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LINK(2)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   LINK(2)



NAME
       link - make a new name for a file

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int link(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);

DESCRIPTION
       link() creates a new link (also known as a hard link) to an existing file.

       If newpath exists it will not be overwritten.

       This  new  name  may  be  used exactly as the old one for any operation; both names
       refer to the same file (and so have the same permissions and ownership) and  it  is
       impossible to tell which name was the "original".

RETURN VALUE
       On success, zero is returned.  On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropri-
       ately.

ERRORS
       EACCES Write access to the directory containing newpath is denied, or  search  per-
              mission  is  denied for one of the directories in the path prefix of oldpath
              or newpath.  (See also path_resolution(7).)

       EEXIST newpath already exists.

       EFAULT oldpath or newpath points outside your accessible address space.

       EIO    An I/O error occurred.

       ELOOP  Too many symbolic links were encountered in resolving oldpath or newpath.

       EMLINK The file referred to by oldpath already has the maximum number of  links  to
              it.

       ENAMETOOLONG
              oldpath or newpath was too long.

       ENOENT A  directory component in oldpath or newpath does not exist or is a dangling
              symbolic link.

       ENOMEM Insufficient kernel memory was available.

       ENOSPC The device containing the file has no room for the new directory entry.

       ENOTDIR
              A component used as a directory in oldpath or newpath is  not,  in  fact,  a
              directory.

       EPERM  oldpath is a directory.

       EPERM  The file system containing oldpath and newpath does not support the creation
              of hard links.

       EROFS  The file is on a read-only file system.

       EXDEV  oldpath and newpath are not on the same mounted file system.  (Linux permits
              a  file  system  to  be mounted at multiple points, but link() does not work
              across different mount points, even if the same file system  is  mounted  on
              both.)

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4, 4.3BSD, POSIX.1-2001 (but see NOTES).

NOTES
       Hard links, as created by link(), cannot span file systems.  Use symlink(2) if this
       is required.

       POSIX.1-2001 says that link() should dereference oldpath if it is a symbolic  link.
       However,  since  kernel  2.0,  Linux does not do so: if oldpath is a symbolic link,
       then newpath is created as a (hard) link to the same symbolic link file (i.e., new-
       path  becomes a symbolic link to the same file that oldpath refers to).  Some other
       implementations behave in the same manner as Linux.  POSIX.1-2008 changes the spec-
       ification  of  link(), making it implementation-dependent whether or not oldpath is
       dereferenced if it is a symbolic link.  For precise control over the  treatment  of
       symbolic links when creating a link, see linkat(2).

BUGS
       On  NFS  file systems, the return code may be wrong in case the NFS server performs
       the link creation and dies before it can say so.  Use stat(2) to find  out  if  the
       link got created.

SEE ALSO
       ln(1),  linkat(2), open(2), rename(2), stat(2), symlink(2), unlink(2), path_resolu-
       tion(7), symlink(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the  project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2008-08-21                           LINK(2)

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