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LS(1)                            User Commands                           LS(1)



NAME
       ls - list directory contents

SYNOPSIS
       ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...

DESCRIPTION
       List  information about the FILEs (the current directory by default).  Sort entries
       alphabetically if none of -cftuvSUX nor --sort.

       Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.

       -a, --all
              do not ignore entries starting with .

       -A, --almost-all
              do not list implied . and ..

       --author
              with -l, print the author of each file

       -b, --escape
              print octal escapes for nongraphic characters

       --block-size=SIZE
              use SIZE-byte blocks.  See SIZE format below

       -B, --ignore-backups
              do not list implied entries ending with ~

       -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of last modification of file status
              information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime

       -C     list entries by columns

       --color[=WHEN]
              colorize the output.  WHEN defaults to 'always' or can be 'never' or 'auto'.
              More info below

       -d, --directory
              list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference  symbolic
              links

       -D, --dired
              generate output designed for Emacs' dired mode

       -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -ls --color

       -F, --classify
              append indicator (one of */=>@|) to entries

       --file-type
              likewise, except do not append '*'

       --format=WORD
              across  -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l,
              vertical -C

       --full-time
              like -l --time-style=full-iso

       -g     like -l, but do not list owner

       --group-directories-first
              group directories before files.

              augment with a --sort option, but  any  use  of  --sort=none  (-U)  disables
              grouping

       -G, --no-group
              in a long listing, don't print group names

       -h, --human-readable
              with -l, print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)

       --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024

       -H, --dereference-command-line
              follow symbolic links listed on the command line

       --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
              follow each command line symbolic link that points to a directory

       --hide=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN (overridden by -a or -A)

       --indicator-style=WORD
              append indicator with style WORD to entry names: none (default), slash (-p),
              file-type (--file-type), classify (-F)

       -i, --inode
              print the index number of each file

       -I, --ignore=PATTERN
              do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN

       -k     like --block-size=1K

       -l     use a long listing format

       -L, --dereference
              when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for  the
              file the link references rather than for the link itself

       -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              like -l, but list numeric user and group IDs

       -N, --literal
              print raw entry names (don't treat e.g. control characters specially)

       -o     like -l, but do not list group information

       -p, --indicator-style=slash
              append / indicator to directories

       -q, --hide-control-chars
              print ? instead of non graphic characters

       --show-control-chars
              show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is 'ls' and output
              is a terminal)

       -Q, --quote-name
              enclose entry names in double quotes

       --quoting-style=WORD
              use  quoting  style  WORD  for  entry   names:   literal,   locale,   shell,
              shell-always, c, escape

       -r, --reverse
              reverse order while sorting

       -R, --recursive
              list subdirectories recursively

       -s, --size
              print the allocated size of each file, in blocks

       -S     sort by file size

       --sort=WORD
              sort  by WORD instead of name: none -U, extension -X, size -S, time -t, ver-
              sion -v

       --time=WORD
              with -l, show time as WORD instead of modification time:  atime  -u,  access
              -u,  use  -u,  ctime  -c,  or  status  -c; use specified time as sort key if
              --sort=time

       --time-style=STYLE
              with -l, show times using style  STYLE:  full-iso,  long-iso,  iso,  locale,
              +FORMAT.   FORMAT  is  interpreted  like  'date';  if FORMAT is FORMAT1<new-
              line>FORMAT2, FORMAT1 applies to non-recent  files  and  FORMAT2  to  recent
              files;  if  STYLE is prefixed with 'posix-', STYLE takes effect only outside
              the POSIX locale

       -t     sort by modification time

       -T, --tabsize=COLS
              assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8

       -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time and  sort
              by name otherwise: sort by access time

       -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order

       -v     natural sort of (version) numbers within text

       -w, --width=COLS
              assume screen width instead of current value

       -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns

       -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension

       -1     list one file per line

       SELinux options:

       --lcontext
              Display  security  context.   Enable -l. Lines will probably be too wide for
              most displays.

       -Z, --context
              Display security context so it fits on most displays.  Displays  only  mode,
              user, group, security context and file name.

       --scontext
              Display only security context and file name.

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       SIZE  may  be  (or  may  be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: KB
       1000, K 1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.

       Using color to distinguish  file  types  is  disabled  both  by  default  and  with
       --color=never.   With  --color=auto, ls emits color codes only when standard output
       is connected to a terminal.  The LS_COLORS environment variable can change the set-
       tings.  Use the dircolors command to set it.

   Exit status:
       0      if OK,

       1      if minor problems (e.g., cannot access subdirectory),

       2      if serious trouble (e.g., cannot access command-line argument).

AUTHOR
       Written by Richard M. Stallman and David MacKenzie.

REPORTING BUGS
       Report ls bugs to bug-coreutils AT gnu.org
       GNU coreutils home page: <http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
       General help using GNU software: <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>
       Report ls translation bugs to <http://translationproject.org/team/>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright  (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3
       or later <http://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
       This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute  it.   There  is  NO
       WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.

SEE ALSO
       The  full  documentation for ls is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and
       ls programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info coreutils 'ls invocation'

       should give you access to the complete manual.



GNU coreutils 8.4                 March 2017                             LS(1)

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