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LESSKEY(1)                                                          LESSKEY(1)

       lesskey - specify key bindings for less

       lesskey [-o output] [--] [input]
       lesskey [--output=output] [--] [input]
       lesskey -V
       lesskey --version

       Lesskey  is  used  to  specify a set of key bindings to be used by less.  The input
       file is a text file which describes the key bindings, If the  input  file  is  "-",
       standard input is read.  If no input file is specified, a standard filename is used
       as the name of the input file, which depends on the system being used: On Unix sys-
       tems,  $HOME/.lesskey  is  used;  on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_lesskey is used; and on
       OS/2 systems $HOME/lesskey.ini is used, or $INIT/lesskey.ini if $HOME is undefined.
       The output file is a binary file which is used by less.  If no output file is spec-
       ified, and the environment variable LESSKEY is set, the value of LESSKEY is used as
       the name of the output file.  Otherwise, a standard filename is used as the name of
       the output file, which depends on the system being used: On Unix and OS-9  systems,
       $HOME/.less  is  used; on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_less is used; and on OS/2 systems,
       $HOME/less.ini is used, or $INIT/less.ini if $HOME is  undefined.   If  the  output
       file already exists, lesskey will overwrite it.

       The  -V  or --version option causes lesskey to print its version number and immedi-
       ately exit.  If -V or  --version  is  present,  other  options  and  arguments  are

       The  input  file consists of one or more sections.  Each section starts with a line
       that identifies the type of section.  Possible sections are:

              Defines new command keys.

              Defines new line-editing keys.

       #env   Defines environment variables.

       Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored, except for the
       special section header lines.

       The command section begins with the line


       If  the command section is the first section in the file, this line may be omitted.
       The command section consists of lines of the form:

            string <whitespace> action [extra-string] <newline>

       Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs.  The  string  is  the
       command key(s) which invoke the action.  The string may be a single command key, or
       a sequence of up to 15 keys.  The action is the name of the less action,  from  the
       list below.  The characters in the string may appear literally, or be prefixed by a
       caret to indicate a control key.  A backslash followed by one to three octal digits
       may  be  used  to  specify a character by its octal value.  A backslash followed by
       certain characters specifies input characters as follows:

       \b     BACKSPACE

       \e     ESCAPE

       \n     NEWLINE

       \r     RETURN

       \t     TAB

       \ku    UP ARROW

       \kd    DOWN ARROW

       \kr    RIGHT ARROW

       \kl    LEFT ARROW

       \kU    PAGE UP

       \kD    PAGE DOWN

       \kh    HOME

       \ke    END

       \kx    DELETE

       A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is to be taken
       literally.   Characters  which  must be preceded by backslash include caret, space,
       tab and the backslash itself.

       An action may be followed by an "extra" string.  When such  a  command  is  entered
       while  running  less, the action is performed, and then the extra string is parsed,
       just as if it were typed in to less.  This feature can be used in certain cases  to
       extend  the functionality of a command.  For example, see the "{" and ":t" commands
       in the example below.  The extra string  has  a  special  meaning  for  the  "quit"
       action:  when  less  quits, first character of the extra string is used as its exit

       The following input file describes the set of default command keys used by less:

            \r        forw-line
            \n        forw-line
            e         forw-line
            j         forw-line
            \kd  forw-line
            ^E        forw-line
            ^N        forw-line
            k         back-line
            y         back-line
            ^Y        back-line
            ^K        back-line
            ^P        back-line
            J         forw-line-force
            K         back-line-force
            Y         back-line-force
            d         forw-scroll
            ^D        forw-scroll
            u         back-scroll
            ^U        back-scroll
            \40  forw-screen
            f         forw-screen
            ^F        forw-screen
            ^V        forw-screen
            \kD  forw-screen
            b         back-screen
            ^B        back-screen
            \ev       back-screen
            \kU  back-screen
            z         forw-window
            w         back-window
            \e\40          forw-screen-force
            F         forw-forever
            R         repaint-flush
            r         repaint
            ^R        repaint
            ^L        repaint
            \eu       undo-hilite
            g         goto-line
            \kh  goto-line
            <         goto-line
            \e<       goto-line
            p         percent
            %         percent
            \e[       left-scroll
            \e]       right-scroll
            \e(       left-scroll
            \e)       right-scroll
            {         forw-bracket {}
            }         back-bracket {}
            (         forw-bracket ()
            )         back-bracket ()
            [         forw-bracket []
            ]         back-bracket []
            \e^F      forw-bracket
            \e^B      back-bracket
            G         goto-end
            \e>       goto-end
            >         goto-end
            \ke  goto-end
            =         status
            ^G        status
            :f        status
            /         forw-search
            ?         back-search
            \e/       forw-search *
            \e?       back-search *
            n         repeat-search
            \en       repeat-search-all
            N         reverse-search
            \eN       reverse-search-all
            &         filter
            m         set-mark
            '         goto-mark
            ^X^X      goto-mark
            E         examine
            :e        examine
            ^X^V      examine
            :n        next-file
            :p        prev-file
            t         next-tag
            T         prev-tag
            :x        index-file
            :d        remove-file
            -         toggle-option
            :t        toggle-option t
            s         toggle-option o
            _         display-option
            |         pipe
            v         visual
            !         shell
            +         firstcmd
            H         help
            h         help
            V         version
            0         digit
            1         digit
            2         digit
            3         digit
            4         digit
            5         digit
            6         digit
            7         digit
            8         digit
            9         digit
            q         quit
            Q         quit
            :q        quit
            :Q        quit
            ZZ        quit

       Commands specified by lesskey take precedence over the default commands.  A default
       command  key  may  be  disabled  by  including it in the input file with the action
       "invalid".  Alternatively, a key may be defined to do nothing by using  the  action
       "noaction".   "noaction"  is similar to "invalid", but less will give an error beep
       for an "invalid" command, but not for  a  "noaction"  command.   In  addition,  ALL
       default commands may be disabled by adding this control line to the input file:


       This  will  cause all default commands to be ignored.  The #stop line should be the
       last line in that section of the file.

       Be aware that #stop can be dangerous.  Since all default commands are disabled, you
       must  provide  sufficient  commands  before  the #stop line to enable all necessary
       actions.  For example, failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration.

       The line-editing section begins with the line:


       This  section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands, in a manner
       similar to the way key bindings for ordinary commands are specified in the #command
       section.   The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions, one per
       line as in the example below.

       The following input file describes the set of default  line-editing  keys  used  by

            \t        forw-complete
            \17       back-complete
            \e\t      back-complete
            ^L        expand
            ^V        literal
            ^A        literal
            \el       right
            \kr       right
            \eh       left
            \kl       left
            \eb       word-left
            \e\kl     word-left
            \ew       word-right
            \e\kr     word-right
            \ei       insert
            \ex       delete
            \kx       delete
            \eX       word-delete
            \ekx      word-delete
            \e\b      word-backspace
            \e0       home
            \kh       home
            \e$       end
            \ke       end
            \ek       up
            \ku       up
            \ej       down

       The environment variable section begins with the line


       Following  this line is a list of environment variable assignments.  Each line con-
       sists of an environment variable name, an equals sign  (=)  and  the  value  to  be
       assigned to the environment variable.  White space before and after the equals sign
       is ignored.  Variables assigned in this way are visible only to less.  If  a  vari-
       able  is  specified in the system environment and also in a lesskey file, the value
       in the lesskey file takes precedence.  Although the lesskey file  can  be  used  to
       override  variables set in the environment, the main purpose of assigning variables
       in the lesskey file is simply to have all less configuration information stored  in
       one file.

       The following input file sets the -i option whenever less is run, and specifies the
       character set to be "latin1":

            LESS = -i
            LESSCHARSET = latin1


       It is not possible to specify special keys, such as uparrow, in a keyboard-indepen-
       dent  manner.   The only way to specify such keys is to specify the escape sequence
       which a particular keyboard sends when such a key is pressed.

       On MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, certain keys send a sequence of characters which  start
       with  a  NUL  character (0).  This NUL character should be represented as \340 in a
       lesskey file.

       Copyright (C) 2000-2009  Mark Nudelman

       lesskey is part of the GNU project and is free software; you  can  redistribute  it
       and/or  modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
       the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option) any later  ver-

       lesskey  is  distributed  in  the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WAR-
       RANTY; without even the implied  warranty  of  MERCHANTABILITY  or  FITNESS  FOR  A
       PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You  should  have  received  a  copy  of  the GNU General Public License along with
       lesskey; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free Software  Foundation,  59
       Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.

       Mark Nudelman <markn AT greenwoodsoftware.com>
       Send bug reports or comments to the above address or to bug-less AT gnu.org.

                           Version 436: 07 Jul 2009                 LESSKEY(1)

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