ip(8) - phpMan

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IP(8)                                Linux                               IP(8)

       ip - show / manipulate routing, devices, policy routing and tunnels

       ip [ OPTIONS ] OBJECT { COMMAND | help }

       OBJECT := { link | addr | addrlabel | route | rule | neigh | tunnel | maddr |
               mroute | monitor }

       OPTIONS := { -V[ersion] | -s[tatistics] | -r[esolve] | -f[amily] { inet | inet6 |
               ipx | dnet | link } | -o[neline] }

       ip link set DEVICE { up | down | arp { on | off } |
               promisc { on | off } |
               allmulticast { on | off } |
               dynamic { on | off } |
               multicast { on | off } |
               txqueuelen PACKETS |
               name NEWNAME |
               address LLADDR | broadcast LLADDR |
               mtu MTU |
               netns PID |
               alias NAME |
               vf NUM [ mac LLADDR ] [ vlan VLANID [ qos VLAN-QOS ] ] [ rate TXRATE ] [
               spoofchk { on | off } ] |  }

       ip link show [ DEVICE ]

       ip addr { add | del } IFADDR dev STRING

       ip addr { show | flush } [ dev STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ] [ to PREFIX ] [ FLAG-
               LIST ] [ label PATTERN ]

       IFADDR := PREFIX | ADDR peer PREFIX [ broadcast ADDR ] [ anycast ADDR ] [ label
               STRING ] [ scope SCOPE-ID ]

       SCOPE-ID := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]


       FLAG := [ permanent | dynamic | secondary | primary | tentative | deprecated ]

       ip addrlabel { add | del } prefix PREFIX [ dev DEV ] [ label NUMBER ]

       ip addrlabel { list | flush }

       ip route { list | flush } SELECTOR

       ip route get ADDRESS [ from ADDRESS iif STRING  ] [ oif STRING ] [ tos TOS ]

       ip route { add | del | change | append | replace | monitor } ROUTE

       SELECTOR := [ root PREFIX ] [ match PREFIX ] [ exact PREFIX ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [
               proto RTPROTO ] [ type TYPE ] [ scope SCOPE ]


       NODE_SPEC := [ TYPE ] PREFIX [ tos TOS ] [ table TABLE_ID ] [ proto RTPROTO ] [
               scope SCOPE ] [ metric METRIC ]

       INFO_SPEC := NH OPTIONS FLAGS [ nexthop NH ] ...

       NH := [ via ADDRESS ] [ dev STRING ] [ weight NUMBER ] NHFLAGS

       OPTIONS := FLAGS [ mtu NUMBER ] [ advmss NUMBER ] [ rtt TIME ] [ rttvar TIME ] [
               window NUMBER ] [ cwnd NUMBER ] [ initcwnd NUMBER ] [ ssthresh REALM ] [
               realms REALM ] [ rto_min TIME ] [ initrwnd NUMBER ]

       TYPE := [ unicast | local | broadcast | multicast | throw | unreachable | prohibit
               | blackhole | nat ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local| main | default | all | NUMBER ]

       SCOPE := [ host | link | global | NUMBER ]

       FLAGS := [ equalize ]

       NHFLAGS := [ onlink | pervasive ]

       RTPROTO := [ kernel | boot | static | NUMBER ]

       ip rule  [ list | add | del | flush ] SELECTOR ACTION

       SELECTOR := [ from PREFIX ] [ to PREFIX ] [ tos TOS ] [ fwmark FWMARK[/MASK] ] [
               dev STRING ] [ pref NUMBER ]

       ACTION := [ table TABLE_ID ] [ nat ADDRESS ] [ realms [SRCREALM/]DSTREALM ]

       TABLE_ID := [ local | main | default | NUMBER ]

       ip neigh { add | del | change | replace } { ADDR [ lladdr LLADDR ] [ nud { perma-
               nent | noarp | stale | reachable } ] | proxy ADDR } [ dev DEV ]

       ip neigh { show | flush } [ to PREFIX ] [ dev DEV ] [ nud STATE ]

       ip tunnel { add | change | del | show | prl } [ NAME ]
               [ mode MODE ] [ remote ADDR ] [ local ADDR ]
               [ [i|o]seq ] [ [i|o]key KEY ] [ [i|o]csum ] ]
               [ encaplimit ELIM ] [ ttl TTL ]
               [ tos TOS ] [ flowlabel FLOWLABEL ]
               [ prl-default ADDR ] [ prl-nodefault ADDR ] [ prl-delete ADDR ]
               [ [no]pmtudisc ] [ dev PHYS_DEV ] [ dscp inherit ]

       MODE :=  { ipip | gre | sit | isatap | ip6ip6 | ipip6 | any }

       ADDR := { IP_ADDRESS | any }

       TOS := { NUMBER | inherit }

       ELIM := { none | 0..255 }

       TTL := { 1..255 | inherit }

       KEY := { DOTTED_QUAD | NUMBER }

       TIME := NUMBER[s|ms]

       ip maddr [ add | del ] MULTIADDR dev NAME

       ip maddr show [ dev NAME ]

       ip mroute show [ PREFIX ] [ from PREFIX ] [ iif DEVICE ]

       ip monitor [ all | OBJECT-LIST ]

       ip xfrm XFRM_OBJECT { COMMAND }

       XFRM_OBJECT := { state | policy | monitor }

       ip xfrm state { add | update } ID [ XFRM_OPT ]  [ mode MODE ]
                [ reqid REQID ]  [ seq SEQ ]  [ replay-window SIZE ]
                [ flag FLAG-LIST ]  [ encap ENCAP ]  [ sel SELECTOR ]
                [ LIMIT-LIST ]

       ip xfrm state allocspi ID  [ mode MODE ]  [ reqid REQID ]  [ seq SEQ ]  [ min SPI
               max SPI ]

       ip xfrm state { delete | get } ID

       ip xfrm state { deleteall | list } [ ID ]  [ mode MODE ]
                [ reqid REQID ]  [ flag FLAG_LIST ]

       ip xfrm state flush [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]

       ip xfrm state count

       ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]  [ spi SPI ]

       XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

       MODE :=  [ transport | tunnel | ro | beet ] (default=transport)


       FLAG :=  [ noecn | decap-dscp | wildrecv ]


       ENCAP-TYPE := espinudp  | espinudp-nonike

       ALGO-LIST := [ ALGO-LIST ] | [ ALGO ]


       ALGO_TYPE :=  [ enc | auth | comp ]

       SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN]  [ UPSPEC ]  [ dev DEV ]

       UPSPEC := proto PROTO [[ sport PORT ]  [ dport PORT ] |
                [ type NUMBER ]  [ code NUMBER ]]

       LIMIT-LIST := [ LIMIT-LIST ] |  [ limit LIMIT ]

       LIMIT :=  [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ] | [ [byte-
               soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
                [ [packet-soft|packet-hard] COUNT ]

       ip xfrm policy { add | update }  dir DIR SELECTOR [ index INDEX ]
                [ ptype PTYPE ]  [ action ACTION ]  [ priority PRIORITY ]
                [ LIMIT-LIST ] [ TMPL-LIST ]

       ip xfrm policy { delete | get }  dir DIR [ SELECTOR | index INDEX  ]
                [ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm policy { deleteall | list }  [ dir DIR ] [ SELECTOR ]
                [ index INDEX ]  [ action ACTION ]  [ priority PRIORITY ]

       ip xfrm policy flush  [ ptype PTYPE ]

       ip xfrm count

       PTYPE :=  [ main | sub ] (default=main)

       DIR :=  [ in | out | fwd ]

       SELECTOR := src ADDR[/PLEN] dst ADDR[/PLEN] [ UPSPEC  ] [ dev DEV ]

       UPSPEC := proto PROTO [  [ sport PORT ]  [ dport PORT ] |
                [ type NUMBER ]  [ code NUMBER ] ]

       ACTION :=  [ allow | block ] (default=allow)

       LIMIT-LIST :=  [ LIMIT-LIST ] |  [ limit LIMIT ]

       LIMIT :=  [ [time-soft|time-hard|time-use-soft|time-use-hard] SECONDS ] |  [ [byte-
               soft|byte-hard] SIZE ] |
               [packet-soft|packet-hard] NUMBER ]

       TMPL-LIST :=  [ TMPL-LIST ] |  [ tmpl TMPL ]

       TMPL := ID [ mode MODE ]  [ reqid REQID ]  [ level LEVEL ]

       ID :=  [ src ADDR ]  [ dst ADDR ]  [ proto XFRM_PROTO ]  [ spi SPI ]

       XFRM_PROTO :=  [ esp | ah | comp | route2 | hao ]

       MODE :=  [ transport | tunnel | beet ] (default=transport)

       LEVEL :=  [ required | use ] (default=required)

       ip xfrm monitor [ all | OBJECT-LIST ]

       ip token { COMMAND | help }

       ip token { set } TOKEN dev DEV

       ip token { get } dev DEV

       ip token { list }

       -V, -Version
              print the version of the ip utility and exit.

       -s, -stats, -statistics
              Output more information. If the option appears twice or more, the amount  of
              information  increases.   As  a  rule, the information is statistics or some
              time values.

       -h, -human, -human-readable
              output statistics with human readable values number followed by suffix

       -iec   print human readable rates in IEC units (ie. 1K = 1024).

-f, -family <FAMILY>
Specifies the protocol family to use. The protocol family identifier can be one  of  inet,
inet6,  ipx,  dnet or link.  If this option is not present, the protocol family is guessed
from other arguments. If the rest of the command line does not give enough information  to
guess  the  family, ip falls back to the default one, usually inet or any.  link is a spe-
cial family identifier meaning that no networking protocol is involved.

shortcut for -family inet.

shortcut for -family inet6.

shortcut for -family link.

-o, -oneline
output each record on a single line, replacing line feeds with the '\' character. This  is
convenient when you want to count records with wc(1) or to grep(1) the output.

-r, -resolve
use the system's name resolver to print DNS names instead of host addresses.

       link   - network device.

              - protocol (IP or IPv6) address on a device.

              - label configuration for protocol address selection.

              - ARP or NDISC cache entry.

       route  - routing table entry.

       rule   - rule in routing policy database.

              - multicast address.

       mroute - multicast routing cache entry.

       tunnel - tunnel over IP.

       xfrm   - framework for IPsec protocol.

       The  names  of  all objects may be written in full or abbreviated form, for example
       address can be abbreviated as addr or just a.

       Specifies the action to perform on the object.  The set of possible actions depends
       on  the  object type.  As a rule, it is possible to add, delete and show (or list )
       objects, but some objects do not  allow  all  of  these  operations  or  have  some
       additional commands. The help command is available for all objects. It prints out a
       list of available commands and argument syntax conventions.

       If no command is given, some default command is assumed.  Usually it is list or, if
       the objects of this class cannot be listed, help.

ip link - network device configuration
       link  is  a  network  device  and the corresponding commands display and change the
       state of devices.

   ip link set - change device attributes
       dev NAME (default)
              NAME specifies network device to operate on. When configuring SR-IOV Virtual
              Function  (VF)  devices, this keyword should specify the associated Physical
              Function (PF) device.

       up and down
              change the state of the device to UP or DOWN.

       arp on or arp off
              change the NOARP flag on the device.

       multicast on or multicast off
              change the MULTICAST flag on the device.

       dynamic on or dynamic off
              change the DYNAMIC flag on the device.

       name NAME
              change the name of the device. This operation  is  not  recommended  if  the
              device is running or has some addresses already configured.

       txqueuelen NUMBER

       txqlen NUMBER
              change the transmit queue length of the device.

       mtu NUMBER
              change the MTU of the device.

       address LLADDRESS
              change the station address of the interface.

       broadcast LLADDRESS

       brd LLADDRESS

       peer LLADDRESS
              change  the link layer broadcast address or the peer address when the inter-
              face is POINTOPOINT.

       netns PID
              move the device to the network namespace associated with the process PID.

       alias NAME
              give the device a symbolic name for easy reference.

       vf NUM specify a Virtual Function device to be configured. The associated PF device
              must be specified using the dev parameter.

                      mac LLADDRESS - change the station address for the specified VF. The
                      vf parameter must be specified.

                      vlan VLANID - change the assigned VLAN for the  specified  VF.  When
                      specified,  all  traffic  sent  from  the VF will be tagged with the
                      specified VLAN ID. Incoming traffic will be filtered for the  speci-
                      fied  VLAN  ID,  and  will  have all VLAN tags stripped before being
                      passed to the VF. Setting this parameter to 0 disables VLAN  tagging
                      and filtering. The vf parameter must be specified.

                      qos  VLAN-QOS  -  assign  VLAN QOS (priority) bits for the VLAN tag.
                      When specified, all VLAN tags transmitted by the VF will include the
                      specified priority bits in the VLAN tag. If not specified, the value
                      is assumed to be 0. Both the vf and vlan parameters must  be  speci-
                      fied.  Setting both vlan and qos as 0 disables VLAN tagging and fil-
                      tering for the VF.

                      rate TXRATE - change the allowed transmit bandwidth,  in  Mbps,  for
                      the  specified VF.  Setting this parameter to 0 disables rate limit-
                      ing. The vf parameter must be specified.

                      spoofchk on|off - turn packet spoof checking on or off for the spec-
                      ified VF.

       Warning:  If  multiple parameter changes are requested, ip aborts immediately after
       any of the changes have failed.  This is the only case when ip can move the  system
       to  an  unpredictable  state.  The solution is to avoid changing several parameters
       with one ip link set call.

   ip link show - display device attributes
       dev NAME (default)
              NAME specifies the network device to show.  If this argument is omitted  all
              devices are listed.

       up     only display running interfaces.

ip address - protocol address management.
       The  address  is a protocol (IP or IPv6) address attached to a network device. Each
       device must have at least one address to use the corresponding protocol. It is pos-
       sible  to  have several different addresses attached to one device. These addresses
       are not discriminated, so that the term alias is not quite appropriate for them and
       we do not use it in this document.

       The ip addr command displays addresses and their properties, adds new addresses and
       deletes old ones.

   ip address add - add new protocol address.
       dev NAME
              the name of the device to add the address to.

       local ADDRESS (default)
              the address of the interface. The format of the address depends on the  pro-
              tocol.  It  is  a dotted quad for IP and a sequence of hexadecimal halfwords
              separated by colons for IPv6. The ADDRESS may be followed by a slash  and  a
              decimal number which encodes the network prefix length.

       peer ADDRESS
              the  address  of the remote endpoint for pointopoint interfaces.  Again, the
              ADDRESS may be followed by a slash and a decimal number, encoding  the  net-
              work prefix length. If a peer address is specified, the local address cannot
              have a prefix length. The network prefix is associated with the peer  rather
              than with the local address.

       broadcast ADDRESS
              the broadcast address on the interface.

              It  is possible to use the special symbols '+' and '-' instead of the broad-
              cast address. In this  case,  the  broadcast  address  is  derived  by  set-
              ting/resetting the host bits of the interface prefix.

       label NAME
              Each  address  may be tagged with a label string.  In order to preserve com-
              patibility with Linux-2.0 net aliases, this string must  coincide  with  the
              name  of  the  device  or  must be prefixed with the device name followed by

       scope SCOPE_VALUE
              the scope of the area where this address is valid.  The available scopes are
              listed in file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.  Predefined scope values are:

                      global - the address is globally valid.

                      site  -  (IPv6  only)  the  address  is site local, i.e. it is valid
                      inside this site.

                      link - the address is link local, i.e. it  is  valid  only  on  this

                      host - the address is valid only inside this host.

   ip address delete - delete protocol address
       Arguments:  coincide  with  the  arguments  of  ip  addr add.  The device name is a
       required argument. The rest are optional.  If no arguments  are  given,  the  first
       address is deleted.

   ip address show - look at protocol addresses
       dev NAME (default)
              name of device.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              only list addresses with this scope.

       to PREFIX
              only list addresses matching this prefix.

       label PATTERN
              only  list  addresses  with labels matching the PATTERN.  PATTERN is a usual
              shell style pattern.

       dynamic and permanent
              (IPv6 only) only list addresses installed due to stateless address  configu-
              ration or only list permanent (not dynamic) addresses.

              (IPv6  only) only list addresses which did not pass duplicate address detec-

              (IPv6 only) only list deprecated addresses.

       primary and secondary
              only list primary (or secondary) addresses.

   ip address flush - flush protocol addresses
       This command flushes the protocol addresses selected by some criteria.

       This command has the same arguments as show.  The difference is that  it  does  not
       run when no arguments are given.

       Warning:  This command (and other flush commands described below) is pretty danger-
       ous. If you make a mistake, it will not forgive it, but will cruelly purge all  the

       With  the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number
       of deleted addresses and the number of rounds made to flush the  address  list.  If
       this  option  is given twice, ip addr flush also dumps all the deleted addresses in
       the format described in the previous subsection.

ip addrlabel - protocol address label management.
       IPv6 address labels are used for address selection; they are described in RFC 3484.
       Precedence is managed by userspace, and only the label itself is stored in the ker-

   ip addrlabel add - add an address label
       add an address label entry to the kernel.

       prefix PREFIX

       dev DEV
              the outgoing interface.

       label NUMBER
              the label for the prefix.  0xffffffff is reserved.

   ip addrlabel del - delete an address label
       delete an address label entry from the kernel.  Arguments: coincide with the  argu-
       ments of ip addrlabel add but the label is not required.

   ip addrlabel list - list address labels
       list the current address label entries in the kernel.

   ip addrlabel flush - flush address labels
       flush all address labels in the kernel. This does not restore any default settings.

ip neighbour - neighbour/arp tables management.
       neighbour objects establish bindings between  protocol  addresses  and  link  layer
       addresses  for  hosts  sharing the same link.  Neighbour entries are organized into
       tables. The IPv4 neighbour table is also known by another name - the ARP table.

       The corresponding commands display neighbour bindings and their properties, add new
       neighbour entries and delete old ones.

   ip neighbour add - add a new neighbour entry
   ip neighbour change - change an existing entry
   ip neighbour replace - add a new entry or change an existing one
       These commands create new neighbour records or update existing ones.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the protocol address of the neighbour. It is either an IPv4 or IPv6 address.

       dev NAME
              the interface to which this neighbour is attached.

       lladdr LLADDRESS
              the link layer address of the neighbour.  LLADDRESS can also be null.

       nud NUD_STATE
              the state of the neighbour entry.  nud is an abbreviation  for  'Neigh  bour
              Unreachability Detection'.  The state can take one of the following values:

                      permanent  - the neighbour entry is valid forever and can be only be
                      removed administratively.

                      noarp - the neighbour entry is valid. No attempts to  validate  this
                      entry  will be made but it can be removed when its lifetime expires.

                      reachable - the neighbour entry  is  valid  until  the  reachability
                      timeout expires.

                      stale - the neighbour entry is valid but suspicious.  This option to
                      ip neigh does not change the neighbour state if it was valid and the
                      address is not changed by this command.

   ip neighbour delete - delete a neighbour entry
       This command invalidates a neighbour entry.

       The  arguments  are  the  same as with ip neigh add, except that lladdr and nud are

       Warning: Attempts to delete or manually change a noarp entry created by the  kernel
       may result in unpredictable behaviour.  Particularly, the kernel may try to resolve
       this address even on a NOARP interface or if the address is multicast or broadcast.

   ip neighbour show - list neighbour entries
       This commands displays neighbour tables.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the prefix selecting the neighbours to list.

       dev NAME
              only list the neighbours attached to this device.

       unused only list neighbours which are not currently in use.

       nud NUD_STATE
              only  list  neighbour  entries in this state.  NUD_STATE takes values listed
              below or the special value all which means all states. This option may occur
              more  than  once.  If this option is absent, ip lists all entries except for
              none and noarp.

   ip neighbour flush - flush neighbour entries
       This command flushes neighbour tables, selecting entries to flush by some criteria.

       This  command has the same arguments as show.  The differences are that it does not
       run when no arguments are given, and  that  the  default  neighbour  states  to  be
       flushed do not include permanent and noarp.

       With  the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number
       of deleted neighbours and the number of rounds made to flush the  neighbour  table.
       If the option is given twice, ip neigh flush also dumps all the deleted neighbours.

ip route - routing table management
       Manipulate route entries in the kernel routing tables keep information about  paths
       to other networked nodes.

       Route types:

               unicast  - the route entry describes real paths to the destinations covered
               by the route prefix.

               unreachable - these destinations are unreachable. Packets are discarded and
               the  ICMP  message host unreachable is generated.  The local senders get an
               EHOSTUNREACH error.

               blackhole - these  destinations  are  unreachable.  Packets  are  discarded
               silently.  The local senders get an EINVAL error.

               prohibit  -  these  destinations are unreachable. Packets are discarded and
               the ICMP message communication administratively  prohibited  is  generated.
               The local senders get an EACCES error.

               local  - the destinations are assigned to this host. The packets are looped
               back and delivered locally.

               broadcast - the destinations are broadcast addresses. The packets are  sent
               as link broadcasts.

               throw  - a special control route used together with policy rules. If such a
               route is selected, lookup in this table is terminated  pretending  that  no
               route  was found. Without policy routing it is equivalent to the absence of
               the route in the routing table. The packets are dropped and the  ICMP  mes-
               sage  net  unreachable  is  generated. The local senders get an ENETUNREACH

               nat - a special NAT route. Destinations covered by the prefix  are  consid-
               ered  to be dummy (or external) addresses which require translation to real
               (or internal) ones before forwarding. The addresses  to  translate  to  are
               selected with the attribute via.  Warning: Route NAT is no longer supported
               in Linux 2.6.

               anycast - not implemented the destinations are anycast  addresses  assigned
               to this host. They are mainly equivalent to local with one difference: such
               addresses are invalid when used as the source address of any packet.

               multicast - a special type used for multicast routing. It is not present in
               normal routing tables.

       Route tables: Linux-2.x can pack routes into several routing tables identified by a
       number in the range from 1 to 255 or by name from the file  /etc/iproute2/rt_tables
       By default all normal routes are inserted into the main table (ID 254) and the ker-
       nel only uses this table when calculating routes.

       Actually, one other table always exists, which is invisible but  even  more  impor-
       tant.  It  is the local table (ID 255). This table consists of routes for local and
       broadcast addresses. The kernel maintains this table automatically and the adminis-
       trator usually need not modify it or even look at it.

       The multiple routing tables enter the game when policy routing is used.

   ip route add - add new route
   ip route change - change route
   ip route replace - change or add new one
       to TYPE PREFIX (default)
              the  destination  prefix  of  the route. If TYPE is omitted, ip assumes type
              unicast.  Other values of TYPE are listed above.  PREFIX is an  IP  or  IPv6
              address  optionally followed by a slash and the prefix length. If the length
              of the prefix is missing, ip assumes a full-length host route. There is also
              a special PREFIX default - which is equivalent to IP 0/0 or to IPv6 ::/0.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              the  Type  Of  Service  (TOS)  key.  This key has no associated mask and the
              longest match is understood as: First, compare the TOS of the route  and  of
              the  packet.  If they are not equal, then the packet may still match a route
              with a zero TOS.  TOS is either an 8 bit hexadecimal number or an identifier
              from /etc/iproute2/rt_dsfield.

       metric NUMBER

       preference NUMBER
              the preference value of the route.  NUMBER is an arbitrary 32bit number.

       table TABLEID
              the  table  to  add this route to.  TABLEID may be a number or a string from
              the file /etc/iproute2/rt_tables.  If this parameter is omitted, ip  assumes
              the main table, with the exception of local, broadcast and nat routes, which
              are put into the local table by default.

       dev NAME
              the output device name.

       via ADDRESS
              the address of the nexthop router. Actually, the sense of this field depends
              on  the route type. For normal unicast routes it is either the true next hop
              router or, if it is a direct route installed in BSD compatibility  mode,  it
              can  be  a  local  address  of the interface. For NAT routes it is the first
              address of the block of translated IP destinations.

       src ADDRESS
              the source address to prefer when sending to the destinations covered by the
              route prefix.

       realm REALMID
              the  realm  to  which  this route is assigned.  REALMID may be a number or a
              string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_realms.

       mtu MTU

       mtu lock MTU
              the MTU along the path to the destination. If the modifier lock is not used,
              the MTU may be updated by the kernel due to Path MTU Discovery. If the modi-
              fier lock is used, no path MTU discovery will be tried, all packets will  be
              sent without the DF bit in IPv4 case or fragmented to MTU for IPv6.

       window NUMBER
              the  maximal  window for TCP to advertise to these destinations, measured in
              bytes. It limits maximal data bursts that our TCP peers are allowed to  send
              to us.

       rtt TIME
              the  initial RTT ('Round Trip Time') estimate. If no suffix is specified the
              units are raw values passed directly to the routing code  to  maintain  com-
              patability  with previous releases.  Otherwise if a suffix of s, sec or secs
              is used to specify seconds and ms, msec or msecs to specify milliseconds.

       rttvar TIME (2.3.15+ only)
              the initial RTT variance estimate. Values are specified as with rtt above.

       rto_min TIME (2.6.23+ only)
              the minimum TCP Retransmission TimeOut to use when communicating  with  this
              destination. Values are specified as with rtt above.

       ssthresh NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              an estimate for the initial slow start threshold.

       cwnd NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              the clamp for congestion window. It is ignored if the lock flag is not used.

       initcwnd NUMBER
              the maximum initial congestion window (cwnd) size in MSS of  a  TCP  connec-

       initrwnd NUMBER (2.6.33+ only)
              the initial receive window size for connections to this destination.  Actual
              window size is this value multiplied by the  MSS  of  the  connection.   The
              default value is zero, meaning to use Slow Start value.

       advmss NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              the  MSS  ('Maximal  Segment  Size') to advertise to these destinations when
              establishing TCP connections. If it is not given, Linux uses a default value
              calculated from the first hop device MTU.  (If the path to these destination
              is asymmetric, this guess may be wrong.)

       reordering NUMBER (2.3.15+ only)
              Maximal reordering on the path to this destination.  If  it  is  not  given,
              Linux  uses the value selected with sysctl variable net/ipv4/tcp_reordering.

       nexthop NEXTHOP
              the nexthop of a multipath route.  NEXTHOP is a complex value with  its  own
              syntax similar to the top level argument lists:

                      via ADDRESS - is the nexthop router.

                      dev NAME - is the output device.

                      weight  NUMBER  -  is a weight for this element of a multipath route
                      reflecting its relative bandwidth or quality.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              the scope of the destinations covered by the route prefix.  SCOPE_VAL may be
              a number or a string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_scopes.  If this parame-
              ter is omitted, ip assumes scope global for all  gatewayed  unicast  routes,
              scope  link for direct unicast and broadcast routes and scope host for local

       protocol RTPROTO
              the routing protocol identifier of this route.  RTPROTO may be a number or a
              string from the file /etc/iproute2/rt_protos.  If the routing protocol ID is
              not given, ip assumes protocol boot (i.e. it assumes the route was added  by
              someone who doesn't understand what they are doing). Several protocol values
              have a fixed interpretation.  Namely:

                      redirect - the route was installed due to an ICMP redirect.

                      kernel - the route was installed by the kernel during autoconfigura-

                      boot  -  the  route  was installed during the bootup sequence.  If a
                      routing daemon starts, it will purge all of them.

                      static - the route was installed by the  administrator  to  override
                      dynamic  routing.  Routing  daemon  will respect them and, probably,
                      even advertise them to its peers.

                      ra - the route was installed by Router Discovery protocol.

              The rest of the values are not reserved and the  administrator  is  free  to
              assign (or not to assign) protocol tags.

       onlink pretend  that the nexthop is directly attached to this link, even if it does
              not match any interface prefix.

              allow packet by packet randomization on multipath routes.  Without this mod-
              ifier, the route will be frozen to one selected nexthop, so that load split-
              ting will only occur on per-flow base.  equalize only works if the kernel is

   ip route delete - delete route
       ip  route del has the same arguments as ip route add, but their semantics are a bit

       Key values (to, tos, preference and table) select the route to delete. If  optional
       attributes  are  present, ip verifies that they coincide with the attributes of the
       route to delete.  If no route with the given key and attributes was found, ip route
       del fails.

   ip route show - list routes
       the command displays the contents of the routing tables or the route(s) selected by
       some criteria.

       to SELECTOR (default)
              only select routes from the given range of destinations.  SELECTOR  consists
              of  an  optional  modifier (root, match or exact) and a prefix.  root PREFIX
              selects routes with prefixes  not  shorter  than  PREFIX.   F.e.   root  0/0
              selects the entire routing table.  match PREFIX selects routes with prefixes
              not longer than PREFIX.  F.e.  match 10.0/16 selects 10.0/16, 10/8 and  0/0,
              but  it  does  not  select 10.1/16 and 10.0.0/24.  And exact PREFIX (or just
              PREFIX) selects routes with this exact prefix. If neither of  these  options
              are present, ip assumes root 0/0 i.e. it lists the entire table.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              only select routes with the given TOS.

       table TABLEID
              show  the  routes  from  this table(s). The default setting is to show table
              main.  TABLEID may either be the ID of a real table or one  of  the  special

                      all - list all of the tables.

                      cache - dump the routing cache.


       cached list  cloned  routes  i.e.  routes  which were dynamically forked from other
              routes because some route attribute (f.e. MTU) was updated.  Actually, it is
              equivalent to table cache.

       from SELECTOR
              the same syntax as for to, but it binds the source address range rather than
              destinations.  Note that the from option only works with cloned routes.

       protocol RTPROTO
              only list routes of this protocol.

       scope SCOPE_VAL
              only list routes with this scope.

       type TYPE
              only list routes of this type.

       dev NAME
              only list routes going via this device.

       via PREFIX
              only list routes going via the nexthop routers selected by PREFIX.

       src PREFIX
              only list routes with preferred source addresses selected by PREFIX.

       realm REALMID

              only list routes with these realms.

   ip route flush - flush routing tables
       this command flushes routes selected by some criteria.

       The arguments have the same syntax and semantics as the arguments of ip route show,
       but  routing  tables  are not listed but purged. The only difference is the default
       action: show dumps all the IP main routing table but flush prints the helper  page.

       With  the -statistics option, the command becomes verbose. It prints out the number
       of deleted routes and the number of rounds made to flush the routing table. If  the
       option is given twice, ip route flush also dumps all the deleted routes in the for-
       mat described in the previous subsection.

   ip route get - get a single route
       this command gets a single route to a destination and prints its  contents  exactly
       as the kernel sees it.

       to ADDRESS (default)
              the destination address.

       from ADDRESS
              the source address.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              the Type Of Service.

       iif NAME
              the device from which this packet is expected to arrive.

       oif NAME
              force the output device on which this packet will be routed.

              if  no  source  address (option from) was given, relookup the route with the
              source set to the preferred address received from the first lookup.  If pol-
              icy routing is used, it may be a different route.

       Note  that  this operation is not equivalent to ip route show.  show shows existing
       routes.  get resolves them and creates new clones if necessary. Essentially, get is
       equivalent  to sending a packet along this path.  If the iif argument is not given,
       the kernel creates a route to output packets  towards  the  requested  destination.
       This  is equivalent to pinging the destination with a subsequent ip route ls cache,
       however, no packets are actually sent. With the iif argument, the  kernel  pretends
       that  a  packet  arrived from this interface and searches for a path to forward the

ip rule - routing policy database management
       Rules in the routing policy database control the route selection algorithm.

       Classic routing algorithms used in the Internet make routing decisions  based  only
       on  the  destination address of packets (and in theory, but not in practice, on the
       TOS field).

       In some circumstances we want to route packets differently depending  not  only  on
       destination  addresses,  but also on other packet fields: source address, IP proto-
       col, transport protocol ports or even packet payload.  This task is called  'policy

       To  solve  this  task,  the  conventional  destination based routing table, ordered
       according to the longest match rule, is replaced with a 'routing  policy  database'
       (or RPDB), which selects routes by executing some set of rules.

       Each  policy routing rule consists of a selector and an action predicate.  The RPDB
       is scanned in order of decreasing priority. The selector of each rule is applied to
       {source  address, destination address, incoming interface, tos, fwmark} and, if the
       selector matches the packet, the action is  performed.  The  action  predicate  may
       return  with success.  In this case, it will either give a route or failure indica-
       tion and the RPDB lookup is terminated. Otherwise, the RPDB program continues  with
       the next rule.

       Semantically, the natural action is to select the nexthop and the output device.

       At startup time the kernel configures the default RPDB consisting of three rules:

       1.     Priority:  0,  Selector:  match anything, Action: lookup routing table local
              (ID 255).  The local table is a special routing table containing high prior-
              ity control routes for local and broadcast addresses.

              Rule 0 is special. It cannot be deleted or overridden.

       2.     Priority: 32766, Selector: match anything, Action: lookup routing table main
              (ID 254).  The main table is the normal routing table  containing  all  non-
              policy routes. This rule may be deleted and/or overridden with other ones by
              the administrator.

       3.     Priority: 32767, Selector: match  anything,  Action:  lookup  routing  table
              default (ID 253).  The default table is empty. It is reserved for some post-
              processing if no previous default rules selected the packet.  This rule  may
              also be deleted.

       Each  RPDB  entry  has  additional attributes. F.e. each rule has a pointer to some
       routing table. NAT and masquerading rules  have  an  attribute  to  select  new  IP
       address to translate/masquerade. Besides that, rules have some optional attributes,
       which routes have, namely realms.  These values do not override those contained  in
       the  routing tables. They are only used if the route did not select any attributes.

       The RPDB may contain rules of the following types:

               unicast - the rule prescribes to return the route found in the routing  ta-
               ble referenced by the rule.

               blackhole - the rule prescribes to silently drop the packet.

               unreachable  -  the  rule prescribes to generate a 'Network is unreachable'

               prohibit - the rule prescribes to generate  'Communication  is  administra-
               tively prohibited' error.

               nat  - the rule prescribes to translate the source address of the IP packet
               into some other value.

   ip rule add - insert a new rule
   ip rule delete - delete a rule
       type TYPE (default)
              the type of this rule. The list of valid types was  given  in  the  previous

       from PREFIX
              select the source prefix to match.

       to PREFIX
              select the destination prefix to match.

       iif NAME
              select  the incoming device to match. If the interface is loopback, the rule
              only matches packets originating from this host. This  means  that  you  may
              create  separate  routing tables for forwarded and local packets and, hence,
              completely segregate them.

       tos TOS

       dsfield TOS
              select the TOS value to match.

       fwmark MARK
              select the fwmark value to match.

       priority PREFERENCE
              the priority of this rule. Each rule should have an  explicitly  set  unique
              priority  value.   The options preference and order are synonyms with prior-

       table TABLEID
              the routing table identifier to lookup if the rule selector matches.  It  is
              also possible to use lookup instead of table.

       realms FROM/TO
              Realms to select if the rule matched and the routing table lookup succeeded.
              Realm TO is only used if the route did not select any realm.

       nat ADDRESS
              The base of the IP address block to translate (for source  addresses).   The
              ADDRESS  may  be either the start of the block of NAT addresses (selected by
              NAT routes) or a local host address (or even zero).  In the  last  case  the
              router does not translate the packets, but masquerades them to this address.
              Using map-to instead of nat means the same thing.

              Warning: Changes to the RPDB made with these commands do not  become  active
              immediately.  It is assumed that after a script finishes a batch of updates,
              it flushes the routing cache with ip route flush cache.

   ip rule flush - also dumps all the deleted rules.
       This command has no arguments.

   ip rule show - list rules
       This command has no arguments.  The options list or lst are synonyms with show.

ip maddress - multicast addresses management
       maddress objects are multicast addresses.

   ip maddress show - list multicast addresses
       dev NAME (default)
              the device name.

   ip maddress add - add a multicast address
   ip maddress delete - delete a multicast address
       these commands attach/detach a static link-layer multicast address to listen on the
       interface.   Note  that  it  is impossible to join protocol multicast groups stati-
       cally. This command only manages link-layer addresses.

       address LLADDRESS (default)
              the link-layer multicast address.

       dev NAME
              the device to join/leave this multicast address.

ip mroute - multicast routing cache management
       mroute objects are multicast routing cache entries created by a user-level mrouting
       daemon (f.e.  pimd or mrouted ).

       Due to the limitations of the current interface to the multicast routing engine, it
       is impossible to change mroute objects administratively, so  we  can  only  display
       them. This limitation will be removed in the future.

   ip mroute show - list mroute cache entries
       to PREFIX (default)
              the prefix selecting the destination multicast addresses to list.

       iif NAME
              the interface on which multicast packets are received.

       from PREFIX
              the prefix selecting the IP source addresses of the multicast route.

ip tunnel - tunnel configuration
       tunnel  objects  are  tunnels, encapsulating packets in IP packets and then sending
       them over the IP infrastructure.  The encapsulating (or outer)  address  family  is
       specified by the -f option. The default is IPv4.

   ip tunnel add - add a new tunnel
   ip tunnel change - change an existing tunnel
   ip tunnel delete - destroy a tunnel
       name NAME (default)
              select the tunnel device name.

       mode MODE
              set  the  tunnel  mode.  Available modes depend on the encapsulating address
              Modes for IPv4 encapsulation available: ipip, sit, isatap and gre.
              Modes for IPv6 encapsulation available: ip6ip6, ipip6 and any.

       remote ADDRESS
              set the remote endpoint of the tunnel.

       local ADDRESS
              set the fixed local address for tunneled packets.  It must be an address  on
              another interface of this host.

       ttl N  set a fixed TTL N on tunneled packets.  N is a number in the range 1--255. 0
              is a special value meaning that packets inherit the TTL value.  The  default
              value  for IPv4 tunnels is: inherit.  The default value for IPv6 tunnels is:

       tos T

       dsfield T

       tclass T
              set a fixed TOS (or traffic class in  IPv6)  T  on  tunneled  packets.   The
              default value is: inherit.

       dev NAME
              bind  the  tunnel  to  the device NAME so that tunneled packets will only be
              routed via this device and will not be able to escape to another device when
              the route to endpoint changes.

              disable  Path  MTU Discovery on this tunnel.  It is enabled by default. Note
              that a fixed ttl is incompatible with this option: tunneling  with  a  fixed
              ttl always makes pmtu discovery.

       key K

       ikey K

       okey K ( only GRE tunnels ) use keyed GRE with key K. K is either a number or an IP
              address-like dotted quad.  The key parameter sets the key  to  use  in  both
              directions.   The  ikey and okey parameters set different keys for input and

       csum, icsum, ocsum
              ( only GRE tunnels ) generate/require checksums for tunneled  packets.   The
              ocsum  flag  calculates  checksums  for  outgoing  packets.   The icsum flag
              requires that all input packets have the correct checksum. The csum flag  is
              equivalent to the combination icsum ocsum.

       seq, iseq, oseq
              ( only GRE tunnels ) serialize packets.  The oseq flag enables sequencing of
              outgoing packets.  The iseq flag requires that all input packets are serial-
              ized.   The  seq  flag is equivalent to the combination iseq oseq.  It isn't
              work. Don't use it.

       dscp inherit
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) Inherit DS field between inner and outer header.

       encaplim ELIM
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed encapsulation limit. Default is 4.

       flowlabel FLOWLABEL
              ( only IPv6 tunnels ) set a fixed flowlabel.

   ip tunnel prl - potential router list (ISATAP only)
       dev NAME
              mandatory device name.

       prl-default ADDR

       prl-nodefault ADDR

       prl-delete ADDR
              Add or delete ADDR as a potential router or default router.

   ip tunnel show - list tunnels
       This command has no arguments.

ip monitor and rtmon - state monitoring
       The ip utility can monitor the state of devices, addresses and routes continuously.
       This  option  has  a slightly different format.  Namely, the monitor command is the
       first in the command line and then the object list follows:

       ip monitor [ all | OBJECT-LIST ]

       OBJECT-LIST is the list of object types that we want to monitor.   It  may  contain
       link, address and route.  If no file argument is given, ip opens RTNETLINK, listens
       on it and dumps state changes in the format described in previous sections.

       If the file option is given, the program does not listen on  RTNETLINK,  but  opens
       the  given file, and dumps its contents. The file should contain RTNETLINK messages
       saved in binary format.  Such a file can be generated with the rtmon utility.  This
       utility  has a command line syntax similar to ip monitor.  Ideally, rtmon should be
       started before the first network configuration  command  is  issued.  F.e.  if  you

               rtmon file /var/log/rtmon.log

       in a startup script, you will be able to view the full history later.

       Nevertheless,  it  is possible to start rtmon at any time.  It prepends the history
       with the state snapshot dumped at the moment of starting.

ip xfrm - setting xfrm
       xfrm is an IP framework, which can transform format of the datagrams,
       i.e. encrypt the packets with some algorithm. xfrm policy and xfrm state are  asso-
       ciated through templates TMPL_LIST.  This framework is used as a part of IPsec pro-

   ip xfrm state add - add new state into xfrm
   ip xfrm state update - update existing xfrm state
   ip xfrm state allocspi - allocate SPI value
       MODE   is set as default to transport, but it could be set to tunnel,ro or beet.

              contains one or more flags.

       FLAG   could be set to noecn, decap-dscp or wildrecv.

       ENCAP  encapsulation is set to encapsulation type ENCAP-TYPE,  source  port  SPORT,
              destination port DPORT and OADDR.

              could be set to espinudp or espinudp-nonike.

              contains  one  or more algorithms ALGO which depend on the type of algorithm
              set by ALGO_TYPE.  It can be used these algoritms enc, auth or comp.

   ip xfrm policy add - add a new policy
   ip xfrm policy update - update an existing policy
   ip xfrm policy delete - delete existing policy
   ip xfrm policy get - get existing policy
   ip xfrm policy deleteall - delete all existing xfrm policy
   ip xfrm policy list - print out the list of xfrm policy
   ip xfrm policy flush - flush policies
       It can be flush all policies or only those specified with ptype.

       dir DIR
              directory could be one of these: inp, out or fwd.

              selects for which addresses will be set  up  the  policy.  The  selector  is
              defined by source and destination address.

       UPSPEC is  defined by source port sport, destination port dport, type as number and
              code also number.

       dev DEV
              specify network device.

       index INDEX
              the number of indexed policy.

       ptype PTYPE
              type is set as default on main, could be switch on sub.

       action ACTION
              is set as default on allow.  It could be switch on block.

       priority PRIORITY
              priority is a number. Default priority is set on zero.

              limits are set in seconds, bytes or numbers of packets.

              template list is based on ID, mode, reqid and level.

       ID     is specified by source address, destination address, proto and value of spi.

              values: esp, ah, comp, route2 or hao.

       MODE   is set as default on transport, but it could be set on tunnel or beet.

       LEVEL  is set as default on required and the other choice is use.

       UPSPEC is specified by sport, dport, type and code (NUMBER).

   ip xfrm monitor - is used for listing all objects or defined group of them.
       The xfrm monitor can monitor the policies for all objects or defined group of them.

ip token
       IPv6 tokenized interface identifer support is used for assigning  well-known  host-
       part  addresses to nodes whilst still obtaining a global network prefix from Router
       advertisements. The primary target for tokenized identifiers are  server  platforms
       where addresses are usually manually configured, rather than using DHCPv6 or SLAAC.
       By using tokenized identifiers, hosts can still determine their network  prefix  by
       use  of  SLAAC,  but  more readily be automatically renumbered should their network
       prefix change [1]. Tokenized IPv6 Identifiers  are  described  in  the  draft  [1]:

   ip token set - set an interface token
       set  the  interface  token to the kernel. Once a token is set, it cannot be removed
       from the interface, only overwritten.

       TOKEN  the interface identifer token address.

       dev DEV
              the networking interface.

   ip token get - get the interface token from the kernel
       show a tokenized interface identifer of a particular networking device.  Arguments:
       coincide with the arguments of ip token set but the TOKEN must be left out.

   ip token list - list all interface tokens
       list all tokenized interface identifers for the networking interfaces from the ker-

       ip was written by Alexey N. Kuznetsov and added in Linux 2.2.

       IP Command reference ip-cref.ps
       IP tunnels ip-cref.ps
       User documentation at http://lartc.org/, but please direct bugreports  and  patches
       to: <netdev AT vger.org>

       Original Manpage  by Michail Litvak <mci AT owl.com>

iproute2                        17 January 2002                          IP(8)

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