find(1) - phpMan

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FIND(1)                              General Commands Manual                              FIND(1)



NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches the directory tree
       rooted at each given file name by evaluating the given  expression  from  left  to  right,
       according  to  the rules of precedence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome is known
       (the left hand side is false for and operations, true for or), at which point  find  moves
       on to the next file name.

       If  you  are  using find in an environment where security is important (for example if you
       are using it to search directories that are writable by other users), you should read  the
       "Security  Considerations" chapter of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding
       Files and comes with findutils.   That document also includes a lot more detail  and  dis-
       cussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control the treatment of symbolic links.  Command-line arguments
       following these are taken to be names of files or directories to be examined,  up  to  the
       first  argument  that  begins with `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any
       following arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is to be searched  for.
       If  no  paths  are  given,  the current directory is used.  If no expression is given, the
       expression -print is used (but you should probably consider using  -print0  instead,  any-
       way).

       This  manual page talks about `options' within the expression list.  These options control
       the behaviour of find but are specified immediately after the last path  name.   The  five
       `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D and -O must appear before the first path name, if at all.  A
       double dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining  arguments  are  not  options
       (though ensuring that all start points begin with either `./' or `/' is generally safer if
       you use wildcards in the list of start points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This is the default behaviour.  When find examines or
              prints  information  a  file, and the file is a symbolic link, the information used
              shall be taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.


       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information about  files,  the
              information  used  shall be taken from the properties of the file to which the link
              points, not from the link itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link  or  find  is
              unable  to  examine the file to which the link points).  Use of this option implies
              -noleaf.  If you later use the -P option, -noleaf will still be in effect.   If  -L
              is  in  effect  and  find  discovers  a  symbolic link to a subdirectory during its
              search, the subdirectory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

              When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always match against  the
              type of the file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself (unless
              the symbolic link is broken).  Using -L causes the -lname  and  -ilname  predicates
              always to return false.


       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the command line arguments.
              When find examines or prints information about files, the information used shall be
              taken from the properties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
              behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a symbolic link, and  the
              link can be resolved.  For that situation, the information used is taken from what-
              ever the link points to (that is, the link is followed).  The information about the
              link  itself is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the symbolic link can-
              not be examined.  If -H is in effect and one of the paths specified on the  command
              line  is  a  symbolic  link  to a directory, the contents of that directory will be
              examined (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the others;  the  last  one
       appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it is the default, the -P option should
       be considered to be in effect unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing of the command line  itself,  before
       any  searching  has  begun.   These options also affect how those arguments are processed.
       Specifically, there are a number of tests that compare files listed on  the  command  line
       against a file we are currently considering.  In each case, the file specified on the com-
       mand line will have been examined and some of its properties will have been saved.  If the
       named  file  is  in fact a symbolic link, and the -P option is in effect (or if neither -H
       nor -L were specified), the information used for the comparison will  be  taken  from  the
       properties  of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties of the
       file the link points to.  If find cannot follow the  link  (for  example  because  it  has
       insufficient  privileges  or  the link points to a nonexistent file) the properties of the
       link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as  the  argument  of
       -newer  will  be  dereferenced, and the timestamp will be taken from the file to which the
       symbolic link points.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The -follow option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect at the  point  where
       it  appears (that is, if -L is not used but -follow is, any symbolic links appearing after
       -follow on the command line will be dereferenced, and those before it will not).


       -D debugoptions
              Print diagnostic information; this can be helpful to  diagnose  problems  with  why
              find  is  not doing what you want.  The list of debug options should be comma sepa-
              rated.  Compatibility of the debug options is not guaranteed  between  releases  of
              findutils.   For  a complete list of valid debug options, see the output of find -D
              help.  Valid debug options include

              help   Explain the debugging options

              tree   Show the expression tree in its original and optimised form.

              stat   Print messages as files are examined with the stat and lstat  system  calls.
                     The find program tries to minimise such calls.

              opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to the optimisation of the expression
                     tree; see the -O option.

              rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate succeeded or failed.

       -Olevel
              Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to speed up execution
              while  preserving the overall effect; that is, predicates with side effects are not
              reordered relative to each other.  The optimisations performed at each optimisation
              level are as follows.

              0      Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

              1      This  is  the  default optimisation level and corresponds to the traditional
                     behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so that tests based only on the  names
                     of files (for example -name and -regex) are performed first.

              2      Any  -type  or  -xtype tests are performed after any tests based only on the
                     names of files, but before any  tests  that  require  information  from  the
                     inode.   On  many  modern versions of Unix, file types are returned by read-
                     dir() and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than  predicates  which
                     need to stat the file first.  If you use the -fstype FOO predicate and spec-
                     ify  a  filsystem  type  FOO  which  is  not  known  (that  is,  present  in
                     `/etc/mtab')  at  the  time  find  starts,  that  predicate is equivalent to
                     -false.

              3      At this optimisation level, the full cost-based query optimiser is  enabled.
                     The order of tests is modified so that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed
                     first and more expensive ones are performed  later,  if  necessary.   Within
                     each  cost  band,  predicates  are  evaluated  earlier or later according to
                     whether they are likely to succeed or not.  For  -o,  predicates  which  are
                     likely  to  succeed  are evaluated earlier, and for -a, predicates which are
                     likely to fail are evaluated earlier.

              The cost-based optimiser has a fixed idea of how likely any given test is  to  suc-
              ceed.   In  some  cases the probability takes account of the specific nature of the
              test (for example, -type f is assumed to be more likely to succeed than  -type  c).
              The  cost-based  optimiser  is currently being evaluated.   If it does not actually
              improve the performance of find, it will be removed again.   Conversely,  optimisa-
              tions that prove to be reliable, robust and effective may be enabled at lower opti-
              misation levels over time.  However, the default behaviour (i.e. optimisation level
              1)  will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The findutils test suite runs
              all the tests on find at each optimisation level and ensures that the result is the
              same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression is made up of options (which affect overall operation rather than the pro-
       cessing of a specific file, and always return true), tests (which return a true  or  false
       value),  and actions (which have side effects and return a true or false value), all sepa-
       rated by operators.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all  files
       for which the expression is true.


   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.  Except for -daystart, -follow and -regextype, the options
       affect all tests, including tests specified  before  the  option.   This  is  because  the
       options  are  processed when the command line is parsed, while the tests don't do anything
       until files are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options are different  in
       this  respect,  and  have  an effect only on tests which appear later in the command line.
       Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place them at the beginning of  the  expression.   A
       warning is issued if you don't do this.


       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD, MacOS X and OpenBSD.


       -daystart
              Measure times (for -amin, -atime, -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and -mtime) from the begin-
              ning of today rather than from 24 hours ago.  This option only affects tests  which
              appear later on the command line.


       -depth Process  each directory's contents before the directory itself.  The -delete action
              also implies -depth.


       -follow
              Deprecated; use the  -L  option  instead.   Dereference  symbolic  links.   Implies
              -noleaf.   The -follow option affects only those tests which appear after it on the
              command line.  Unless the -H or -L option has been specified, the position  of  the
              -follow  option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files listed as
              the argument of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.   The  same
              consideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type pred-
              icate will always match against the type of the file that a symbolic link points to
              rather  than  the  link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predi-
              cates always to return false.


       -help, --help
              Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.


       -ignore_readdir_race
              Normally, find will emit an error message when it fails to stat  a  file.   If  you
              give  this option and a file is deleted between the time find reads the name of the
              file from the directory and the time it tries to stat the file,  no  error  message
              will  be issued.    This also applies to files or directories whose names are given
              on the command line.  This option takes effect at the  time  the  command  line  is
              read,  which  means  that  you  cannot  search one part of the filesystem with this
              option on and part of it with this option off (if you need to  do  that,  you  will
              need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and one without it).


       -maxdepth levels
              Descend  at  most  levels  (a non-negative integer) levels of directories below the
              command line arguments.  -maxdepth 0
               means only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.


       -mindepth levels
              Do not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a non-negative  inte-
              ger).  -mindepth 1 means process all files except the command line arguments.


       -mount Don't  descend  directories on other filesystems.  An alternate name for -xdev, for
              compatibility with some other versions of find.


       -noignore_readdir_race
              Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.


       -noleaf
              Do not optimize by assuming that directories contain 2  fewer  subdirectories  than
              their  hard  link  count.  This option is needed when searching filesystems that do
              not follow the Unix directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS filesystems
              or  AFS  volume  mount  points.   Each directory on a normal Unix filesystem has at
              least 2 hard links: its name and its `.'  entry.  Additionally, its  subdirectories
              (if  any) each have a `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining
              a directory, after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the directory's  link
              count,  it  knows that the rest of the entries in the directory are non-directories
              (`leaf' files in the directory tree).  If only the files' names need  to  be  exam-
              ined,  there  is  no need to stat them; this gives a significant increase in search
              speed.


       -regextype type
              Changes the regular expression syntax understood by -regex and -iregex tests  which
              occur  later  on  the command line.  Currently-implemented types are emacs (this is
              the default), posix-awk, posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.


       -version, --version
              Print the find version number and exit.


       -warn, -nowarn
              Turn warning messages on or off.  These warnings apply only  to  the  command  line
              usage,  not  to  any conditions that find might encounter when it searches directo-
              ries.  The default behaviour corresponds to -warn if standard input is a  tty,  and
              to -nowarn otherwise.


       -xautofs
              Don't descend directories on autofs filesystems.


       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.


   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY and -samefile, allow comparison between the file cur-
       rently being examined and some reference file specified on the command line.   When  these
       tests  are used, the interpretation of the reference file is determined by the options -H,
       -L and -P and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,  at  the
       time  the  command line is parsed.  If the reference file cannot be examined (for example,
       the stat(2) system call fails for it), an error message is issued, and find exits  with  a
       nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
              File was last accessed n minutes ago.


       -anewer file
              File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a symbolic
              link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect, the access time of  the  file
              it points to is always used.


       -atime n
              File  was  last  accessed  n*24  hours ago.  When find figures out how many 24-hour
              periods ago the file was last accessed, any fractional part is ignored, so to match
              -atime +1, a file has to have been accessed at least two days ago.


       -cmin n
              File's status was last changed n minutes ago.


       -cnewer file
              File's  status was last changed more recently than file was modified.  If file is a
              symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in  effect,  the  status-change
              time of the file it points to is always used.


       -ctime n
              File's  status  was  last  changed  n*24 hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
              understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file status change times.


       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.


       -executable
              Matches files which are executable and directories which are searchable (in a  file
              name  resolution  sense).   This  takes into account access control lists and other
              permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test  makes  use  of  the
              access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping (or
              root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel  and
              so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.  Because this
              test is based only on the result of the access(2) system call, there is no  guaran-
              tee that a file for which this test succeeds can actually be executed.


       -false Always false.


       -fstype type
              File  is  on a filesystem of type type.  The valid filesystem types vary among dif-
              ferent versions of Unix; an incomplete list of filesystem types that  are  accepted
              on  some  version  of Unix or another is: ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.
              You can use -printf with the %F directive to see the types of your filesystems.


       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.


       -group gname
              File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).


       -ilname pattern
              Like -lname, but the match is case insensitive.  If the -L option  or  the  -follow
              option is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.



       -iname pattern
              Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the patterns `fo*' and
              `F??' match the file names `Foo', `FOO', `foo', `fOo', etc.   The  pattern  `*foo*`
              will also match a file called '.foobar'.


       -inum n
              File has inode number n.  It is normally easier to use the -samefile test instead.


       -ipath pattern
              Like -path.  but the match is case insensitive.


       -iregex pattern
              Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.


       -iwholename pattern
              See -ipath.    This alternative is less portable than -ipath.


       -links n
              File has n links.


       -lname pattern
              File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pattern.  The metachar-
              acters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If the -L option or the  -follow  option
              is in effect, this test returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.


       -mmin n
              File's data was last modified n minutes ago.


       -mtime n
              File's  data  was  last  modified  n*24  hours ago.  See the comments for -atime to
              understand how rounding affects the interpretation of file modification times.


       -name pattern
              Base of file name (the path with the leading  directories  removed)  matches  shell
              pattern  pattern.  Because the leading directories are removed, the file names con-
              sidered for a match with -name will never include a  slash,  so  `-name  a/b'  will
              never  match anything (you probably need to use -path instead).  The metacharacters
              (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the base name (this is a change in
              findutils-4.2.2;  see  section STANDARDS CONFORMANCE below).  To ignore a directory
              and the files under it, use -prune; see an example in  the  description  of  -path.
              Braces  are  not  recognised  as  being  special, despite the fact that some shells
              including Bash imbue braces with a special meaning in shell patterns.  The filename
              matching is performed with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.   Don't for-
              get to enclose the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from expansion  by  the
              shell.


       -newer file
              File  was  modified more recently than file.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H
              option or the -L option is in effect, the modification time of the file  it  points
              to is always used.


       -newerXY reference
              Compares  the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The reference argument
              is normally the name of a file (and one of its timestamps is used for the  compari-
              son)  but  it may also be a string describing an absolute time.  X and Y are place-
              holders for other letters, and these letters select which  time  belonging  to  how
              reference is used for the comparison.

              a   The access time of the file reference
              B   The birth time of the file reference
              c   The inode status change time of reference
              m   The modification time of the file reference
              t   reference is interpreted directly as a time

              Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for X to be t.  Some com-
              binations are not implemented on all systems; for example B is not supported on all
              systems.   If  an  invalid  or  unsupported combination of XY is specified, a fatal
              error results.  Time specifications are interpreted as for the argument to  the  -d
              option  of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth time of a reference file, and the
              birth time cannot be determined, a fatal error message results.  If you  specify  a
              test  which  refers  to the birth time of files being examined, this test will fail
              for any files where the birth time is unknown.


       -nogroup
              No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.


       -nouser
              No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.


       -path pattern
              File name matches shell pattern pattern.  The metacharacters do not  treat  `/'  or
              `.' specially; so, for example,
                        find . -path "./sr*sc"
              will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if one exists).  To ignore
              a whole directory tree, use -prune rather than checking every  file  in  the  tree.
              For  example, to skip the directory `src/emacs' and all files and directories under
              it, and print the names of the other files found, do something like this:
                        find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
              Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name, starting from  one
              of  the start points named on the command line.  It would only make sense to use an
              absolute path name here if the relevant start point is also an absolute path.  This
              means that this command will never match anything:
                        find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
              Find compares the -path argument with the concatenation of a directory name and the
              base name of the file it's examining.  Since the concatenation will never end  with
              a  slash,  -path  arguments  ending in a slash will match nothing (except perhaps a
              start point specified on the command line).  The predicate -path is also  supported
              by HP-UX find and will be in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.


       -perm mode
              File's  permission bits are exactly mode (octal or symbolic).  Since an exact match
              is required, if you want to use this form for symbolic modes, you may have to spec-
              ify  a  rather  complex mode string.  For example `-perm g=w' will only match files
              which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group write permission  is  the  only
              permission set).  It is more likely that you will want to use the `/' or `-' forms,
              for example `-perm -g=w', which matches any file with group write permission.   See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.


       -perm -mode
              All  of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are accepted
              in this form, and this is usually the way in which would want  to  use  them.   You
              must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section
              for some illustrative examples.


       -perm /mode
              Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.  Symbolic modes are  accepted
              in  this  form.   You must specify `u', `g' or `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See
              the EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.  If no permission bits in mode
              are set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be consistent with the be-
              haviour of -perm -000).


       -perm +mode
              Deprecated, old way of searching for files with any of the permission bits in  mode
              set.   You  should  use -perm /mode instead. Trying to use the `+' syntax with sym-
              bolic modes will yield surprising results.  For example, `+u+x' is a valid symbolic
              mode  (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be evaluated as -perm
              +mode but instead as the exact mode specifier -perm mode and so  it  matches  files
              with  exact  permissions  0111  instead  of files with any execute bit set.  If you
              found this paragraph confusing, you're not alone - just use -perm /mode.  This form
              of the -perm test is deprecated because the POSIX specification requires the inter-
              pretation of a leading `+' as being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched  to
              using `/' instead.


       -readable
              Matches files which are readable.  This takes into account access control lists and
              other permissions artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes  use  of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
              (or root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's  kernel
              and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.


       -regex pattern
              File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match on the whole path,
              not a search.  For example, to match a file named `./fubar3', you can use the regu-
              lar  expression  `.*bar.'  or  `.*b.*3',  but not `f.*r3'.  The regular expressions
              understood by find are by default  Emacs  Regular  Expressions,  but  this  can  be
              changed with the -regextype option.


       -samefile name
              File  refers  to  the  same inode as name.   When -L is in effect, this can include
              symbolic links.


       -size n[cwbkMG]
              File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

              `b'    for 512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is used)

              `c'    for bytes

              `w'    for two-byte words

              `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

              `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

              `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

              The size does not count indirect blocks, but it does count blocks in  sparse  files
              that are not actually allocated.  Bear in mind that the `%k' and `%b' format speci-
              fiers of -printf handle sparse files differently.  The `b'  suffix  always  denotes
              512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is different to the behaviour of
              -ls.


       -true  Always true.


       -type c
              File is of type c:

              b      block (buffered) special

              c      character (unbuffered) special

              d      directory

              p      named pipe (FIFO)

              f      regular file

              l      symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the -follow option  is
                     in  effect,  unless  the symbolic link is broken.  If you want to search for
                     symbolic links when -L is in effect, use -xtype.

              s      socket

              D      door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.


       -used n
              File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.


       -user uname
              File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).


       -wholename pattern
              See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.


       -writable
              Matches files which are writable.  This takes into account access control lists and
              other  permissions  artefacts which the -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of
              the access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
              (or  root-squashing), since many systems implement access(2) in the client's kernel
              and so cannot make use of the UID mapping information held on the server.


       -xtype c
              The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For symbolic links:  if  the
              -H  or  -P option was specified, true if the file is a link to a file of type c; if
              the -L option has been given, true if c is  `l'.   In  other  words,  for  symbolic
              links, -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

       -context pattern
              (SELinux only) Security context of the file matches glob pattern.


   ACTIONS
       -delete
              Delete  files;  true if removal succeeded.  If the removal failed, an error message
              is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit status will be nonzero (when  it  eventu-
              ally exits).  Use of -delete automatically turns on the `-depth' option.

              Warnings: Don't forget that the find command line is evaluated as an expression, so
              putting -delete first will make find try to delete everything  below  the  starting
              points  you  specified.   When testing a find command line that you later intend to
              use with -delete, you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid later sur-
              prises.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete
              together.


       -exec command ;
              Execute command; true if 0 status is returned.  All following arguments to find are
              taken to be arguments to the command until an argument consisting of `;' is encoun-
              tered.  The string `{}' is replaced by the current file name being processed every-
              where  it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments where it is
              alone, as in some versions of find.  Both of these constructions might need  to  be
              escaped  (with  a  `\') or quoted to protect them from expansion by the shell.  See
              the EXAMPLES section for examples of the use of the -exec  option.   The  specified
              command is run once for each matched file.  The command is executed in the starting
              directory.   There are unavoidable security problems surrounding use of  the  -exec
              action; you should use the -execdir option instead.


       -exec command {} +
              This  variant of the -exec action runs the specified command on the selected files,
              but the command line is built by appending each selected file name at the end;  the
              total  number  of  invocations  of the command will be much less than the number of
              matched files.  The command line is built in much the same way  that  xargs  builds
              its  command  lines.  Only one instance of `{}' is allowed within the command.  The
              command is executed in the starting directory.


       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
              Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the subdirectory  containing  the
              matched  file, which is not normally the directory in which you started find.  This
              a much more secure method for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions  dur-
              ing  resolution  of  the paths to the matched files.  As with the -exec action, the
              `+' form of -execdir will build a command line to process  more  than  one  matched
              file,  but  any  given invocation of command will only list files that exist in the
              same subdirectory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that your  $PATH  envi-
              ronment  variable  does  not reference `.'; otherwise, an attacker can run any com-
              mands they like by leaving an appropriately-named file in a directory in which  you
              will  run -execdir.  The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are empty or
              which are not absolute directory names.


       -fls file
              True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always  created,
              even  if  the  predicate  is  never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for
              information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint file
              True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not exist when find is
              run,  it  is created; if it does exist, it is truncated.  The file names `/dev/std-
              out' and `/dev/stderr' are handled specially; they refer to the standard output and
              standard  error  output,  respectively.  The output file is always created, even if
              the predicate is never matched.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprint0 file
              True;  like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always cre-
              ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -fprintf file format
              True;  like -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output file is always cre-
              ated, even if the predicate is never matched.  See the  UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section
              for information about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -ls    True;  list  current  file in ls -dils format on standard output.  The block counts
              are of 1K blocks, unless the environment variable POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, in  which
              case  512-byte  blocks are used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
              about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.


       -ok command ;
              Like -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the command.  Otherwise
              just  return  false.   If the command is run, its standard input is redirected from
              /dev/null.


              The response to the prompt is matched against a  pair  of  regular  expressions  to
              determine if it is an affirmative or negative response.  This regular expression is
              obtained from the system if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is  set,  or
              otherwise  from find's message translations.  If the system has no suitable defini-
              tion, find's own definition will be used.   In either case, the  interpretation  of
              the  regular  expression  itself  will  be  affected  by  the environment variables
              'LC_CTYPE' (character classes) and 'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges  and  equivalence
              classes).




       -okdir command ;
              Like  -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.  If the user does
              not agree, just return false.  If the command is run, its standard input  is  redi-
              rected from /dev/null.


       -print True;  print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a newline.   If
              you are piping the output of find into another program and there  is  the  faintest
              possibility  that  the  files  which you are searching for might contain a newline,
              then you should seriously consider using the -print0 option instead of -print.  See
              the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual characters in file-
              names are handled.


       -print0
              True; print the full file name on the standard output, followed by a null character
              (instead  of  the newline character that -print uses).  This allows file names that
              contain newlines or other types of white space to be correctly interpreted by  pro-
              grams  that  process  the find output.  This option corresponds to the -0 option of
              xargs.


       -printf format
              True; print format on the standard output, interpreting `\' escapes and `%'  direc-
              tives.   Field  widths and precisions can be specified as with the `printf' C func-
              tion.  Please note that many of the fields are printed as %s rather  than  %d,  and
              this  may mean that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also means that the
              `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be left-aligned).  Unlike  -print,  -printf
              does not add a newline at the end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

              \a     Alarm bell.

              \b     Backspace.

              \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush the output.

              \f     Form feed.

              \n     Newline.

              \r     Carriage return.

              \t     Horizontal tab.

              \v     Vertical tab.

              \0     ASCII NUL.

              \\     A literal backslash (`\').

              \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

              A  `\'  character followed by any other character is treated as an ordinary charac-
              ter, so they both are printed.

              %%     A literal percent sign.

              %a     File's last access time in the format returned by the C `ctime' function.

              %Ak    File's last access time in the format specified by k, which is either `@' or
                     a  directive  for  the C `strftime' function.  The possible values for k are
                     listed below; some of them might not be available on  all  systems,  due  to
                     differences in `strftime' between systems.

                     @      seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with fractional part.

                     Time fields:

                     H      hour (00..23)

                     I      hour (01..12)

                     k      hour ( 0..23)

                     l      hour ( 1..12)

                     M      minute (00..59)

                     p      locale's AM or PM

                     r      time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

                     S      Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There is a fractional part.

                     T      time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

                     +      Date and time, separated by `+', for example `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.
                            This is a GNU extension.  The time is given in the  current  timezone
                            (which  may be affected by setting the TZ environment variable).  The
                            seconds field includes a fractional part.

                     X      locale's time representation (H:M:S)

                     Z      time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone is determinable

                     Date fields:

                     a      locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

                     A      locale's full weekday name, variable length (Sunday..Saturday)

                     b      locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

                     B      locale's full month name, variable length (January..December)

                     c      locale's date and time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST 1989).  The format is
                            the  same  as for ctime(3) and so to preserve compatibility with that
                            format, there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

                     d      day of month (01..31)

                     D      date (mm/dd/yy)

                     h      same as b

                     j      day of year (001..366)

                     m      month (01..12)

                     U      week number of year with Sunday as first day of week (00..53)

                     w      day of week (0..6)

                     W      week number of year with Monday as first day of week (00..53)

                     x      locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

                     y      last two digits of year (00..99)

                     Y      year (1970...)

              %b     The amount of disk space used for this file in 512-byte blocks.  Since  disk
                     space is allocated in multiples of the filesystem block size this is usually
                     greater than %s/512, but it can also be smaller if  the  file  is  a  sparse
                     file.

              %c     File's last status change time in the format returned by the C `ctime' func-
                     tion.

              %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by k,  which  is  the
                     same as for %A.

              %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a command line argu-
                     ment.

              %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the  st_dev  field  of  struct
                     stat), in decimal.

              %f     File's name with any leading directories removed (only the last element).

              %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be used for -fstype.

              %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the group has no name.

              %G     File's numeric group ID.

              %h     Leading  directories of file's name (all but the last element).  If the file
                     name contains no slashes (since it is in the current directory) the %h spec-
                     ifier expands to ".".

              %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

              %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

              %k     The  amount  of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks. Since disk space
                     is allocated in multiples of the  filesystem  block  size  this  is  usually
                     greater  than  %s/1024,  but  it can also be smaller if the file is a sparse
                     file.

              %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file is not a symbolic link).

              %m     File's permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the `traditional'  num-
                     bers which most Unix implementations use, but if your particular implementa-
                     tion uses an unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see a dif-
                     ference  between  the  actual value of the file's mode and the output of %m.
                     Normally you will want to have a leading zero on  this  number,  and  to  do
                     this, you should use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

              %M     File's  permissions  (in  symbolic form, as for ls).  This directive is sup-
                     ported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

              %n     Number of hard links to file.

              %p     File's name.

              %P     File's name with the name of the command line argument under  which  it  was
                     found removed.

              %s     File's size in bytes.

              %S     File's  sparseness.   This is calculated as (BLOCKSIZE*st_blocks / st_size).
                     The exact value you will get for an ordinary file of  a  certain  length  is
                     system-dependent.  However, normally sparse files will have values less than
                     1.0, and files which use indirect blocks may have a value which  is  greater
                     than 1.0.   The value used for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent, but is usually
                     512 bytes.   If the file size is zero, the value printed is  undefined.   On
                     systems  which lack support for st_blocks, a file's sparseness is assumed to
                     be 1.0.

              %t     File's last modification time in the format returned by the C `ctime'  func-
                     tion.

              %Tk    File's  last  modification  time  in the format specified by k, which is the
                     same as for %A.

              %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user has no name.

              %U     File's numeric user ID.

              %y     File's type (like in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't happen)

              %Y     File's type (like %y), plus follow symlinks: L=loop, N=nonexistent

              %Z     (SELinux only) file's security context.

              %{ %[ %(
                     Reserved for future use.

              A `%' character followed by any other character is discarded, but the other charac-
              ter  is  printed  (don't  rely  on this, as further format characters may be intro-
              duced).  A `%' at the end of the format argument causes undefined  behaviour  since
              there  is  no  following  character.   In some locales, it may hide your door keys,
              while in others it may remove the final page from the novel you are reading.

              The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but the other directives do
              not,  even  if  they  print  numbers.  Numeric directives that do not support these
              flags include G, U, b, D, k and n.  The `-' format flag is  supported  and  changes
              the alignment of a field from right-justified (which is the default) to left-justi-
              fied.

              See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual  characters  in
              filenames are handled.



       -prune True;  if  the  file  is  a  directory, do not descend into it. If -depth is given,
              false; no effect.  Because -delete implies -depth, you cannot usefully  use  -prune
              and -delete together.


       -quit  Exit immediately.  No child processes will be left running, but no more paths spec-
              ified on the command line will be processed.  For example, find  /tmp/foo  /tmp/bar
              -print  -quit will print only /tmp/foo.  Any command lines which have been built up
              with -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit status may  or
              may not be zero, depending on whether an error has already occurred.


   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of  the actions of find result in the printing of data which is under the control of
       other users.  This includes file names, sizes, modification  times  and  so  forth.   File
       names  are  a  potential problem since they can contain any character except `\0' and `/'.
       Unusual characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable  things  to  your
       terminal  (for  example,  changing  the settings of your function keys on some terminals).
       Unusual characters are handled differently by various actions, as described below.


       -print0, -fprint0
              Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output is going to a termi-
              nal.


       -ls, -fls
              Unusual  characters  are  always escaped.  White space, backslash, and double quote
              characters are printed using C-style escaping  (for  example  `\f',  `\"').   Other
              unusual  characters  are printed using an octal escape.  Other printable characters
              (for -ls and -fls these are the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are  printed
              as-is.


       -printf, -fprintf
              If  the  output  is  not  going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.  Otherwise, the
              result depends on which directive is in use.  The directives %D, %F,  %g,  %G,  %H,
              %Y,  and  %y  expand to values which are not under control of files' owners, and so
              are printed as-is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,  %u
              and %U have values which are under the control of files' owners but which cannot be
              used to send arbitrary data to the terminal, and so these are printed  as-is.   The
              directives %f, %h, %l, %p and %P are quoted.  This quoting is performed in the same
              way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as the one used for  -ls
              and -fls.  If you are able to decide what format to use for the output of find then
              it is normally better to use `\0' as a terminator than  to  use  newline,  as  file
              names  can  contain  white  space  and  newline  characters.   The  setting  of the
              `LC_CTYPE' environment variable is used to determine which characters  need  to  be
              quoted.


       -print, -fprint
              Quoting  is  handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.  If you are using
              find in a script or in a situation where the matched  files  might  have  arbitrary
              names, you should consider using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may change in a future
       release.


   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:


       ( expr )
              Force precedence.  Since parentheses are special to the shell,  you  will  normally
              need  to  quote them.  Many of the examples in this manual page use backslashes for
              this purpose: `\(...\)' instead of `(...)'.


       ! expr True if expr is false.  This character  will  also  usually  need  protection  from
              interpretation by the shell.


       -not expr
              Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 expr2
              Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied "and"; expr2 is not
              evaluated if expr1 is false.


       expr1 -a expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2.


       expr1 -and expr2
              Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 -o expr2
              Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.


       expr1 -or expr2
              Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.


       expr1 , expr2
              List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of expr1 is  discarded;
              the  value  of the list is the value of expr2. The comma operator can be useful for
              searching for several different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem hier-
              archy only once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the various matched items
              into several different output files.



STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to the POSIX standard, you should set the POSIXLY_CORRECT  environ-
       ment  variable.   The  following  options  are  specified  in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):


       -H     This option is supported.


       -L     This option is supported.


       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends on the POSIX conformance of
              the system's fnmatch(3) library function.  As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharac-
              ters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) will match a leading  `.',  because  IEEE  PASC
              interpretation  126  requires  this.    This  is a change from previous versions of
              findutils.


       -type  Supported.   POSIX specifies `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and `s'.  GNU  find  also
              supports `D', representing a Door, where the OS provides these.


       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is according to the "yes" and "no" pat-
              terns selected  by  setting  the  `LC_MESSAGES'  environment  variable.   When  the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT'  environment  variable  is set, these patterns are taken system's
              definition of a positive (yes) or negative (no) response. See the system's documen-
              tation  for nl_langinfo(3), in particular YESEXPR and NOEXPR.    When `POSIXLY_COR-
              RECT' is not set, the patterns are instead taken from find's own message catalogue.


       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is a symbolic link, it  is  always  dereferenced.
              This is a change from previous behaviour, which used to take the relevant time from
              the symbolic link; see the HISTORY section below.


       -perm  Supported.  If the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not set, some mode argu-
              ments  (for  example +a+x) which are not valid in POSIX are supported for backward-
              compatibility.


       Other predicates
              The predicates -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime,  -nogroup,  -nouser,
              -print,  -prune,  -size,  -user  and  -xdev `-atime', `-ctime', `-depth', `-group',
              `-links', `-mtime', `-nogroup', `-nouser', `-perm',  `-print',  `-prune',  `-size',
              `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.


       The  POSIX  standard  specifies  parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the `and' and `or'
       operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are extensions  beyond  the  POSIX
       standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

              The  find  utility shall detect infinite loops; that is, entering a previously vis-
              ited directory that is an ancestor of the last file encountered. When it detects an
              infinite  loop,  find  shall write a diagnostic message to standard error and shall
              either recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directories  which  contain
       entries which are hard links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should
       be.  This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a  subdirec-
       tory  which  is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually enter such a
       subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this  behav-
       iour  may  be somewhat confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this be-
       haviour.  If the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the  directory  entry
       will always be examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it is appropriate.
       Symbolic links cannot be used to create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or
       the  -follow  option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a loop
       of symbolic links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will  often
       mean  that find knows that it doesn't need to call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link,
       so this diagnostic is frequently not necessary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD systems, but you should  use
       the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment  variable does not affect the behaviour of the -regex or
       -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified in the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization variables that are  unset  or
              null.


       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other interna-
              tionalization variables.


       LC_COLLATE
              The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pattern matching to  be
              used  for the -name option.   GNU find uses the fnmatch(3) library function, and so
              support for `LC_COLLATE' depends on  the  system  library.     This  variable  also
              affects the interpretation of the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES' variable
              selects the actual pattern used to interpret the response to -ok,  the  interpreta-
              tion of any bracket expressions in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.


       LC_CTYPE
              This  variable  affects  the treatment of character classes used in regular expres-
              sions and also with the -name test, if the  system's  fnmatch(3)  library  function
              supports  this.   This  variable  also  affects the interpretation of any character
              classes in the regular expressions used to interpret the  response  to  the  prompt
              issued  by -ok.  The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also affect which charac-
              ters are considered to be unprintable when filenames are printed; see  the  section
              UNUSUAL FILENAMES.


       LC_MESSAGES
              Determines   the  locale  to  be  used  for  internationalised  messages.   If  the
              `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this also determines the interpreta-
              tion of the response to the prompt made by the -ok action.


       NLSPATH
              Determines the location of the internationalisation message catalogues.


       PATH   Affects  the  directories  which  are  searched  to find the executables invoked by
              -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.


       POSIXLY_CORRECT
              Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_CORRECT is set,  blocks
              are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are units of 1024 bytes.

              Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that is, implies -nowarn) by
              default, because POSIX requires that apart from the output for  -ok,  all  messages
              printed on stderr are diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

              When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like -perm /zzz if +zzz
              is not a valid symbolic mode.  When POSIXLY_CORRECT is  set,  such  constructs  are
              treated as an error.

              When  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, the response to the prompt made by the -ok action is
              interpreted according to the system's message catalogue, as opposed to according to
              find's own message translations.


       TZ     Affects  the  time  zone  used  for  some  of the time-related format directives of
              -printf and -fprintf.

BINARIES
       The findutils source distribution contains two different  implementations  of  find.   The
       older  implementation  descends  the  file  system  recursively,  while the newer one uses
       fts(3).  Both are normally installed.

       If the option --without-fts was passed  to  configure,  the  recursive  implementation  is
       installed  as  find  and the fts-based implementation is installed as ftsfind.  Otherwise,
       the fts-based implementation is installed as find  and  the  recursive  implementation  is
       installed as oldfind.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.  Note that this will
       work incorrectly if there are any filenames containing newlines, single or double  quotes,
       or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find files named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them, processing filenames
       in such a way that file or directory names containing single or double quotes,  spaces  or
       newlines  are  correctly  handled.  The -name test comes before the -type test in order to
       avoid having to call stat(2) on every file.


       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs `file' on every file in or below the current directory.  Notice that the  braces  are
       enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from interpretation as shell script punctu-
       ation.  The semicolon is similarly protected by the use  of  a  backslash,  though  single
       quotes could have been used in that case also.


       find / \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' \)

       Traverse   the   filesystem   just   once,  listing  setuid  files  and  directories  into
       /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.


       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the  last  twenty-four
       hours.   This command works this way because the time since each file was last modified is
       divided by 24 hours and any remainder is discarded.  That means that to match -mtime 0,  a
       file will have to have a modification in the past which is less than 24 hours ago.


       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.


       find . -perm 664

       Search  for  files  which  have  read and write permission for their owner, and group, but
       which other users can read but not write to.  Files which meet  these  criteria  but  have
       other  permissions  bits  set  (for  example  if someone can execute the file) will not be
       matched.


       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their owner and group, and which
       other  users  can  read,  without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for
       example the executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.


       find . -perm /222

       Search for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their group,  or  anybody
       else).


       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All  three of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses the octal represen-
       tation of the file mode, and the other two use the  symbolic  form.   These  commands  all
       search for files which are writable by either their owner or their group.  The files don't
       have to be writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.


       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same thing; search for files which are writable by  both  their
       owner and their group.


       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for everybody ( -perm -444 or
       -perm -a+r), have at least one write bit set ( -perm /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not  exe-
       cutable for anybody ( ! -perm /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).


       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits files and directo-
       ries named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also omits  files  or  directories  whose
       name  ends  in  ~,  but  not their contents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is
       quite common.  The idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to be pruned.  However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the following -o ensures
       that the right hand side is evaluated only for those directories which didn't  get  pruned
       (the contents of the pruned directories are not even visited, so their contents are irrel-
       evant).  The expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only for  clar-
       ity.   It  emphasises that the -print0 action takes place only for things that didn't have
       -prune applied to them.  Because the default `and'  condition  between  tests  binds  more
       tightly  than  -o,  this  is  the default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is
       going on.


       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn \; -or \
       -exec test -d {}/.git \; -or -exec test -d {}/CVS \; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of projects and their associated SCM administrative directo-
       ries, perform an efficient search for the projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In  this  example,  -prune prevents unnecessary descent into directories that have already
       been discovered (for example we do  not  search  project3/src  because  we  already  found
       project3/.svn), but ensures sibling directories (project2 and project3) are found.


EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0 if all files are processed successfully, greater than 0 if errors
       occur.   This is deliberately a very broad description, but if the return  value  is  non-
       zero, you should not rely on the correctness of the results of find.


SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),  updatedb(1),  xargs(1), chmod(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7), stat(2),
       lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3), Finding  Files  (on-line  in  Info,  or
       printed).

HISTORY
       As  of  findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for example) used in file-
       name patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE  POSIX  interpretation  126  requires
       this.

       As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a nonzero value when
       it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.  Previously, find's  exit  status  was
       unaffected by the failure of -delete.

       Feature                Added in   Also occurs in
       -newerXY               4.3.3      BSD
       -D                     4.3.1
       -O                     4.3.1
       -readable              4.3.0
       -writable              4.3.0
       -executable            4.3.0
       -regextype             4.2.24
       -exec ... +            4.2.12     POSIX
       -execdir               4.2.12     BSD
       -okdir                 4.2.12
       -samefile              4.2.11
       -H                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -L                     4.2.5      POSIX
       -P                     4.2.5      BSD
       -delete                4.2.3
       -quit                  4.2.3
       -d                     4.2.3      BSD
       -wholename             4.2.0
       -iwholename            4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls                   4.0
       -ilname                3.8
       -iname                 3.8
       -ipath                 3.8
       -iregex                3.8

       The syntax -perm +MODE does not work as expected in findutils-4.5.11 and it was removed in
       findutils-4.5.12, in favour of -perm /MODE.  The +MODE syntax had  been  deprecated  since
       findutils-4.2.21 which was released in 2005.

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This happens because *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in find actually receiv-
       ing a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of doing things this way, you should
       enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wildcard:
       $ find . -name '*.c' -print
       $ find . -name \*.c -print


BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX standard specifies
       for find, which therefore cannot be fixed.  For example, the -exec  action  is  inherently
       insecure, and -execdir should be used instead.  Please see Finding Files for more informa-
       tion.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The   best   way   to   report   a   bug   is   to   use   the   form   at   http://savan-
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The  reason for this is that you will then be able to
       track progress in fixing the problem.   Other comments about find(1) and about the  findu-
       tils  package in general can be sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list,
       send email to bug-findutils-request AT gnu.org.



                                                                                          FIND(1)

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