man(1) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


man(1)                                                                  man(1)



NAME
       man - format and display the on-line manual pages

SYNOPSIS
       man [-acdDfFhkKtwW] [--path] [-m system] [-p string] [-C config_file] [-M pathlist]
       [-P pager] [-B browser] [-H htmlpager] [-S section_list] [section] name ...


DESCRIPTION
       man formats and displays the on-line manual pages.  If  you  specify  section,  man
       only  looks in that section of the manual.  name is normally the name of the manual
       page, which is typically the name of a command, function,  or  file.   However,  if
       name  contains  a slash (/) then man interprets it as a file specification, so that
       you can do man ./foo.5 or even man /cd/foo/bar.1.gz.

       See below for a description of where man looks for the manual page files.


MANUAL SECTIONS
       The standard sections of the manual include:

       1      User Commands

       2      System Calls

       3      C Library Functions

       4      Devices and Special Files

       5      File Formats and Conventions

       6      Games et. Al.

       7      Miscellanea

       8      System Administration tools and Deamons

       Distributions customize the manual section to their specifics, which often  include
       additional sections.


OPTIONS
       -C  config_file
              Specify the configuration file to use;  the  default  is  @man_config_file@.
              (See man.conf(5).)

       -M  path
              Specify  the  list  of  directories  to  search for man pages.  Separate the
              directories with colons.  An empty list is the same as not specifying -M  at
              all.  See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       -P  pager
              Specify  which pager to use.  This option overrides the MANPAGER environment
              variable, which in turn overrides the PAGER variable.  By default, man  uses
              @pager@.

       -B     Specify  which  browser  to  use  on  HTML files.  This option overrides the
              BROWSER environment variable. By default, man uses @browser@,

       -H     Specify a command that renders HTML files as text.   This  option  overrides
              the HTMLPAGER environment variable. By default, man uses @htmlpager@,

       -S  section_list
              List  is  a  colon separated list of manual sections to search.  This option
              overrides the MANSECT environment variable.

       -a     By default, man will exit after displaying the first manual page  it  finds.
              Using  this  option  forces  man  to display all the manual pages that match
              name, not just the first.

       -c     Reformat the source man page, even when an up-to-date cat page exists.  This
              can  be meaningful if the cat page was formatted for a screen with a differ-
              ent number of columns, or if the preformatted page is corrupted.

       -d     Don't actually display the man pages, but do print gobs of debugging  infor-
              mation.

       -D     Both display and print debugging info.

       -f     Equivalent to whatis.

       -F or --preformat
              Format only - do not display.

       -h     Print a help message and exit.

       -k     Equivalent to apropos.

       -K     Search  for the specified string in *all* man pages. Warning: this is proba-
              bly very slow! It helps to specify a section.  (Just to give a  rough  idea,
              on my machine this takes about a minute per 500 man pages.)

       -m  system
              Specify  an  alternate  set  of man pages to search based on the system name
              given.

       -p  string
              Specify the sequence of preprocessors to run before nroff or troff.  Not all
              installations will have a full set of preprocessors.  Some of the preproces-
              sors and the letters used to designate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p),
              tbl  (t), vgrind (v), refer (r).  This option overrides the MANROFFSEQ envi-
              ronment variable.

       -t     Use @troff@ to format the manual page, passing the output  to  stdout.   The
              default  output format of @troff@ is Postscript, refer to the manual page of
              @troff@ for ways to pick an alternate format.

       Depending on the selected format and the availability of printing devices, the out-
       put may need to be passed through some filter or another before being printed.

       -w or --path
              Don't  actually  display  the man pages, but do print the location(s) of the
              files that would be formatted or displayed. If no argument is given: display
              (on  stdout)  the list of directories that is searched by man for man pages.
              If manpath is a link to man, then "manpath" is equivalent to "man --path".

       -W     Like -w, but print file names one per line, without additional  information.
              This is useful in shell commands like man -aW man | xargs ls -l


CAT PAGES
       Man  will try to save the formatted man pages, in order to save formatting time the
       next time these pages are needed.  Traditionally, formatted versions  of  pages  in
       DIR/manX  are  saved in DIR/catX, but other mappings from man dir to cat dir can be
       specified in @man_config_file@.  No cat pages  are  saved  when  the  required  cat
       directory  does  not  exist.   No cat pages are saved when they are formatted for a
       line length different from 80.  No cat pages are saved when man.conf  contains  the
       line NOCACHE.

       It  is  possible to make man suid to a user man. Then, if a cat directory has owner
       man and mode 0755 (only writable by man), and the cat files have owner man and mode
       0644  or  0444 (only writable by man, or not writable at all), no ordinary user can
       change the cat pages or put other files in the cat directory. If man  is  not  made
       suid,  then  a  cat  directory should have mode 0777 if all users should be able to
       leave cat pages there.

       The option -c forces reformatting a page, even if a recent cat page exists.


HTML PAGES
       Man will find HTML pages if they live  in  directories  named  as  expected  to  be
       ".html",  thus  a  valid  name  for  an HTML version of the ls(1) man page would be
       /usr/share/man/htmlman1/ls.1.html.


SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES
       man uses a sophisticated method of finding manual page files, based on the  invoca-
       tion  options  and environment variables, the @man_config_file@ configuration file,
       and some built in conventions and heuristics.

       First of all, when the name argument to man contains a slash (/), man assumes it is
       a file specification itself, and there is no searching involved.

       But  in  the normal case where name doesn't contain a slash, man searches a variety
       of directories for a file that could be a manual page for the topic named.

       If you specify the -M pathlist option, pathlist is a colon-separated  list  of  the
       directories that man searches.

       If you don't specify -M but set the MANPATH environment variable, the value of that
       variable is the list of the directories that man searches.

       If you don't specify an explicit path list with -M or MANPATH, man develops its own
       path  list  based on the contents of the configuration file @man_config_file@.  The
       MANPATH statements in the configuration file  identify  particular  directories  to
       include in the search path.

       Furthermore,  the  MANPATH_MAP  statements add to the search path depending on your
       command search path (i.e. your PATH environment variable).  For each directory that
       may  be  in  the command search path, a MANPATH_MAP statement specifies a directory
       that should be added to the search path for manual page files.  man  looks  at  the
       PATH variable and adds the corresponding directories to the manual page file search
       path.  Thus, with the proper use of MANPATH_MAP, when you  issue  the  command  man
       xyz, you get a manual page for the program that would run if you issued the command
       xyz.

       In addition, for each directory in the command search path (we'll call it  a  "com-
       mand  directory")  for which you do not have a MANPATH_MAP statement, man automati-
       cally looks for a manual page directory "nearby" namely as a  subdirectory  in  the
       command directory itself or in the parent directory of the command directory.

       You can disable the automatic "nearby" searches by including a NOAUTOPATH statement
       in @man_config_file@.

       In each directory in the search path as described above, man searches  for  a  file
       named  topic.section,  with an optional suffix on the section number and possibly a
       compression suffix.  If it doesn't find such a file, it then looks in any subdirec-
       tories  named manN or catN where N is the manual section number.  If the file is in
       a catN subdirectory, man assumes it is a formatted manual  page  file  (cat  page).
       Otherwise,  man  assumes  it is unformatted.  In either case, if the filename has a
       known compression suffix (like .gz), man assumes it is gzipped.

       If you want to see where (or if) man would find the manual page  for  a  particular
       topic, use the --path (-w) option.


ENVIRONMENT
       MANPATH
              If  MANPATH is set, man uses it as the path to search for manual page files.
              It overrides the configuration file and the automatic search  path,  but  is
              overridden by the -M invocation option.  See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       MANPL  If  MANPL  is set, its value is used as the display page length.  Otherwise,
              the entire man page will occupy one (long) page.

       MANROFFSEQ
              If MANROFFSEQ is set, its value is used to determine the set  of  preproces-
              sors  run  before  running  nroff  or  troff.   By default, pages are passed
              through the tbl preprocessor before nroff.

       MANSECT
              If MANSECT is set, its value is used to determine which manual  sections  to
              search.

       MANWIDTH
              If  MANWIDTH  is set, its value is used as the width manpages should be dis-
              played.  Otherwise the pages may be displayed over the whole width  of  your
              screen.

       MANPAGER
              If  MANPAGER  is set, its value is used as the name of the program to use to
              display the man page.  If not, then PAGER is used.  If  that  has  no  value
              either, @pager@ is used.

       BROWSER
              The name of a browser to use for displaying HTML manual pages.  If it is not
              set, @browser@ is used.

       HTMLPAGER
              The command to use for rendering HTML manual pages as text.  If  it  is  not
              set, @htmlpager@ is used.

       LANG   If  LANG  is  set,  its value defines the name of the subdirectory where man
              first looks for man pages. Thus, the command 'LANG=dk man 1 foo' will  cause
              man to look for the foo man page in .../dk/man1/foo.1, and if it cannot find
              such a file, then in .../man1/foo.1, where ... is a directory on the  search
              path.

       NLSPATH, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
              The  environment  variables NLSPATH and LC_MESSAGES (or LANG when the latter
              does not exist) play a role in  locating  the  message  catalog.   (But  the
              English  messages  are compiled in, and for English no catalog is required.)
              Note that programs like col(1) called by man also use e.g. LC_CTYPE.

       PATH   PATH helps determine the search path for manual page files.  See SEARCH PATH
              FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       SYSTEM SYSTEM is used to get the default alternate system name (for use with the -m
              option).

BUGS
       The -t option only works if a troff-like program is installed.
       If you see blinking \255 or <AD> instead of hyphens,  put  'LESSCHARSET=latin1'  in
       your environment.

TIPS
       If you add the line

        (global-set-key [(f1)] (lambda () (interactive) (manual-entry (current-word))))

       to  your  .emacs  file,  then hitting F1 will give you the man page for the library
       call at the current cursor position.

       To get a plain text version of a man page, without backspaces and underscores, try

         # man foo | col -b > foo.mantxt

AUTHOR
       John W. Eaton was the original author of man.  Zeyd M. Ben-Halim released man  1.2,
       and  Andries  Brouwer  followed up with versions 1.3 thru 1.5p.  Federico Lucifredi
       <flucifredi AT acm.org> is the current maintainer.

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1), whatis(1), less(1), groff(1), man.conf(5).



                              September 19, 2005                        man(1)

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