typically needs at least two lines of
context.

-w

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

-W columns

--width=columns

Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

-y

Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
Line group formats let you specify formats suitable for many applications that  allow  if-
then-else  input,  including  programming languages and text formatting languages.  A line
group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of similar lines.

For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with the original  version
from  the  repository,  and  outputs  a merged file in which old regions are surrounded by
\begin{em}-\end{em} lines, and new regions are surrounded by \begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

myfile

The following command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more verbose,
because it spells out the default line group formats.

cvs diff \

--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \

--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

--unchanged-group-format='%=' \

--changed-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \

myfile

Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers containing line
numbers in a plain English'' style.

cvs diff \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \

--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \

--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \

myfile

To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below.  You can  specify  up
to  four  line  group  formats, one for each kind of line group.  You should quote format,
because it typically contains shell metacharacters.

--old-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the first file.  The default  old
group format is the same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is
a format that outputs the line group as-is.

--new-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing only lines from the second file.  The default new
group  format  is same as the changed group format if it is specified; otherwise it is a
format that outputs the line group as-is.

--changed-group-format=format

These line groups are hunks containing lines from both files.  The default changed group
format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats.

--unchanged-group-format=format

These  line groups contain lines common to both files.  The default unchanged group for-
mat is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

In a line group format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion  specifica-

%<

stands  for the lines from the first file, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
formatted according to the old line format (see node Line formats' in the CVS manual).

%>

stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
formatted according to the new line format.

%=

stands for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline.  Each line is
formatted according to the unchanged line format.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe.
For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of an if-then-else for-
mat, which a colon would normally terminate.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code
O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

Fn

where  F  is  a  printf  conversion specification and n is one of the following letters,
stands for n's value formatted with F.

e

The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

f

The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1.

l

The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

m

The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1.

n

The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

E, F, L, M, N

Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The printf conversion specification can be %d, %o,  %x,  or  %X,  specifying  decimal,
the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specifying left-justification;
an  integer  specifying  the minimum field width; and a period followed by an optional
integer specifying the minimum number of digits.  For example, %5dN prints the  number
of  new  lines  in the group in a field of width 5 characters, using the printf format
"%5d".

(A=B?T:E)

If A equals B then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal  constant  or  a  single
letter  interpreted  as  above.  This format spec is equivalent to T if A's value equals
B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E.

For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the  number  of
lines  in  the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to %dN lines other-
wise.

Line formats
Line formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part  of  a  line
group in if-then-else format.

For  example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change indicator to the
left of the text.  The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for  added  lines,
and  a  space  for unchanged lines.  The formats contain newline characters where newlines
are desired on output.

cvs diff \

--old-line-format='-%l
' \

--new-line-format='|%l
' \

--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \

myfile

To specify a line format, use one of the following  options.   You  should  quote  format,
since it often contains shell metacharacters.

--old-line-format=format

formats lines just from the first file.

--new-line-format=format

formats lines just from the second file.

--unchanged-line-format=format

formats lines common to both files.

--line-format=format

formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously.

In  a  line  format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifications

%l

stands for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if  any).   This
format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

%L

stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any).  If a line
is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not be a backslash or an apostrophe.
For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands for the character with octal code
O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

Fn

where F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number formatted  with
F.   For example, %.5dn prints the line number using the printf format "%.5d".  see node
Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf conversion specifications.

The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

If the input contains tab characters and it is important that they line  up  on  output,
you  should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop (e.g. by pre-
ceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use the -t or --expand-tabs option.

Taken together, the line and line group formats let you specify many different  formats.
For  example,  the following command uses a format similar to diff's normal format.  You
can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output.

cvs diff \

--old-line-format='< %l
' \

--new-line-format='> %l
' \

--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \

--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \

--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<--
%>' \

--unchanged-group-format='' \

myfile

diff examples
The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and  1.19  of  back-
end.c.   Due  to the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that only depend
on keyword substitution are ignored.

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifications that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less

export
Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
o Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d dir] module...

o Requires: repository.

o Changes: current directory.

This  command  is  a  variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source for
module without the cvs administrative directories.  For example, you might use export to
prepare  source for shipment off-site.  This command requires that you specify a date or
tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count on reproducing the source you ship to  others
(and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One  often  would  like  to  use  -kv  with  cvs export.  This causes any keywords to be
expanded such that an import done at some other site will not lose the keyword  revision
information.   But  be  aware that doesn't handle an export containing binary files cor-
rectly.  Also be aware that after having used -kv, one can no longer use the ident  com-
mand (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which looks for keyword strings.  If
you want to be able to use ident you must not use -kv.

export options
These standard options are supported by export (see node Common options' in the CVS  man-
ual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring
the file).

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program.

-R

Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.

In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also supported:

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the  module  name.
See  checkout  options'  in the CVS manual for complete details on how cvs handles this
flag.

-k subst

Set keyword expansion mode (see node Substitution modes' in the CVS manual).

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  See checkout options' in the CVS manual for complete
details on how cvs handles this flag.

history
Show status of files and users
o Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

o Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history o Changes: nothing. cvs can keep a history file that tracks each use of the checkout, commit, rtag, update, and release commands. You can use history to display this information in various for- mats. Logging must be enabled by creating the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history.

history  uses  -f,  -l,  -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal use inside cvs
(see node Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of report is generated:

-c

Report on each time commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modified).

-e

Everything (all record types).  Equivalent to specifying -x with all record  types.   Of
course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future version of cvs; if
you are writing a script which can only handle certain  record  types,  you'll  want  to
specify -x.

-m module

Report  on a particular module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on the com-
mand line.)

-o

Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.

-T

Report on all tags.

-x type

Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs history.  The types are indi-
cated by single letters, which you may specify in combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

F

release

O

checkout

E

export

T

rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

C

A merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging).

G

A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

U

A working file was copied from the repository.

P

A working file was patched to match the repository.

W

The  working  copy  of  a file was deleted during update (because it was gone from the
repository).

One of three record types results from commit:

A

A file was added for the first time.

M

A file was modified.

R

A file was removed.

The options shown as -flags constrain or expand the report  without  requiring  option
arguments:

-a

Show  data  for  all users (the default is to show data only for the user executing his-
tory).

-l

Show last modification only.

-w

Show only the records for modifications done from the same working directory where  his-
tory is executing.

The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument:

-b str

Show  data back to a record containing  the  string str  in  either the module name, the
file name, or the repository path.

-D date

Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date,  which
selects the newest revision older than date.

-f file

Show  data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on the same command
line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line.

-n module

Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the  same  com-
mand line).

-p repository

Show data for a particular source repository  (you can specify several -p options on the
same command line).

-r rev

Show records referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears in indi-
vidual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag.

-t tag

Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.  This differs from the -r
flag above in that it reads only the history file,  not  the  rcs  files,  and  is  much
faster.

-u name

Show records for user name.

-z timezone

Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of UTC.

import
Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
o Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

o Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

o Changes: repository.

Use  import to incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source (e.g., a
source vendor) into your source repository directory.  You can use this command both for
initial  creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to the module from the out-
side source.  See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual for a discussion on this subject.

The repository argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under the  cvs
root directory for repositories; if the directory did not exist, import creates it.

When  you use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source reposi-
tory (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that conflict  in  the  two
branches  of  development;  use  checkout  -j  to  reconcile  the differences, as import
instructs you to do.

If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node cvsignore' in  the  CVS  manual),  it
does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the filename (see node import output' in
the CVS manual for a complete description of the output).

If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifi- cations in that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate filtering will be performed on the file/directory before being imported. See Wrappers' in the CVS man- ual. The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1. Updates are leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on. At least three arguments are required. repository is needed to identify the collection of source. vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1). You must also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each time you execute import. The releasetag should be new, not previously existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release, Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it. In particular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first and then check them out into a different directory (see node Getting the source' in the CVS manual). import options This standard option is supported by import (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description): -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. -b branch See Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual. -d Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time. -k subst Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files cre- ated during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See Substitution modes' in the CVS manual for a list of valid -k settings. -I name Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I !'. name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvsignore file. See cvsignore' in the CVS manual. -W spec Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap- pers file. see node Wrappers' in the CVS manual. import output import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file: U file The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revi- sion has been created (if necessary). N file The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. C file The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have to merge the changes. I file The file is being ignored (see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). L file The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links. People periodically suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent. (Various options in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node mod- ules' in the CVS manual.) import examples See Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and From files' in the CVS manual. log Print out log information for files o Synopsis: log [options] [files...] o Requires: repository, working directory. o Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. log used to call the rcs utility rlog. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands. The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are printed. All times are displayed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone). log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-b, -d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic directories, when used in conjunc- tion with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -n Print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your .cvsrc file has a log -N entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revi- sions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argument. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Contributed examples are gratefully accepted. rdiff 'patch' format diffs between releases o rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules... o Requires: repository. o Changes: nothing. o Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one directory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories. rdiff options These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual. -l Local; don't descend subdirectories. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use revision tag. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes information about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old versions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. -V vn Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. cvs will always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does. rdiff examples Suppose you receive mail from foo AT example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
> Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo AT example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a branch  called  R_1_3fix  for  bug  fixes.
R_1_3_1  corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago.  Now, you want to see
how much development has been done on the branch.  This command can be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 release Indicate that a Module is no longer in use o release [-d] directories... o Requires: Working directory. o Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from immediately above a cvs working directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attest- ing to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log. release options The release command supports one command option: -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working directory. WARNING: The release command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any directory created inside checked-out sources, and not added to the repository (using the add command; see node Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted--even if it is non-empty! release output Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been com- mitted to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. release examples Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.$ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the

# sources when you issue cvs release.
$cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$

remove
Remove files from active use
o Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

The remove command is used to remove unwanted files from active use.  The user  normally
deletes  the files from the working directory prior to invocation of the remove command.
Only the working directory is updated.  Changes to the repository are not made until the
commit command is run.

The  remove  command does not delete files from from the repository.  cvs keeps all his-
torical data in the repository so that it is possible to reconstruct previous states  of
the projects under revision control.

To undo cvs remove or to resurrect files that were previously removed, see node add' in
the CVS manual.

remove options
These standard options are supported by remove (see node Common options' in the CVS  man-
ual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local;  run only in current working directory.  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS man-
ual.

-R

Process directories recursively.  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

In addition, these options are also supported:

-f

Note that this is not the standard behavior of the  -f  option  as  defined  in  Common
options' in the CVS manual.

Delete files before removing them.

Entire  directory  hierarchies are easily removed using -f, but take note that it is not
as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies as it is to remove them.

remove examples
Removing a file
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: file remove.me' still in working directory cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first$ rm -f remove.me
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: scheduling remove.me' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ ls remove.it
remove.it
$cvs remove -f remove.it cvs remove: scheduling remove.it' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently Removing entire directories$ tree -d a
a
|-- CVS
-- b

-- CVS

3 directories
\$ cvs remove -f a
cvs remove: Removing a
cvs remove: Removing a/b
cvs remove: scheduling a/b/c' for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
o update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r  tag|-D  date]  [-W  spec]
files...

o Requires: repository, working directory.

o Changes: working directory.

After  you've run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common reposi-
tory, other developers will continue changing the central source.  From  time  to  time,
when  it  is convenient in your development process, you can use the update command from
within your working directory to reconcile your work with any revisions applied  to  the
source repository since your last checkout or update.

update options
These  standard  options  are  available with update (see node Common options' in the CVS
manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.
See Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information on sticky tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful  with  the  -D  date  or  -r  tag flags.  If no matching revision is found,
retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See Keyword  substitution'  in  the  CVS  manual.
This  option  is  sticky; future updates of this file in this working directory will use
the same kflag.  The status command can be  viewed  to  see  the  sticky  options.   See
Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status command.

-l

Local;  run only in current working directory.  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS man-
ual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update directories recursively (default).  See Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

-r rev

Retrieve revision/tag rev.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See Sticky tags' in

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset  any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not reset sticky -k options on modi-
fied files.  See Sticky tags'  in  the  CVS  manual  for  more  information  on  sticky
tags/dates.

-C

Overwrite  locally  modified  files  with clean copies from the repository (the modified
file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create any directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the  working
directory.   Normally,  update  acts  only  on  directories  and files that were already

This is useful for updating directories that were created in the  repository  since  the
initial  checkout;  but  it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliberately avoided
certain directories in the repository when you created your  working  directory  (either
through  use  of  a  module  name or by listing explicitly the files and directories you
wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will create those directories,  which
may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore  files whose names match name (in your working directory) during the update.  You
can specify -I more than once on the command line to specify several  files  to  ignore.
Use  -I  !  to  avoid  ignoring any files at all.  See cvsignore' in the CVS manual for
other ways to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify file names that should be filtered during  update.   You  can  use  this  option
repeatedly.

spec  can  be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrap-
pers file.  See Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j  option
to the revision specified with the second j option, into the working directory.

With  one  -j option, merge changes from the ancestor revision to the revision specified
with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor  revision  is  the  common
ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on, and the revision spec-
ified in the -j option.

Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than -j branchname  to  merge  changes
from  a branch will often not remove files which were removed on the branch.  See Merg-

In addition, each -j option can contain an optional date specification which, when  used
with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within a specific date.  An optional
date is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSymbolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each  file,
preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The  file  was  brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This is done for any
file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for files that
you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in the repository.

P file

Like  U,  but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.  This accomplishes
the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be  added  to  the
source  repository  when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you that the
file needs to be committed.

R file

The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources,  and  will  be  removed
from  the  source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you
that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either there were no mod-
ifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as you last saw
it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your copy, but they were
merged successfully, without conflict, in your working directory.

cvs  will  print some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of your working
file (as it looked before you ran update) will be made.  The exact name of that file  is
printed while update runs.

C file

A conflict was detected while trying to merge your changes to file with changes from the
source repository.  file (the copy in your working  directory)  is  now  the  result  of
attempting  to  merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file is also in your
working directory, with the name .#file.revision where revision  is  the  revision  that
your  modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as described in Conflicts exam-
ple' in the CVS manual.  (Note that some systems automatically purge  files  that  begin
with  .# if they have not been accessed for a few days.  If you intend to keep a copy of
your original file, it is a very good idea to rename it.)   Under  vms,  the  file  name
starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file  is  in  your  working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source
repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see  the  description  of
the -I option, and see node cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original  author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix in the
volume6 release of December, 1986.  Credited with much of the cvs conflict  resolu-
tion algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder  and designer of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the original
work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and author
of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

The  most comprehensive manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by Per Cederqvist et
al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get it with the info CVS command  or  it
may  be  available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format), cvs.ps (PostScript), cvs.texinfo
(Texinfo source), or cvs.html.