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FUSER(1)                         User Commands                        FUSER(1)



NAME
       fuser - identify processes using files or sockets

SYNOPSIS
       fuser [-a|-s|-c] [-4|-6] [-n  space ] [-k [-i] [-signal ] ] [-muvf] name ...
       fuser -l
       fuser -V

DESCRIPTION
       fuser displays the PIDs of processes using the specified files or file systems.  In
       the default display mode, each file name is followed by a letter denoting the  type
       of access:

              c      current directory.

              e      executable being run.

              f      open file. f is omitted in default display mode.

              F      open file for writing. F is omitted in default display mode.

              r      root directory.

              m      mmap'ed file or shared library.

       fuser  returns a non-zero return code if none of the specified files is accessed or
       in case of a fatal error. If at least one access  has  been  found,  fuser  returns
       zero.

       In  order  to  look  up processes using TCP and UDP sockets, the corresponding name
       space has to be selected with the -n option. By default fuser  will  look  in  both
       IPv6  and IPv4 sockets. To change the default, behavior, use the -4 and -6 options.
       The socket(s) can be specified by  the  local  and  remote  port,  and  the  remote
       address.  All  fields  are  optional, but commas in front of missing fields must be
       present:

       [lcl_port][,[rmt_host][,[rmt_port]]]

       Either symbolic or numeric values can be used for IP addresses and port numbers.

       fuser outputs only the PIDs to stdout, everything else is sent to stderr.

OPTIONS
       -a     Show all files specified on the command line. By default,  only  files  that
              are accessed by at least one process are shown.

       -c     Same as -m option, used for POSIX compatibility.

       -f     Silently ignored, used for POSIX compatibility.

       -k     Kill  processes  accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is
              sent. An fuser process never kills itself, but may  kill  other  fuser  pro-
              cesses.  The  effective user ID of the process executing fuser is set to its
              real user ID before attempting to kill.

       -i     Ask the user for confirmation before  killing  a  process.  This  option  is
              silently ignored if -k is not present too.

       -l     List all known signal names.

       -m     name  specifies  a  file  on a mounted file system or a block device that is
              mounted. All processes accessing files on that file system are listed.  If a
              directory  file  is  specified, it is automatically changed to name/. to use
              any file system that might be mounted on that directory.

       -n space
              Select a different name  space.  The  name  spaces  file  (file  names,  the
              default),  udp  (local  UDP ports), and tcp (local TCP ports) are supported.
              For ports, either the port number or the symbolic name can be specified.  If
              there  is no ambiguity, the shortcut notation name/Ispace (e.g. 80/tcp ) can
              be used.

       -s     Silent operation. -u and -v are ignored in this mode.  -a must not  be  used
              with -s.

       -signal
              Use  the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals
              can be specified either by name (e.g. -HUP) or by  number  (e.g.  -1).  This
              option is silently ignored if the -k option is not used.

       -u     Append the user name of the process owner to each PID.

       -v     Verbose  mode.  Processes are shown in a ps-like style. The fields PID, USER
              and COMMAND are similar to ps. ACCESS shows how  the  process  accesses  the
              file.  If  the access is by the kernel (e.g. in the case of a mount point, a
              swap file, etc.), kernel is shown instead of the PID.

       -V     Display version information.

       -4     Search only for IPv4 sockets. This option must  not  be  used  with  the  -6
              option and only has an effect with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -6     Search  only  for  IPv6  sockets.  This  option must not be used with the -4
              option and only has an effect with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -      Reset all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

FILES
       /proc     location of the proc file system

EXAMPLES
       fuser -km /home kills all processes accessing the file system /home in any way.

       if fuser -s /dev/ttyS1; then :; else something; fi invokes something  if  no  other
       process is using /dev/ttyS1.

       fuser telnet/tcp shows all processes at the (local) TELNET port.

RESTRICTIONS
       Processes  accessing the same file or file system several times in the same way are
       only shown once.

       If the same object is specified several times on the command line,  some  of  those
       entries may be ignored.

       fuser may only be able to gather partial information unless run with privileges. As
       a consequence, files opened by processes belonging to other users may not be listed
       and executables may be classified as mapped only.

       Installing fuser SUID root will avoid problems associated with partial information,
       but may be undesirable for security and privacy reasons.

       udp and tcp name spaces, and UNIX domain sockets can't  be  searched  with  kernels
       older than 1.3.78.

       udp  and tcp currently  work with IPv6 and IPv4, but the address fields can only be
       IPv4 addresses.

       Accesses by the kernel are only shown with the -v option.

       The -k option only works on processes. If the user is the kernel, fuser will  print
       an advice, but take no action beyond that.

       fuser cannot report on any processes that it doesn't have permission to look at the
       file descriptor table for.  The most common time this problem occurs is when  look-
       ing  for  TCP  or  UDP  sockets when running fuser as a non-root user. In this case
       fuser will report no access.

BUGS
       fuser -m /dev/sgX will show (or kill with the -k flag) all processes, even  if  you
       don't have that device configured. There may be other devices it does this for too.

AUTHORS
       Werner Almesberger <werner AT almesberger.net>

       Craig Small <csmall AT small.au>

SEE ALSO
       kill(1), killall(1), lsof(8), ps(1), kill(2).



Linux                             2005-11-05                          FUSER(1)

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