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GLOB(3)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   GLOB(3)

       glob, globfree - find pathnames matching a pattern, free memory from glob()

       #include <glob.h>

       int glob(const char *pattern, int flags,
                int (*errfunc) (const char *epath, int eerrno),
                glob_t *pglob);
       void globfree(glob_t *pglob);

       The  glob()  function  searches for all the pathnames matching pattern according to
       the rules used by the shell (see glob(7)).  No tilde expansion or parameter substi-
       tution is done; if you want these, use wordexp(3).

       The  globfree()  function  frees  the dynamically allocated storage from an earlier
       call to glob().

       The results of a glob() call are stored in the structure pointed to by pglob.  This
       structure  is of type glob_t (declared in <glob.h>) and includes the following ele-
       ments defined by POSIX.2 (more may be present as an extension):

           typedef struct {
               size_t   gl_pathc;    /* Count of paths matched so far  */
               char   **gl_pathv;    /* List of matched pathnames.  */
               size_t   gl_offs;     /* Slots to reserve in gl_pathv.  */
           } glob_t;

       Results are stored in dynamically allocated storage.

       The argument flags is made up of the bitwise OR of zero or more the following  sym-
       bolic constants, which modify the behavior of glob():

              Return upon a read error (because a directory does not have read permission,
              for example).  By default, glob() attempts carry on despite errors,  reading
              all of the directories that it can.

              Append a slash to each path which corresponds to a directory.

              Don't  sort  the  returned pathnames.  The only reason to do this is to save
              processing time.  By default, the returned pathnames are sorted.

              Reserve pglob->gl_offs slots at the beginning of  the  list  of  strings  in
              pglob->pathv.  The reserved slots contain NULL pointers.

              If  no  pattern  matches,  return  the original pattern.  By default, glob()
              returns GLOB_NOMATCH if there are no matches.

              Append the results of this call to the vector of results returned by a  pre-
              vious  call  to  glob().   Do  not  set this flag on the first invocation of

              Don't allow backslash ('\') to be used as an escape character.  Normally,  a
              backslash  can  be  used  to  quote  the  following  character,  providing a
              mechanism to turn off the special meaning metacharacters.

       flags may also include any of the following,  which  are  GNU  extensions  and  not
       defined by POSIX.2:

              Allow  a  leading  period  to  be  matched  by  metacharacters.  By default,
              metacharacters can't match a leading period.

              Use    alternative    functions    pglob->gl_closedir,    pglob->gl_readdir,
              pglob->gl_opendir,  pglob->gl_lstat,  and  pglob->gl_stat  for  file  system
              access instead of the normal library functions.

              Expand csh(1) style brace expressions of the form {a,b}.  Brace  expressions
              can    be    nested.     Thus,   for   example,   specifying   the   pattern
              "{foo/{,cat,dog},bar}" would return the same results as four separate glob()
              calls using the strings: "foo/", "foo/cat", "foo/dog", and "bar".

              If  the pattern contains no metacharacters then it should be returned as the
              sole matching word, even if there is no file with that name.

              Carry out tilde expansion.  If a tilde ('~') is the only  character  in  the
              pattern,  or an initial tilde is followed immediately by a slash ('/'), then
              the home directory of the caller is substituted for the tilde.  If  an  ini-
              tial  tilde  is followed by a username (e.g., "~andrea/bin"), then the tilde
              and username are substituted by the home directory of  that  user.   If  the
              username  is  invalid,  or  the home directory cannot be determined, then no
              substitution is performed.

              This provides behavior similar to that of  GLOB_TILDE.   The  difference  is
              that if the username is invalid, or the home directory cannot be determined,
              then instead of using  the  pattern  itself  as  the  name,  glob()  returns
              GLOB_NOMATCH to indicate an error.

              This  is  a hint to glob() that the caller is interested only in directories
              that match the pattern.  If the implementation can  easily  determine  file-
              type  information,  then non-directory files are not returned to the caller.
              However, the caller must still check that returned  files  are  directories.
              (The  purpose of this flag is merely to optimize performance when the caller
              is interested only in directories.)

       If errfunc is not NULL, it will be called in case of an error  with  the  arguments
       epath,  a  pointer  to  the  path  which  failed, and eerrno, the value of errno as
       returned from one of the calls to opendir(3), readdir(3), or stat(2).   If  errfunc
       returns  non-zero,  or  if GLOB_ERR is set, glob() will terminate after the call to

       Upon successful return, pglob->gl_pathc contains the number  of  matched  pathnames
       and  pglob->gl_pathv  contains  a  pointer to the list of pointers to matched path-
       names.  The list of pointers is terminated by a NULL pointer.

       It is possible to call glob() several times.  In that case,  the  GLOB_APPEND  flag
       has to be set in flags on the second and later invocations.

       As  a  GNU  extension,  pglob->gl_flags  is  set  to the flags specified, ored with
       GLOB_MAGCHAR if any metacharacters were found.

       On successful completion, glob() returns zero.  Other possible returns are:

              for running out of memory,

              for a read error, and

              for no found matches.

       POSIX.2, POSIX.1-2001.

       The structure elements gl_pathc and gl_offs are declared as size_t in glibc 2.1, as
       they  should  be  according to POSIX.2, but are declared as int in libc4, libc5 and
       glibc 2.0.

       The glob() function may fail due to failure of underlying function calls,  such  as
       malloc(3) or opendir(3).  These will store their error code in errno.

       One example of use is the following code, which simulates typing

           ls -l *.c ../*.c

       in the shell:

           glob_t globbuf;

           globbuf.gl_offs = 2;
           glob("*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS, NULL, &globbuf);
           glob("../*.c", GLOB_DOOFFS | GLOB_APPEND, NULL, &globbuf);
           globbuf.gl_pathv[0] = "ls";
           globbuf.gl_pathv[1] = "-l";
           execvp("ls", &globbuf.gl_pathv[0]);

       ls(1),  sh(1),  stat(2),  exec(3),  fnmatch(3),  malloc(3), opendir(3), readdir(3),
       wordexp(3), glob(7)

       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the  project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.ker-

GNU                               2007-10-10                           GLOB(3)

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