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CVS(1)                                                                  CVS(1)

NAME
cvs - Concurrent Versions System

SYNOPSIS
cvs [ cvs_options ]
cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

NOTE
This  manpage  is  a  summary of some of the features of cvs.  It is auto-generated
from an appendix of the CVS manual.  For more in-depth documentation,  please  con-
sult  the Cederqvist manual (via the info CVS command or otherwise, as described in
the SEE ALSO section of this manpage).  Cross-references in this man page refer  to
nodes in the same.

CVS commands
Guide to CVS commands
This  appendix  describes the overall structure of cvs commands, and describes some
commands in detail (others are described elsewhere; for a quick  reference  to  cvs
commands, see node 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual).

Structure
Overall structure of CVS commands
The overall format of all cvs commands is:

cvs [ cvs_options ] cvs_command [ command_options ] [ command_args ]

cvs

The name of the cvs program.

cvs_options

Some options that affect all sub-commands of cvs.  These are described below.

cvs_command

One  of  several  different sub-commands.  Some of the commands have aliases that
can be used instead; those aliases are noted in the  reference  manual  for  that
command.   There  are  only two situations where you may omit cvs_command: cvs -H
elicits a list of available commands, and cvs -v displays version information  on
cvs itself.

command_options

Options that are specific for the command.

command_args

Arguments to the commands.

There  is  unfortunately  some confusion between cvs_options and command_options.
When given as a cvs_option, some options only affect some of the commands.   When
given  as  a  command_option  it may have a different meaning, and be accepted by
more commands.  In other words, do not take the above  categorization  too  seri-
ously.  Look at the documentation instead.

Exit status
CVS's exit status
cvs  can indicate to the calling environment whether it succeeded or failed by set-
ting its exit status.  The exact way of testing the exit status will vary from  one
operating  system  to  another.  For example in a unix shell script the $? variable will be 0 if the last command returned a successful exit status, or greater than 0 if the exit status indicated failure. If cvs is successful, it returns a successful status; if there is an error, it prints an error message and returns a failure status. The one exception to this is the cvs diff command. It will return a successful status if it found no differ- ences, or a failure status if there were differences or if there was an error. Because this behavior provides no good way to detect errors, in the future it is possible that cvs diff will be changed to behave like the other cvs commands. ~/.cvsrc Default options and the ~/.cvsrc file There are some command_options that are used so often that you might have set up an alias or some other means to make sure you always specify that option. One example (the one that drove the implementation of the .cvsrc support, actually) is that many people find the default output of the diff command to be very hard to read, and that either context diffs or unidiffs are much easier to understand. The ~/.cvsrc file is a way that you can add default options to cvs_commands within cvs, instead of relying on aliases or other shell scripts. The format of the ~/.cvsrc file is simple. The file is searched for a line that begins with the same name as the cvs_command being executed. If a match is found, then the remainder of the line is split up (at whitespace characters) into separate options and added to the command arguments before any options from the command line. If a command has two names (e.g., checkout and co), the official name, not neces- sarily the one used on the command line, will be used to match against the file. So if this is the contents of the user's ~/.cvsrc file: log -N diff -uN rdiff -u update -Pd checkout -P release -d the command cvs checkout foo would have the -P option added to the arguments, as well as cvs co foo. With the example file above, the output from cvs diff foobar will be in unidiff format. cvs diff -c foobar will provide context diffs, as usual. Getting "old" format diffs would be slightly more complicated, because diff doesn't have an option to specify use of the "old" format, so you would need cvs -f diff foobar. In place of the command name you can use cvs to specify global options (see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual). For example the following line in .cvsrc cvs -z6 causes cvs to use compression level 6. Global options The available cvs_options (that are given to the left of cvs_command) are: --allow-root=rootdir Specify legal cvsroot directory. See 'Password authentication server' in the CVS manual. -a Authenticate all communication between the client and the server. Only has an effect on the cvs client. As of this writing, this is only implemented when using a GSSAPI connection (see node 'GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual). Authentication prevents certain sorts of attacks involving hijacking the active tcp connection. Enabling authentication does not enable encryption. -b bindir In cvs 1.9.18 and older, this specified that rcs programs are in the bindir directory. Current versions of cvs do not run rcs programs; for compatibility this option is accepted, but it does nothing. -T tempdir Use tempdir as the directory where temporary files are located. Overrides the setting of the$TMPDIR environment variable and any precompiled directory.   This
parameter   should   be   specified  as  an  absolute  pathname.   (When  running
client/server, -T affects only the local process; specifying -T  for  the  client
has no effect on the server and vice versa.)

-d cvs_root_directory

Use  cvs_root_directory  as the root directory pathname of the repository.  Over-
rides the setting of the $CVSROOT environment variable. See 'Repository' in the CVS manual. -e editor Use editor to enter revision log information. Overrides the setting of the$CVSEDITOR and $EDITOR environment variables. For more information, see 'Commit- ting your changes' in the CVS manual. -f Do not read the ~/.cvsrc file. This option is most often used because of the non-orthogonality of the cvs option set. For example, the cvs log option -N (turn off display of tag names) does not have a corresponding option to turn the display on. So if you have -N in the ~/.cvsrc entry for log, you may need to use -f to show the tag names. -H --help Display usage information about the specified cvs_command (but do not actually execute the command). If you don't specify a command name, cvs -H displays over- all help for cvs, including a list of other help options. -n Do not change any files. Attempt to execute the cvs_command, but only to issue reports; do not remove, update, or merge any existing files, or create any new files. Note that cvs will not necessarily produce exactly the same output as without -n. In some cases the output will be the same, but in other cases cvs will skip some of the processing that would have been required to produce the exact same output. -Q Cause the command to be really quiet; the command will only generate output for serious problems. -q Cause the command to be somewhat quiet; informational messages, such as reports of recursion through subdirectories, are suppressed. -r Make new working files read-only. Same effect as if the$CVSREAD  environment
variable  is  set  (see  node  'Environment  variables'  in the CVS manual).  The
default is to make working files  writable,  unless  watches  are  on  (see  node
'Watches' in the CVS manual).

-s variable=value

Set a user variable (see node 'Variables' in the CVS manual).

-t

Trace  program  execution;  display  messages  showing the steps of cvs activity.
Particularly useful with -n to explore the potential impact of an unfamiliar com-
mand.

-v

--version

Display version and copyright information for cvs.

-w

Make  new  working files read-write.  Overrides the setting of the $CVSREAD envi- ronment variable. Files are created read-write by default, unless$CVSREAD  is
set or -r is given.

-x

Encrypt  all communication between the client and the server.  Only has an effect
on the cvs client.  As of this writing, this is only  implemented  when  using  a
GSSAPI  connection  (see node 'GSSAPI authenticated' in the CVS manual) or a Ker-
beros connection (see node 'Kerberos authenticated' in the CVS manual).  Enabling
encryption  implies  that message traffic is also authenticated.  Encryption sup-
port is not available by default; it must be enabled using  a  special  configure
option, --enable-encryption, when you build cvs.

-z gzip-level

Set the compression level.  Valid levels are 1 (high speed, low compression) to 9
(low speed, high compression), or 0 to disable compression (the  default).   Only
has an effect on the cvs client.

Common options
Common command options
This  section  describes  the command_options that are available across several cvs
commands.  These options are always given to the right of cvs_command. Not all com-
mands  support  all  of  these  options; each option is only supported for commands
where it makes sense.  However, when a command has one of  these  options  you  can
almost  always  count  on  the  same  behavior  of the option as in other commands.
(Other command options, which are listed with the  individual  commands,  may  have
different behavior from one cvs command to the other).

The  history  command  is an exception; it supports many options that conflict even
with these standard options.

-D date_spec

Use the most recent revision no later than  date_spec.   date_spec  is  a  single
argument, a date description specifying a date in the past.

The  specification  is  sticky when you use it to make a private copy of a source
file; that is, when you get a working file using -D, cvs  records  the  date  you
specified,  so  that further updates in the same directory will use the same date
(for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node 'Sticky  tags'  in  the  CVS
manual).

-D  is available with the annotate, checkout, diff, export, history, rdiff, rtag,
and update commands.  (The history command uses this option in a slightly differ-
ent way; see node 'history options' in the CVS manual).

A  wide variety of date formats are supported by cvs.  The most standard ones are
ISO8601 (from the International Standards Organization) and the  Internet  e-mail
standard (specified in RFC822 as amended by RFC1123).

ISO8601 dates have many variants but a few examples are:

1972-09-24
1972-09-24 20:05

There  are a lot more ISO8601 date formats, and cvs accepts many of them, but you
probably don't want to hear the whole long story :-).

In addition to the dates allowed in Internet e-mail itself, cvs also allows  some
of the fields to be omitted.  For example:

24 Sep 1972 20:05
24 Sep

The  date  is interpreted as being in the local timezone, unless a specific time-
zone is specified.

These two date formats are preferred.  However,  cvs  currently  accepts  a  wide
variety of other date formats.  They are intentionally not documented here in any
detail, and future versions of cvs might not accept all of them.

One such format is month/day/year.  This may confuse people who are accustomed to
having the month and day in the other order; 1/4/96 is January 4, not April 1.

Remember  to  quote the argument to the -D flag so that your shell doesn't inter-
pret spaces as argument separators.  A command using the -D flag  can  look  like
this:

$cvs diff -D "1 hour ago" cvs.texinfo -f When you specify a particular date or tag to cvs commands, they normally ignore files that do not contain the tag (or did not exist prior to the date) that you specified. Use the -f option if you want files retrieved even when there is no match for the tag or date. (The most recent revision of the file will be used). Note that even with -f, a tag that you specify must exist (that is, in some file, not necessary in every file). This is so that cvs will continue to give an error if you mistype a tag name. -f is available with these commands: annotate, checkout, export, rdiff, rtag, and update. WARNING: The commit and remove commands also have a -f option, but it has a dif- ferent behavior for those commands. See 'commit options' in the CVS manual, and 'Removing files' in the CVS manual. -k kflag Alter the default processing of keywords. See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual, for the meaning of kflag. Your kflag specification is sticky when you use it to create a private copy of a source file; that is, when you use this option with the checkout or update commands, cvs associates your selected kflag with the file, and continues to use it with future update commands on the same file until you specify otherwise. The -k option is available with the add, checkout, diff, rdiff, import and update commands. -l Local; run only in current working directory, rather than recursing through sub- directories. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, log, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. Available with the following commands: add, commit and import. -n Do not run any tag program. (A program can be specified to run in the modules database (see node 'modules' in the CVS manual); this option bypasses it). This is not the same as the cvs -n program option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! Available with the checkout, export, and rtag commands. -P Prune empty directories. See 'Removing directories' in the CVS manual. -p Pipe the files retrieved from the repository to standard output, rather than writing them in the current directory. Available with the checkout and update commands. -R Process directories recursively. This is on by default. Available with the following commands: annotate, checkout, commit, diff, edit, editors, export, rdiff, remove, rtag, status, tag, unedit, update, watch, and watchers. -r tag Use the revision specified by the tag argument instead of the default head revi- sion. As well as arbitrary tags defined with the tag or rtag command, two spe- cial tags are always available: HEAD refers to the most recent version available in the repository, and BASE refers to the revision you last checked out into the current working directory. The tag specification is sticky when you use this with checkout or update to make your own copy of a file: cvs remembers the tag and continues to use it on future update commands, until you specify otherwise (for more information on sticky tags/dates, see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual). The tag can be either a symbolic or numeric tag, as described in 'Tags' in the CVS manual, or the name of a branch, as described in 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual. When a command expects a specific revision, the name of a branch is interpreted as the most recent revision on that branch. Specifying the -q global option along with the -r command option is often useful, to suppress the warning messages when the rcs file does not contain the specified tag. This is not the same as the overall cvs -r option, which you can specify to the left of a cvs command! -r is available with the annotate, checkout, commit, diff, history, export, rdiff, rtag, and update commands. -W Specify file names that should be filtered. You can use this option repeatedly. The spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. Available with the following commands: import, and update. add Add files and directories to the repository ? Synopsis: add [-k rcs-kflag] [-m message] files... ? Requires: repository, working directory. ? Changes: repository, working directory. The add command is used to present new files and directories for addition into the cvs repository. When add is used on a directory, a new directory is created in the repository immediately. When used on a file, only the working directory is updated. Changes to the repository are not made until the commit command is used on the newly added file. The add command also resurrects files that have been previously removed. This can be done before or after the commit command is used to finalize the removal of files. Resurrected files are restored into the working directory at the time the add command is executed. add options These standard options are supported by add (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual, for a complete description of them): -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS man- ual. This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working direc- tory will use the same kflag. The status command can be viewed to see the sticky options. For more information on the status command, see node 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual. -m message Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor. add examples Adding a directory$ mkdir doc
$cvs add doc Directory /path/to/repository/doc added to the repository Adding a file$ >TODO
$cvs add TODO cvs add: scheduling file TODO' for addition cvs add: use 'cvs commit' to add this file permanently Undoing a remove command$ rm -f makefile
$cvs remove makefile cvs remove: scheduling makefile' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ cvs add makefile
U makefile
cvs add: makefile, version 1.2, resurrected

? Requires: repository, working directory.

? Changes: repository.

? Synonym: rcs

This  is  the  cvs interface to assorted administrative facilities.  Some of them
have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical purposes.  Some  of
the  questionable  options  are  likely to disappear in the future.  This command
does work recursively, so extreme care should be used.

On unix, if there is a group named cvsadmin, only members of that group  can  run
cvs  admin  (except  for  the cvs admin -k command, which can be run by anybody).
This  group  should  exist  on  the  server,  or  any  system  running  the  non-
client/server  cvs.   To disallow cvs admin for all users, create a group with no
users in it.  On NT, the cvsadmin feature does not exist and all  users  can  run

Some of these options have questionable usefulness for cvs but exist for historical
purposes.  Some even make it impossible to use cvs until you undo the effect!

-Aoldfile

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the  access  list  of  oldfile  to  the
access list of the rcs file.

Might not work together with cvs.  Append the login names appearing in the comma-
separated list logins to the access list of the rcs file.

-b[rev]

Set the default branch to rev.  In cvs, you normally do  not  manipulate  default
branches; sticky tags (see node 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual) are a better way
to decide which branch you want to work on.  There is one reason to run cvs admin
-b:  to  revert  to  the  vendor's  version  when using vendor branches (see node
'Reverting local changes' in the CVS manual).  There can be no space  between  -b
and its argument.

-cstring

Sets  the  comment  leader  to string.  The comment leader is not used by current
versions of cvs or rcs 5.7.  Therefore, you can almost surely not worry about it.
See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual.

Might  not work together with cvs.  Erase the login names appearing in the comma-
separated list logins from the access list of the RCS file.  If logins  is  omit-
ted,  erase  the  entire  access  list.  There can be no space between -e and its
argument.

-I

Run interactively, even if the standard input is not  a  terminal.   This  option
does  not  work with the client/server cvs and is likely to disappear in a future
release of cvs.

-i

Useless with cvs.  This creates and initializes a new rcs file, without  deposit-
files' in the CVS manual).

-ksubst

Set the default keyword substitution to subst.  See 'Keyword substitution' in the
CVS  manual.   Giving  an  explicit  -k  option to cvs update, cvs export, or cvs
checkout overrides this default.

-l[rev]

Lock the revision with number rev.  If a branch is given, lock the  latest  revi-
sion  on that branch.  If rev is omitted, lock the latest revision on the default
branch.  There can be no space between -l and its argument.

This can be used in conjunction with the rcslock.pl script in the contrib  direc-
tory of the cvs source distribution to provide reserved checkouts (where only one
user can be editing a given file at a time).  See the comments in that  file  for
details  (and  see  the  README  file in that directory for disclaimers about the
unsupported nature of contrib).  According to comments in that file, locking must
set to strict (which is the default).

-L

Set locking to strict.  Strict locking means that the owner of an RCS file is not
exempt from locking for checkin.  For use with cvs, strict locking must  be  set;
see the discussion under the -l option above.

-mrev:msg

Replace the log message of revision rev with msg.

-Nname[:[rev]]

Act like -n, except override any previous assignment of name.  For use with magic
branches, see 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual.

-nname[:[rev]]

Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or revision rev.  It is normally
better  to  use  cvs tag or cvs rtag instead.  Delete the symbolic name if both :
and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error message if name is already associ-
ated with another number.  If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before association.
A rev consisting of a branch number followed by a . stands for the current latest
revision  in  the  branch.   A  : with an empty rev stands for the current latest
revision on the default branch, normally  the  trunk.   For  example,  cvs  admin
-nname:  associates  name  with the current latest revision of all the RCS files;
this contrasts with cvs admin -nname:$which associates name with the revision numbers extracted from keyword strings in the corresponding working files. -orange Deletes (outdates) the revisions given by range. Note that this command can be quite dangerous unless you know exactly what you are doing (for example see the warnings below about how the rev1:rev2 syntax is confusing). If you are short on disc this option might help you. But think twice before using it--there is no way short of restoring the latest backup to undo this com- mand! If you delete different revisions than you planned, either due to care- lessness or (heaven forbid) a cvs bug, there is no opportunity to correct the error before the revisions are deleted. It probably would be a good idea to experiment on a copy of the repository first. Specify range in one of the following ways: rev1::rev2 Collapse all revisions between rev1 and rev2, so that cvs only stores the dif- ferences associated with going from rev1 to rev2, not intermediate steps. For example, after -o 1.3::1.5 one can retrieve revision 1.3, revision 1.5, or the differences to get from 1.3 to 1.5, but not the revision 1.4, or the differ- ences between 1.3 and 1.4. Other examples: -o 1.3::1.4 and -o 1.3::1.3 have no effect, because there are no intermediate revisions to remove. ::rev Collapse revisions between the beginning of the branch containing rev and rev itself. The branchpoint and rev are left intact. For example, -o ::1.3.2.6 deletes revision 1.3.2.1, revision 1.3.2.5, and everything in between, but leaves 1.3 and 1.3.2.6 intact. rev:: Collapse revisions between rev and the end of the branch containing rev. Revi- sion rev is left intact but the head revision is deleted. rev Delete the revision rev. For example, -o 1.3 is equivalent to -o 1.2::1.4. rev1:rev2 Delete the revisions from rev1 to rev2, inclusive, on the same branch. One will not be able to retrieve rev1 or rev2 or any of the revisions in between. For example, the command cvs admin -oR_1_01:R_1_02 . is rarely useful. It means to delete revisions up to, and including, the tag R_1_02. But beware! If there are files that have not changed between R_1_02 and R_1_03 the file will have the same numerical revision number assigned to the tags R_1_02 and R_1_03. So not only will it be impossible to retrieve R_1_02; R_1_03 will also have to be restored from the tapes! In most cases you want to specify rev1::rev2 instead. :rev Delete revisions from the beginning of the branch containing rev up to and including rev. rev: Delete revisions from revision rev, including rev itself, to the end of the branch containing rev. None of the revisions to be deleted may have branches or locks. If any of the revisions to be deleted have symbolic names, and one specifies one of the :: syntaxes, then cvs will give an error and not delete any revi- sions. If you really want to delete both the symbolic names and the revisions, first delete the symbolic names with cvs tag -d, then run cvs admin -o. If one specifies the non-:: syntaxes, then cvs will delete the revisions but leave the symbolic names pointing to nonexistent revisions. This behavior is preserved for compatibility with previous versions of cvs, but because it isn't very use- ful, in the future it may change to be like the :: case. Due to the way cvs handles branches rev cannot be specified symbolically if it is a branch. See 'Magic branch numbers' in the CVS manual for an explanation. Make sure that no-one has checked out a copy of the revision you outdate. Strange things will happen if he starts to edit it and tries to check it back in. For this reason, this option is not a good way to take back a bogus com- mit; commit a new revision undoing the bogus change instead (see node 'Merging two revisions' in the CVS manual). -q Run quietly; do not print diagnostics. -sstate[:rev] Useful with cvs. Set the state attribute of the revision rev to state. If rev is a branch number, assume the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omit- ted, assume the latest revision on the default branch. Any identifier is accept- able for state. A useful set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab (for sta- ble), and Rel (for released). By default, the state of a new revision is set to Exp when it is created. The state is visible in the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual), and in the$Log$and$State$keywords (see node 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS manual). Note that cvs uses the dead state for its own purposes (see node 'Attic' in the CVS manual); to take a file to or from the dead state use commands like cvs remove and cvs add (see node 'Adding and removing' in the CVS manual), not cvs admin -s. -t[file] Useful with cvs. Write descriptive text from the contents of the named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing text. The file pathname may not begin with -. The descriptive text can be seen in the output from cvs log (see node 'log' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -t and its argument. If file is omitted, obtain the text from standard input, terminated by end-of- file or by a line containing . by itself. Prompt for the text if interaction is possible; see -I. -t-string Similar to -tfile. Write descriptive text from the string into the rcs file, deleting the existing text. There can be no space between -t and its argument. -U Set locking to non-strict. Non-strict locking means that the owner of a file need not lock a revision for checkin. For use with cvs, strict locking must be set; see the discussion under the -l option above. -u[rev] See the option -l above, for a discussion of using this option with cvs. Unlock the revision with number rev. If a branch is given, unlock the latest revision on that branch. If rev is omitted, remove the latest lock held by the caller. Normally, only the locker of a revision may unlock it; somebody else unlocking a revision breaks the lock. This causes the original locker to be sent a commit notification (see node 'Getting Notified' in the CVS manual). There can be no space between -u and its argument. -Vn In previous versions of cvs, this option meant to write an rcs file which would be acceptable to rcs version n, but it is now obsolete and specifying it will produce an error. -xsuffixes In previous versions of cvs, this was documented as a way of specifying the names of the rcs files. However, cvs has always required that the rcs files used by cvs end in ,v, so this option has never done anything useful. annotate What revision modified each line of a file? ? Synopsis: annotate [options] files... ? Requires: repository. ? Synonym: blame ? Changes: nothing. For each file in files, print the head revision of the trunk, together with information on the last modification for each line. annotate options These standard options are supported by annotate (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -l Local directory only, no recursion. -R Process directories recursively. -f Use head revision if tag/date not found. -F Annotate binary files. -r revision Annotate file as of specified revision/tag. -D date Annotate file as of specified date. annotate example For example:$ cvs annotate ssfile
Annotations for ssfile
***************
1.1          (mary     27-Mar-96): ssfile line 1
1.2          (joe      28-Mar-96): ssfile line 2

The file ssfile currently contains two lines.  The ssfile line 1 line  was  checked
in by mary on March 27.  Then, on March 28, joe added a line ssfile line 2, without
modifying the ssfile line 1 line.  This report  doesn't  tell  you  anything  about
lines  which  have been deleted or replaced; you need to use cvs diff for that (see
node 'diff' in the CVS manual).

The options to cvs annotate are listed in 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual, and can
be  used  to select the files and revisions to annotate.  The options are described
in more detail there and in 'Common options' in the CVS manual.

checkout
Check out sources for editing
? Synopsis: checkout [options] modules...

? Requires: repository.

? Changes: working directory.

? Synonyms: co, get

Create or update a working directory containing copies of the source files speci-
fied  by  modules.   You must execute checkout before using most of the other cvs
commands, since most of them operate on your working directory.

The modules are either symbolic names for some collection of  source  directories
and  files,  or  paths  to  directories or files in the repository.  The symbolic
names are defined in the modules file.  See 'modules' in the CVS manual.

Depending on the modules you specify, checkout may recursively create directories
and  populate  them  with  the appropriate source files.  You can then edit these
source files at any time (regardless of whether  other  software  developers  are
editing  their  own  copies  of  the sources); update them to include new changes
applied by others to the source repository; or commit your work  as  a  permanent
change to the source repository.

Note  that  checkout is used to create directories.  The top-level directory cre-
ated is always added to the directory where checkout is invoked, and usually  has
the  same  name as the specified module.  In the case of a module alias, the cre-
ated sub-directory may have a different name, but you can be sure that it will be
a  sub-directory,  and  that checkout will show the relative path leading to each
file as it is extracted into your private work area (unless you  specify  the  -Q
global option).

The files created by checkout are created read-write, unless the -r option to cvs
(see node 'Global options' in the CVS manual) is specified, the CVSREAD  environ-
ment  variable is specified (see node 'Environment variables' in the CVS manual),
or a watch is in effect for that file (see node 'Watches' in the CVS manual).

Note that running checkout on a directory that  was  already  built  by  a  prior
checkout  is  also permitted.  This is similar to specifying the -d option to the
update command in the sense that new directories that have been  created  in  the
repository  will appear in your work area.  However, checkout takes a module name
whereas update takes a directory name.  Also to use checkout this way it must  be
run  from  the  top  level directory (where you originally ran checkout from), so
before you run checkout to update an existing directory, don't forget  to  change
your directory to the top level directory.

For  the output produced by the checkout command, see node 'update output' in the
CVS manual.

checkout options
These standard options are supported by checkout (see node 'Common options' in  the
CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use  the  most  recent  revision  no later than date.  This option is sticky, and
implies -P.  See 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information  on  sticky
tags/dates.

-f

Only  useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no matching revision is found,
retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man-
ual.   This  option is sticky; future updates of this file in this working direc-
tory will use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to see the sticky
options.  See 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status
command.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program (as specified with the -o option in  the  modules
file; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual).

-P

Prune empty directories.  See 'Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Checkout directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Use  revision  tag.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See 'Sticky tags' in

In addition to those, you can use these special command options with checkout:

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not reset sticky -k options on
modified  files.   See  'Sticky  tags'  in the CVS manual for more information on
sticky tags/dates.

-c

Copy the module file, sorted, to the standard output, instead of creating or mod-
ifying any files or directories in your working directory.

-d dir

Create  a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the module
name.  In general, using this flag is equivalent to using mkdir dir; cd dir  fol-
lowed by the checkout command without the -d flag.

There  is  an  important exception, however.  It is very convenient when checking
out a single item to have the output appear in a directory that  doesn't  contain
empty  intermediate  directories.   In  this  case only, cvs tries to shorten''
pathnames to avoid those empty directories.

For example, given a module foo that contains the file bar.c, the command cvs  co
-d  dir foo will create directory dir and place bar.c inside.  Similarly, given a
module bar which has subdirectory baz wherein there is a file quux.c, the command
cvs co -d dir bar/baz will create directory dir and place quux.c inside.

Using  the  -N flag will defeat this behavior.  Given the same module definitions
above, cvs co -N -d dir foo will  create  directories  dir/foo  and  place  bar.c
inside,  while  cvs  co -N -d dir bar/baz will create directories dir/bar/baz and
place quux.c inside.

-j tag

With two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first  -j
option  to  the  revision  specified  with  the second j option, into the working
directory.

With one -j option, merge changes from the  ancestor  revision  to  the  revision
specified  with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor revision
is the common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is  based  on,
and the revision specified in the -j option.

In  addition,  each  -j  option can contain an optional date specification which,
when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within  a  specific
date.   An  optional  date  is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSym-
bolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  With this option,  cvs  will  not  shorten''
module  paths  in your working directory when you check out a single module.  See
the -d flag for examples and a discussion.

-s

Like -c, but include the status of all modules, and sort it by the status string.
See 'modules' in the CVS manual, for info about the -s option that is used inside
the modules file to set the module status.

checkout examples
Get a copy of the module tc:

$cvs checkout tc Get a copy of the module tc as it looked one day ago:$ cvs checkout -D yesterday tc

commit
Check files into the repository
? Synopsis: commit [-lRf] [-m 'log_message' | -F file] [-r revision] [files...]

? Requires: working directory, repository.

? Changes: repository.

? Synonym: ci

Use commit when you want to incorporate changes from your  working  source  files
into the source repository.

If you don't specify particular files to commit, all of the files in your working
current directory are examined.  commit is careful to change  in  the  repository
only  those files that you have really changed.  By default (or if you explicitly
specify the -R option), files in subdirectories are also examined  and  committed
if  they  have  changed; you can use the -l option to limit commit to the current
directory only.

commit verifies that the selected files are up to date with the current revisions
in the source repository; it will notify you, and exit without committing, if any
of the specified files must be made current first with update (see node  'update'
in  the CVS manual).  commit does not call the update command for you, but rather
leaves that for you to do when the time is right.

When all is well, an editor is invoked to allow you to enter a log  message  that
will  be  written  to one or more logging programs (see node 'modules' in the CVS
manual, and see node 'loginfo' in the CVS manual) and  placed  in  the  rcs  file
inside  the  repository.  This log message can be retrieved with the log command;
see node 'log' in the CVS manual.  You can specify the log message on the command
line with the -m message option, and thus avoid the editor invocation, or use the
-F file option to specify that the argument file contains the log message.

commit options
These standard options are supported by commit (see node 'Common  options'  in  the
CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Commit directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r revision

Commit  to revision.  revision must be either a branch, or a revision on the main
trunk that is higher than any existing revision number (see node 'Assigning revi-
sions' in the CVS manual).  You cannot commit to a specific revision on a branch.

commit also supports these options:

-F file

-f

Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f option as defined in  'Com-
mon options' in the CVS manual.

Force  cvs  to  commit a new revision even if you haven't made any changes to the
file.  If the current revision of file is 1.7, then the  following  two  commands
are equivalent:

$cvs commit -f file$ cvs commit -r 1.8 file

The -f option disables recursion (i.e., it implies -l).  To force cvs to commit a
new revision for all files in all subdirectories, you must use -f -R.

-m message

Use message as the log message, instead of invoking an editor.

commit examples
Committing to a branch
You can commit to a branch revision (one that has an even number of dots) with  the
-r  option.  To create a branch revision, use the -b option of the rtag or tag com-
mands (see node 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual).  Then, either  checkout
or  update can be used to base your sources on the newly created branch.  From that
point on, all commit changes made within these working sources  will  be  automati-
cally  added  to a branch revision, thereby not disturbing main-line development in
any way.  For example, if you had to create a patch to the 1.2 version of the prod-
uct, even though the 2.0 version is already under development, you might do:

$cvs rtag -b -r FCS1_2 FCS1_2_Patch product_module$ cvs checkout -r FCS1_2_Patch product_module
$cd product_module [[ hack away ]]$ cvs commit

This works automatically since the -r option is sticky.

Creating the branch after editing
Say  you  have been working on some extremely experimental software, based on what-
ever revision you happened to checkout last week.  If others in  your  group  would
like  to  work on this software with you, but without disturbing main-line develop-
ment, you could commit your change to a new branch.  Others can then checkout  your
experimental  stuff  and  utilize the full benefit of cvs conflict resolution.  The
scenario might look like:

[[ hacked sources are present ]]
$cvs tag -b EXPR1$ cvs update -r EXPR1
$cvs commit The update command will make the -r EXPR1 option sticky on all files. Note that your changes to the files will never be removed by the update command. The commit will automatically commit to the correct branch, because the -r is sticky. You could also do like this: [[ hacked sources are present ]]$ cvs tag -b EXPR1
$cvs commit -r EXPR1 but then, only those files that were changed by you will have the -r EXPR1 sticky flag. If you hack away, and commit without specifying the -r EXPR1 flag, some files may accidentally end up on the main trunk. To work with you on the experimental change, others would simply do$ cvs checkout -r EXPR1 whatever_module

diff
Show differences between revisions
? Synopsis: diff [-lR] [-k kflag] [format_options] [[-r rev1 | -D date1] [-r rev2 |
-D date2]] [files...]

? Requires: working directory, repository.

? Changes: nothing.

The diff command is used to compare different revisions of  files.   The  default
action  is  to  compare your working files with the revisions they were based on,
and report any differences that are found.

If any file names are given, only those files are compared.  If  any  directories
are given, all files under them will be compared.

The  exit  status  for diff is different than for other cvs commands; for details
see node 'Exit status' in the CVS manual.

diff options
These standard options are supported by diff (see node 'Common options' in the  CVS
manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.  See -r for how this affects the
comparison.

-k kflag

Process keywords according to kflag.  See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS  man-
ual.

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-R

Examine directories recursively.  This option is on by default.

-r tag

Compare  with revision tag.  Zero, one or two -r options can be present.  With no
-r option, the working file will be compared with the revision it was  based  on.
With  one  -r, that revision will be compared to your current working file.  With
two -r options those two revisions will be compared (and your working  file  will
not affect the outcome in any way).

One or both -r options can be replaced by a -D date option, described above.

The following options specify the format of the output.  They have the same mean-
ing as in GNU diff.  Most options have two equivalent names, one of  which  is  a
single  letter  preceded  by -, and the other of which is a long name preceded by
--.

-lines

Show lines (an integer) lines of context.  This option does not specify an output
format  by  itself;  it  has no effect unless it is combined with -c or -u.  This
option is obsolete.  For proper operation, patch typically  needs  at  least  two
lines of context.

-a

Treat  all  files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not seem
to be text.

-b

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white
space characters to be equivalent.

-B

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--binary

Read and write data in binary mode.

--brief

Report only whether the files differ, not the details of the differences.

-c

Use the context output format.

-C lines

--context[=lines]

Use  the  context  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or
three if lines is not given.  For proper  operation,  patch  typically  needs  at
least two lines of context.

--changed-group-format=format

Use  format  to output a line group containing differing lines from both files in
if-then-else format.  See 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

-d

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This  makes  diff
slower (sometimes much slower).

-e

--ed

Make output that is a valid ed script.

--expand-tabs

Expand  tabs  to  spaces  in the output, to preserve the alignment of tabs in the
input files.

-f

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in  the  order
they appear in the file.

-F regexp

In  context  and  unified  format, for each hunk of differences, show some of the
last preceding line that matches regexp.

--forward-ed

Make output that looks vaguely like an ed script but has  changes  in  the  order
they appear in the file.

-H

Use  heuristics  to  speed  handling  of large files that have numerous scattered
small changes.

--horizon-lines=lines

Do not discard the last lines lines of the common  prefix  and  the  first  lines
lines of the common suffix.

-i

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case letters equivalent.

-I regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ifdef=name

Make merged if-then-else output using name.

--ignore-all-space

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

--ignore-blank-lines

Ignore changes that just insert or delete blank lines.

--ignore-case

Ignore changes in case; consider upper- and lower-case to be the same.

--ignore-matching-lines=regexp

Ignore changes that just insert or delete lines that match regexp.

--ignore-space-change

Ignore trailing white space and consider all other sequences of one or more white
space characters to be equivalent.

--initial-tab

Output a tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal  or  context
format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

-L label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format head-
ers.

--label=label

Use label instead of the file name in the context format and unified format head-
ers.

--left-column

Print only the left column of two common lines in side by side format.

--line-format=format

Use  format to output all input lines in if-then-else format.  See 'Line formats'
in the CVS manual.

--minimal

Change the algorithm to perhaps find a smaller set of changes.  This  makes  diff
slower (sometimes much slower).

-n

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of
lines affected.

-N

--new-file

In directory comparison, if a file is found in only one directory,  treat  it  as
present but empty in the other directory.

--new-group-format=format

Use format to output a group of lines taken from just the second file in if-then-
else format.  See 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--new-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the second file in if-then-else  for-
mat.  See 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-group-format=format

Use  format to output a group of lines taken from just the first file in if-then-
else format.  See 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--old-line-format=format

Use format to output a line taken from just the first file in  if-then-else  for-
mat.  See 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-p

Show which C function each change is in.

--rcs

Output RCS-format diffs; like -f except that each command specifies the number of
lines affected.

--report-identical-files

-s

Report when two files are the same.

--show-c-function

Show which C function each change is in.

--show-function-line=regexp

In context and unified format, for each hunk of differences,  show  some  of  the
last preceding line that matches regexp.

--side-by-side

Use the side by side output format.

--speed-large-files

Use  heuristics  to  speed  handling  of large files that have numerous scattered
small changes.

--suppress-common-lines

Do not print common lines in side by side format.

-t

Expand tabs to spaces in the output, to preserve the alignment  of  tabs  in  the
input files.

-T

Output  a  tab rather than a space before the text of a line in normal or context
format.  This causes the alignment of tabs in the line to look normal.

--text

Treat all files as text and compare them line-by-line, even if they do not appear
to be text.

-u

Use the unified output format.

--unchanged-group-format=format

Use  format  to  output a group of common lines taken from both files in if-then-
else format.  see node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual.

--unchanged-line-format=format

Use format to output a line common to both files  in  if-then-else  format.   see
node 'Line formats' in the CVS manual.

-U lines

--unified[=lines]

Use  the  unified  output format, showing lines (an integer) lines of context, or
three if lines is not given.  For proper  operation,  patch  typically  needs  at
least two lines of context.

-w

Ignore white space when comparing lines.

-W columns

--width=columns

Use an output width of columns in side by side format.

-y

Use the side by side output format.

Line group formats
Line  group  formats  let  you  specify formats suitable for many applications that
allow if-then-else input, including programming languages and text formatting  lan-
guages.   A line group format specifies the output format for a contiguous group of
similar lines.

For example, the following command compares the TeX file myfile with  the  original
version  from  the  repository,  and outputs a merged file in which old regions are
surrounded  by  \begin{em}-\end{em}  lines,  and  new  regions  are  surrounded  by
\begin{bf}-\end{bf} lines.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

The  following  command is equivalent to the above example, but it is a little more
verbose, because it spells out the default line group formats.

cvs diff \
--old-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
' \
--new-group-format='\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
--unchanged-group-format='%=' \
--changed-group-format='\begin{em}
%<\end{em}
\begin{bf}
%>\end{bf}
' \
myfile

Here is a more advanced example, which outputs a diff listing with headers contain-
ing line numbers in a plain English'' style.

cvs diff \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
--old-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) deleted at %df:
%<' \
--new-group-format='-------- %dN line%(N=1?:s) added after %de:
%>' \
--changed-group-format='-------- %dn line%(n=1?:s) changed at %df:
%<-------- to:
%>' \
myfile

To specify a line group format, use one of the options listed below.  You can spec-
ify up to four line group formats, one for each kind of  line  group.   You  should
quote format, because it typically contains shell metacharacters.

--old-group-format=format

These  line  groups  are  hunks  containing  only lines from the first file.  The
default old group format is the same as the changed group format if it is  speci-
fied; otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

--new-group-format=format

These  line  groups  are  hunks  containing only lines from the second file.  The
default new group format is same as the changed group format if it is  specified;
otherwise it is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

--changed-group-format=format

These  line  groups  are  hunks  containing  lines  from both files.  The default
changed group format is the concatenation of the old and new group formats.

--unchanged-group-format=format

These line groups contain lines common to  both  files.   The  default  unchanged
group format is a format that outputs the line group as-is.

In  a  line  group  format,  ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion

%<

stands for the lines from the first file, including the trailing  newline.   Each
line  is  formatted  according to the old line format (see node 'Line formats' in
the CVS manual).

%>

stands for the lines from the second file, including the trailing newline.   Each
line is formatted according to the new line format.

%=

stands  for the lines common to both files, including the trailing newline.  Each
line is formatted according to the unchanged line format.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where C is a single character, stands for C.  C may not  be  a  backslash  or  an
apostrophe.   For example, %c':' stands for a colon, even inside the then-part of
an if-then-else format, which a colon would normally terminate.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands  for  the  character  with
octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

Fn

where  F  is a printf conversion specification and n is one of the following let-
ters, stands for n's value formatted with F.

e

The line number of the line just before the group in the old file.

f

The line number of the first line in the group in the old file; equals e + 1.

l

The line number of the last line in the group in the old file.

m

The line number of the line just after the group in the old file; equals l + 1.

n

The number of lines in the group in the old file; equals l - f + 1.

E, F, L, M, N

Likewise, for lines in the new file.

The  printf conversion specification can be %d, %o, %x, or %X, specifying deci-
tively.  After the % the following options can appear in sequence: a - specify-
ing left-justification; an integer specifying the minimum field  width;  and  a
period followed by an optional integer specifying the minimum number of digits.
For example, %5dN prints the number of new lines in the group  in  a  field  of
width 5 characters, using the printf format "%5d".

(A=B?T:E)

If  A  equals  B  then T else E.  A and B are each either a decimal constant or a
single letter interpreted as above.  This format spec is equivalent to T  if  A's
value equals B's; otherwise it is equivalent to E.

For example, %(N=0?no:%dN) line%(N=1?:s) is equivalent to no lines if N (the num-
ber of lines in the group in the new file) is 0, to 1 line if N is 1, and to  %dN
lines otherwise.

Line formats
Line  formats control how each line taken from an input file is output as part of a
line group in if-then-else format.

For example, the following command outputs text with a one-column change  indicator
to  the left of the text.  The first column of output is - for deleted lines, | for
added lines, and a space for unchanged lines.  The formats contain newline  charac-
ters where newlines are desired on output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='-%l
' \
--new-line-format='|%l
' \
--unchanged-line-format=' %l
' \
myfile

To  specify a line format, use one of the following options.  You should quote for-
mat, since it often contains shell metacharacters.

--old-line-format=format

formats lines just from the first file.

--new-line-format=format

formats lines just from the second file.

--unchanged-line-format=format

formats lines common to both files.

--line-format=format

formats all lines; in effect, it sets all three above options simultaneously.

In a line format, ordinary characters represent themselves; conversion specifica-

%l

stands  for the contents of the line, not counting its trailing newline (if any).
This format ignores whether the line is incomplete.

%L

stands for the contents of the line, including its trailing newline (if any).  If
a line is incomplete, this format preserves its incompleteness.

%%

stands for %.

%c'C'

where  C  is  a  single  character, stands for C.  C may not be a backslash or an
apostrophe.  For example, %c':' stands for a colon.

%c'\O'

where O is a string of 1, 2, or 3 octal digits, stands  for  the  character  with
octal code O.  For example, %c'\0' stands for a null character.

Fn

where  F is a printf conversion specification, stands for the line number format-
ted with F.  For example, %.5dn prints the line number using  the  printf  format
"%.5d".   see  node 'Line group formats' in the CVS manual, for more about printf
conversion specifications.

The default line format is %l followed by a newline character.

If the input contains tab characters and it is important that  they  line  up  on
output, you should ensure that %l or %L in a line format is just after a tab stop
(e.g. by preceding %l or %L with a tab character), or you should use  the  -t  or
--expand-tabs option.

Taken  together,  the  line and line group formats let you specify many different
formats.  For example, the following command uses a format similar to diff's nor-
mal  format.  You can tailor this command to get fine control over diff's output.

cvs diff \
--old-line-format='< %l
' \
--new-line-format='> %l
' \
--old-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)d%dE
%<' \
--new-group-format='%dea%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%>' \
--changed-group-format='%df%(f=l?:,%dl)c%dF%(F=L?:,%dL)
%<--
%>' \
--unchanged-group-format='' \
myfile

diff examples
The following line produces a Unidiff (-u flag) between revision 1.14 and  1.19  of
backend.c.   Due  to  the -kk flag no keywords are substituted, so differences that
only depend on keyword substitution are ignored.

$cvs diff -kk -u -r 1.14 -r 1.19 backend.c Suppose the experimental branch EXPR1 was based on a set of files tagged RELEASE_1_0. To see what has happened on that branch, the following can be used:$ cvs diff -r RELEASE_1_0 -r EXPR1

A command like this can be used to produce a context diff between two releases:

$cvs diff -c -r RELEASE_1_0 -r RELEASE_1_1 > diffs If you are maintaining ChangeLogs, a command like the following just before you commit your changes may help you write the ChangeLog entry. All local modifica- tions that have not yet been committed will be printed.$ cvs diff -u | less

export
Export sources from CVS, similar to checkout
? Synopsis: export [-flNnR] [-r rev|-D date] [-k subst] [-d dir] module...

? Requires: repository.

? Changes: current directory.

This  command is a variant of checkout; use it when you want a copy of the source
for module without the cvs administrative directories.  For  example,  you  might
use  export  to prepare source for shipment off-site.  This command requires that
you specify a date or tag (with -D or -r), so that you can count  on  reproducing
the source you ship to others (and thus it always prunes empty directories).

One  often would like to use -kv with cvs export.  This causes any keywords to be
expanded such that an import done at some other site will not  lose  the  keyword
revision  information.   But  be  aware  that doesn't handle an export containing
binary files correctly.  Also be aware that after having used  -kv,  one  can  no
longer  use the ident command (which is part of the rcs suite--see ident(1)) which
looks for keyword strings.  If you want to be able to use ident you must not  use
-kv.

export options
These  standard  options  are supported by export (see node 'Common options' in the
CVS manual, for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.

-f

If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision  (instead  of
ignoring the file).

-l

Local; run only in current working directory.

-n

Do not run any checkout program.

-R

Export directories recursively.  This is on by default.

-r tag

Use revision tag.

In addition, these options (that are common to checkout and export) are also sup-
ported:

-d dir

Create a directory called dir for the working files, instead of using the  module
name.   See  'checkout options' in the CVS manual for complete details on how cvs
handles this flag.

-k subst

Set keyword expansion mode (see node 'Substitution modes' in the CVS manual).

-N

Only useful together with -d dir.  See 'checkout options' in the CVS  manual  for
complete details on how cvs handles this flag.

history
Show status of files and users
? Synopsis:     history [-report] [-flags] [-options args] [files...]

? Requires: the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history ? Changes: nothing. cvs can keep a history file that tracks each use of the checkout, commit, rtag, update, and release commands. You can use history to display this information in various formats. Logging must be enabled by creating the file$CVSROOT/CVSROOT/history.

history  uses -f, -l, -n, and -p in ways that conflict with the normal use inside
cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual).

history options
Several options (shown above as -report)  control  what kind of  report  is  gener-
ated:

-c

Report  on  each  time  commit was used (i.e., each time the repository was modi-
fied).

-e

Everything (all record types).  Equivalent  to  specifying  -x  with  all  record
types.   Of course, -e will also include record types which are added in a future
version of cvs; if you are writing a script which can only handle certain  record
types, you'll want to specify -x.

-m module

Report  on  a  particular module.  (You can meaningfully use -m more than once on
the command line.)

-o

Report on checked-out modules.  This is the default report type.

-T

Report on all tags.

-x type

Extract a particular set of record types type from the cvs  history.   The  types
are indicated by single letters, which you may specify in combination.

Certain commands have a single record type:

F

release

O

checkout

E

export

T

rtag

One of five record types may result from an update:

C

A  merge was necessary but collisions were detected (requiring manual merging).

G

A merge was necessary and it succeeded.

U

A working file was copied from the repository.

P

A working file was patched to match the repository.

W

The working copy of a file was deleted during update (because it was gone  from
the repository).

One of three record types results from commit:

A

A file was added for the first time.

M

A file was modified.

R

A file was removed.

The  options  shown  as -flags constrain or expand the report without requiring
option arguments:

-a

Show data for all users (the default is to show data only for the user  executing
history).

-l

Show last modification only.

-w

Show  only  the  records  for  modifications done from the same working directory
where history is executing.

The options shown as -options args constrain the report based on an argument:

-b str

Show data back to a record containing  the  string str   in   either  the  module
name, the file name, or the repository path.

-D date

Show data since date.  This is slightly different from the normal use of -D date,
which selects the newest revision older than date.

-f file

Show data for a particular file (you can specify several -f options on  the  same
command line).  This is equivalent to specifying the file on the command line.

-n module

Show data for a particular module (you can specify several -n options on the same
command line).

-p repository

Show data for a particular source repository  (you can specify several -p options
on the same command line).

-r rev

Show  records  referring to revisions since the revision or tag named rev appears
in individual rcs files.  Each rcs file is searched for the revision or tag.

-t tag

Show records since tag tag was last added to the history file.  This differs from
the  -r flag above in that it reads only the history file, not the rcs files, and
is much faster.

-u name

Show records for user name.

-z timezone

Show times in the selected records using the specified time zone instead of  UTC.

import
Import sources into CVS, using vendor branches
? Synopsis: import [-options] repository vendortag releasetag...

? Requires: Repository, source distribution directory.

? Changes: repository.

Use  import  to  incorporate an entire source distribution from an outside source
(e.g., a source vendor) into your source repository directory.  You can use  this
command  both  for initial creation of a repository, and for wholesale updates to
the module from the outside source.  See 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual for
a discussion on this subject.

The  repository  argument gives a directory name (or a path to a directory) under
the cvs root directory for repositories; if the directory did not  exist,  import
creates it.

When  you  use import for updates to source that has been modified in your source
repository (since a prior import), it will notify you of any files that  conflict
in the two branches of development; use checkout -j to reconcile the differences,
as import instructs you to do.

If cvs decides a file should be ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual),
it  does  not  import it and prints I  followed by the filename (see node 'import
output' in the CVS manual for a complete description of the output).

If the file $CVSROOT/CVSROOT/cvswrappers exists, any file whose names match the specifications in that file will be treated as packages and the appropriate fil- tering will be performed on the file/directory before being imported. See 'Wrap- pers' in the CVS manual. The outside source is saved in a first-level branch, by default 1.1.1. Updates are leaves of this branch; for example, files from the first imported collection of source will be revision 1.1.1.1, then files from the first imported update will be revision 1.1.1.2, and so on. At least three arguments are required. repository is needed to identify the col- lection of source. vendortag is a tag for the entire branch (e.g., for 1.1.1). You must also specify at least one releasetag to uniquely identify the files at the leaves created each time you execute import. The releasetag should be new, not previously existing in the repository file, and uniquely identify the imported release, Note that import does not change the directory in which you invoke it. In par- ticular, it does not set up that directory as a cvs working directory; if you want to work with the sources import them first and then check them out into a different directory (see node 'Getting the source' in the CVS manual). import options This standard option is supported by import (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description): -m message Use message as log information, instead of invoking an editor. There are the following additional special options. -b branch See 'Multiple vendor branches' in the CVS manual. -d Use each file's modification time as the time of import rather than the current time. -k subst Indicate the keyword expansion mode desired. This setting will apply to all files created during the import, but not to any files that previously existed in the repository. See 'Substitution modes' in the CVS manual for a list of valid -k settings. -I name Specify file names that should be ignored during import. You can use this option repeatedly. To avoid ignoring any files at all (even those ignored by default), specify -I !'. name can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvsignore file. See 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual. -W spec Specify file names that should be filtered during import. You can use this option repeatedly. spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that you can specify in the .cvswrappers file. see node 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual. import output import keeps you informed of its progress by printing a line for each file, pre- ceded by one character indicating the status of the file: U file The file already exists in the repository and has not been locally modified; a new revision has been created (if necessary). N file The file is a new file which has been added to the repository. C file The file already exists in the repository but has been locally modified; you will have to merge the changes. I file The file is being ignored (see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual). L file The file is a symbolic link; cvs import ignores symbolic links. People periodi- cally suggest that this behavior should be changed, but if there is a consensus on what it should be changed to, it doesn't seem to be apparent. (Various options in the modules file can be used to recreate symbolic links on checkout, update, etc.; see node 'modules' in the CVS manual.) import examples See 'Tracking sources' in the CVS manual, and 'From files' in the CVS manual. log Print out log information for files ? Synopsis: log [options] [files...] ? Requires: repository, working directory. ? Changes: nothing. Display log information for files. log used to call the rcs utility rlog. Although this is no longer true in the current sources, this history determines the format of the output and the options, which are not quite in the style of the other cvs commands. The output includes the location of the rcs file, the head revision (the latest revision on the trunk), all symbolic names (tags) and some other things. For each revision, the revision number, the author, the number of lines added/deleted and the log message are printed. All times are displayed in Coordinated Univer- sal Time (UTC). (Other parts of cvs print times in the local timezone). log uses -R in a way that conflicts with the normal use inside cvs (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual). log options By default, log prints all information that is available. All other options restrict the output. Note that the revision selection options (-b, -d, -r, -s, and -w) have no effect, other than possibly causing a search for files in Attic direc- tories, when used in conjunction with the options that restrict the output to only log header fields (-h, -R, and -t) unless the -S option is also specified. -b Print information about the revisions on the default branch, normally the highest branch on the trunk. -d dates Print information about revisions with a checkin date/time in the range given by the semicolon-separated list of dates. The date formats accepted are those accepted by the -D option to many other cvs commands (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual). Dates can be combined into ranges as follows: d1<d2 d2>d1 Select the revisions that were deposited between d1 and d2. <d d> Select all revisions dated d or earlier. d< >d Select all revisions dated d or later. d Select the single, latest revision dated d or earlier. The > or < characters may be followed by = to indicate an inclusive range rather than an exclusive one. Note that the separator is a semicolon (;). -h Print only the name of the rcs file, name of the file in the working directory, head, default branch, access list, locks, symbolic names, and suffix. -l Local; run only in current working directory. (Default is to run recursively). -N Do not print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your site uses a lot of tags, so rather than "more"'ing over 3 pages of tag information, the log information is presented without tags at all. -n Print the list of tags for this file. This option can be very useful when your .cvsrc file has a log -N entry as a way to get a full list of all of the tags. -R Print only the name of the rcs file. -rrevisions Print information about revisions given in the comma-separated list revisions of revisions and ranges. The following table explains the available range formats: rev1:rev2 Revisions rev1 to rev2 (which must be on the same branch). rev1::rev2 The same, but excluding rev1. :rev ::rev Revisions from the beginning of the branch up to and including rev. rev: Revisions starting with rev to the end of the branch containing rev. rev:: Revisions starting just after rev to the end of the branch containing rev. branch An argument that is a branch means all revisions on that branch. branch1:branch2 branch1::branch2 A range of branches means all revisions on the branches in that range. branch. The latest revision in branch. A bare -r with no revisions means the latest revision on the default branch, normally the trunk. There can be no space between the -r option and its argu- ment. -S Suppress the header if no revisions are selected. -s states Print information about revisions whose state attributes match one of the states given in the comma-separated list states. Individual states may be any text string, though cvs commonly only uses two states, Exp and dead. See 'admin options' in the CVS manual for more information. -t Print the same as -h, plus the descriptive text. -wlogins Print information about revisions checked in by users with login names appearing in the comma-separated list logins. If logins is omitted, the user's login is assumed. There can be no space between the -w option and its argument. log prints the intersection of the revisions selected with the options -d, -s, and -w, intersected with the union of the revisions selected by -b and -r. log examples Contributed examples are gratefully accepted. rdiff 'patch' format diffs between releases ? rdiff [-flags] [-V vn] [-r t|-D d [-r t2|-D d2]] modules... ? Requires: repository. ? Changes: nothing. ? Synonym: patch Builds a Larry Wall format patch(1) file between two releases, that can be fed directly into the patch program to bring an old release up-to-date with the new release. (This is one of the few cvs commands that operates directly from the repository, and doesn't require a prior checkout.) The diff output is sent to the standard output device. You can specify (using the standard -r and -D options) any combination of one or two revisions or dates. If only one revision or date is specified, the patch file reflects differences between that revision or date and the current head revisions in the rcs file. Note that if the software release affected is contained in more than one direc- tory, then it may be necessary to specify the -p option to the patch command when patching the old sources, so that patch is able to find the files that are located in other directories. rdiff options These standard options are supported by rdiff (see node 'Common options' in the CVS manual for a complete description of them): -D date Use the most recent revision no later than date. -f If no matching revision is found, retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file). -k kflag Process keywords according to kflag. See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS man- ual. -l Local; don't descend subdirectories. -R Examine directories recursively. This option is on by default. -r tag Use revision tag. In addition to the above, these options are available: -c Use the context diff format. This is the default format. -s Create a summary change report instead of a patch. The summary includes informa- tion about files that were changed or added between the releases. It is sent to the standard output device. This is useful for finding out, for example, which files have changed between two dates or revisions. -t A diff of the top two revisions is sent to the standard output device. This is most useful for seeing what the last change to a file was. -u Use the unidiff format for the context diffs. Remember that old versions of the patch program can't handle the unidiff format, so if you plan to post this patch to the net you should probably not use -u. -V vn Expand keywords according to the rules current in rcs version vn (the expansion format changed with rcs version 5). Note that this option is no longer accepted. cvs will always expand keywords the way that rcs version 5 does. rdiff examples Suppose you receive mail from foo AT example.net asking for an update from release 1.2 to 1.4 of the tc compiler. You have no such patches on hand, but with cvs that can easily be fixed with a command such as this:$ cvs rdiff -c -r FOO1_2 -r FOO1_4 tc | \
> Mail -s 'The patches you asked for' foo AT example.net

Suppose you have made release 1.3, and forked a  branch  called  R_1_3fix  for  bug
fixes.   R_1_3_1  corresponds to release 1.3.1, which was made some time ago.  Now,
you want to see how much development has been done on the branch.  This command can
be used:

$cvs patch -s -r R_1_3_1 -r R_1_3fix module-name cvs rdiff: Diffing module-name File ChangeLog,v changed from revision 1.52.2.5 to 1.52.2.6 File foo.c,v changed from revision 1.52.2.3 to 1.52.2.4 File bar.h,v changed from revision 1.29.2.1 to 1.2 release Indicate that a Module is no longer in use ? release [-d] directories... ? Requires: Working directory. ? Changes: Working directory, history log. This command is meant to safely cancel the effect of cvs checkout. Since cvs doesn't lock files, it isn't strictly necessary to use this command. You can always simply delete your working directory, if you like; but you risk losing changes you may have forgotten, and you leave no trace in the cvs history file (see node 'history file' in the CVS manual) that you've abandoned your checkout. Use cvs release to avoid these problems. This command checks that no uncommitted changes are present; that you are executing it from immediately above a cvs work- ing directory; and that the repository recorded for your files is the same as the repository defined in the module database. If all these conditions are true, cvs release leaves a record of its execution (attesting to your intentionally abandoning your checkout) in the cvs history log. release options The release command supports one command option: -d Delete your working copy of the file if the release succeeds. If this flag is not given your files will remain in your working directory. WARNING: The release command deletes all directories and files recursively. This has the very serious side-effect that any directory created inside checked- out sources, and not added to the repository (using the add command; see node 'Adding files' in the CVS manual) will be silently deleted---even if it is non- empty! release output Before release releases your sources it will print a one-line message for any file that is not up-to-date. U file P file There exists a newer revision of this file in the repository, and you have not modified your local copy of the file (U and P mean the same thing). A file The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been committed to the repository. If you delete your copy of the sources this file will be lost. R file The file has been removed from your private copy of the sources, but has not yet been removed from the repository, since you have not yet committed the removal. See 'commit' in the CVS manual. M file The file is modified in your working directory. There might also be a newer revision inside the repository. ? file file is in your working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs to ignore (see the description of the -I option, and see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual). If you remove your working sources, this file will be lost. release examples Release the tc directory, and delete your local working copy of the files.$ cd ..         # You must stand immediately above the
# sources when you issue cvs release.
$cvs release -d tc You have [0] altered files in this repository. Are you sure you want to release (and delete) directory tc': y$

remove
Remove files from active use
? Synopsis: remove [-flR] [files...]

? Requires: repository, working directory.

? Changes: working directory.

The remove command is used to remove unwanted files from active  use.   The  user
normally  deletes the files from the working directory prior to invocation of the
remove command.  Only the working directory is updated.  Changes to  the  reposi-
tory are not made until the commit command is run.

The remove command does not delete files from from the repository.  cvs keeps all
historical data in the repository so that it is possible to reconstruct  previous
states of the projects under revision control.

To  undo  cvs remove or to resurrect files that were previously removed, see node

remove options
These standard options are supported by remove (see node 'Common  options'  in  the
CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-l

Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  See 'Recursive behavior' in the
CVS manual.

-R

Process directories recursively.  See 'Recursive behavior' in the CVS manual.

In addition, these options are also supported:

-f

Note that this is not the standard behavior of the -f option as defined in  'Com-
mon options' in the CVS manual.

Delete files before removing them.

Entire  directory  hierarchies are easily removed using -f, but take note that it
is not as easy to resurrect directory hierarchies as it is to remove them.

remove examples
Removing a file
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: file remove.me' still in working directory cvs remove: 1 file exists; remove it first$ rm -f remove.me
$cvs remove remove.me cvs remove: scheduling remove.me' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently$ ls remove.it
remove.it
$cvs remove -f remove.it cvs remove: scheduling remove.it' for removal cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently Removing entire directories$ tree -d a
a
|-- CVS
-- b
-- CVS

3 directories
\$ cvs remove -f a
cvs remove: Removing a
cvs remove: Removing a/b
cvs remove: scheduling a/b/c' for removal
cvs remove: use 'cvs commit' to remove this file permanently

update
Bring work tree in sync with repository
? update [-ACdflPpR] [-I name] [-j rev [-j rev]] [-k kflag] [-r  tag|-D  date]  [-W
spec] files...

? Requires: repository, working directory.

? Changes: working directory.

After  you've  run checkout to create your private copy of source from the common
repository, other developers will continue changing  the  central  source.   From
time  to time, when it is convenient in your development process, you can use the
update command from within your working directory to reconcile your work with any
revisions applied to the source repository since your last checkout or update.

update options
These  standard options are available with update (see node 'Common options' in the
CVS manual for a complete description of them):

-D date

Use the most recent revision no later than date.   This  option  is  sticky,  and
implies  -P.   See 'Sticky tags' in the CVS manual for more information on sticky
tags/dates.

-f

Only useful with the -D date or -r tag flags.  If no matching revision is  found,
retrieve the most recent revision (instead of ignoring the file).

-k kflag

Process  keywords according to kflag.  See 'Keyword substitution' in the CVS man-
ual.  This option is sticky; future updates of this file in this  working  direc-
tory will use the same kflag.  The status command can be viewed to see the sticky
options.  See 'Invoking CVS' in the CVS manual for more information on the status
command.

-l

Local;  run  only  in current working directory.  See 'Recursive behavior' in the
CVS manual.

-P

Prune empty directories.  See 'Moving directories' in the CVS manual.

-p

Pipe files to the standard output.

-R

Update directories recursively (default).  See 'Recursive behavior'  in  the  CVS
manual.

-r rev

Retrieve  revision/tag  rev.  This option is sticky, and implies -P.  See 'Sticky

These special options are also available with update.

-A

Reset any sticky tags, dates, or -k options.  Does not reset sticky -k options on
modified  files.   See  'Sticky  tags'  in the CVS manual for more information on
sticky tags/dates.

-C

Overwrite locally modified files with clean copies from the repository (the modi-
fied file is saved in .#file.revision, however).

-d

Create  any  directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the
working directory.  Normally, update acts only on directories and files that were

This is useful for updating directories that were created in the repository since
the initial checkout; but it has an unfortunate side effect.  If you deliberately
avoided  certain  directories  in  the  repository  when you created your working
directory (either through use of a module name or by listing explicitly the files
and  directories you wanted on the command line), then updating with -d will cre-
ate those directories, which may not be what you want.

-I name

Ignore files whose names match  name  (in  your  working  directory)  during  the
update.  You can specify -I more than once on the command line to specify several
files to ignore.  Use -I ! to avoid ignoring any files at all.   See  'cvsignore'
in the CVS manual for other ways to make cvs ignore some files.

-Wspec

Specify  file  names  that  should  be  filtered during update.  You can use this
option repeatedly.

spec can be a file name pattern of the same type that  you  can  specify  in  the
.cvswrappers file.  See 'Wrappers' in the CVS manual.

-jrevision

With  two -j options, merge changes from the revision specified with the first -j
option to the revision specified with the  second  j  option,  into  the  working
directory.

With  one  -j  option,  merge  changes from the ancestor revision to the revision
specified with the -j option, into the working directory.  The ancestor  revision
is  the  common ancestor of the revision which the working directory is based on,
and the revision specified in the -j option.

Note that using a single -j tagname option rather than  -j  branchname  to  merge
changes  from  a  branch  will  often  not remove files which were removed on the
branch.  See 'Merging adds and removals' in the CVS manual for more  information.

In  addition,  each  -j  option can contain an optional date specification which,
when used with branches, can limit the chosen revision to one within  a  specific
date.   An  optional  date  is specified by adding a colon (:) to the tag: -jSym-
bolic_Tag:Date_Specifier.

See 'Branching and merging' in the CVS manual.

update output
update and checkout keep you informed of their progress by printing a line for each
file, preceded by one character indicating the status of the file:

U file

The file was brought up to date with respect to the repository.  This is done for
any file that exists in the repository but not in your working directory, and for
files  that you haven't changed but are not the most recent versions available in
the repository.

P file

Like U, but the cvs server sends a patch instead of an entire file.  This  accom-
plishes the same thing as U using less bandwidth.

A file

The file has been added to your private copy of the sources, and will be added to
the source repository when you run commit on the file.  This is a reminder to you
that the file needs to be committed.

R file

The  file  has  been  removed  from your private copy of the sources, and will be
removed from the source repository when you run commit on the file.   This  is  a
reminder to you that the file needs to be committed.

M file

The file is modified in  your  working  directory.

M  can indicate one of two states for a file you're working on: either there were
no modifications to the same file in the repository, so that your file remains as
you last saw it; or there were modifications in the repository as well as in your
copy, but they were merged successfully, without conflict, in your working direc-
tory.

cvs  will  print  some messages if it merges your work, and a backup copy of your
working file (as it looked before you ran update) will be made.  The  exact  name
of that file is printed while update runs.

C file

A  conflict  was detected while trying to merge your changes to file with changes
from the source repository.  file (the copy in your working directory) is now the
result  of attempting to merge the two revisions; an unmodified copy of your file
is also in your working directory, with the name .#file.revision  where  revision
is  the  revision  that your modified file started from.  Resolve the conflict as
described in 'Conflicts example' in the CVS  manual.   (Note  that  some  systems
automatically purge files that begin with .# if they have not been accessed for a
few days.  If you intend to keep a copy of your original file, it is a very  good
idea to rename it.)  Under vms, the file name starts with __ rather than .#.

? file

file  is  in  your  working directory, but does not correspond to anything in the
source repository, and is not in the list of files for cvs  to  ignore  (see  the
description of the -I option, and see node 'cvsignore' in the CVS manual).

AUTHORS
Dick Grune
Original  author of the cvs shell script version posted to comp.sources.unix
in the volume6 release of December, 1986.  Credited with  much  of  the  cvs
conflict resolution algorithms.

Brian Berliner
Coder  and  designer  of the cvs program itself in April, 1989, based on the
original work done by Dick.

Jeff Polk
Helped Brian with the design of the cvs module and vendor branch support and
author of the checkin(1) shell script (the ancestor of cvs import).

Larry Jones, Derek R. Price, and Mark D. Baushke
Have helped maintain cvs for many years.

And many others too numerous to mention here.

The  most  comprehensive  manual for CVS is Version Management with CVS by Per Ced-
erqvist et al.  Depending on your system, you may be able to get it with  the  info
CVS  command  or  it may be available as cvs.pdf (Portable Document Format), cvs.ps
(PostScript), cvs.texinfo (Texinfo source), or cvs.html.