man(1) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  


man(1)                                                                  man(1)



NAME
       man - format and display the on-line manual pages

SYNOPSIS
       man  [-acdDfFhkKtvVwW]  [--path] [-m system] [-p string] [-C config_file] [-M path-
       list] [-P pager] [-B browser] [-H htmlpager] [-S section_list] [section] name ...


DESCRIPTION
       man formats and displays the on-line manual pages.  If  you  specify  section,  man
       only  looks in that section of the manual.  name is normally the name of the manual
       page, which is typically the name of a command, function,  or  file.   However,  if
       name  contains  a slash (/) then man interprets it as a file specification, so that
       you can do man ./foo.5 or even man /cd/foo/bar.1.gz.

       See below for a description of where man looks for the manual page files.


MANUAL SECTIONS
       The standard sections of the manual include:

       1      User Commands

       2      System Calls

       3      C Library Functions

       4      Devices and Special Files

       5      File Formats and Conventions

       6      Games et. Al.

       7      Miscellanea

       8      System Administration tools and Daemons

       Distributions customize the manual section to their specifics, which often  include
       additional sections.


OPTIONS
       -C  config_file
              Specify the configuration file to use; the default is /etc/man.config.  (See
              man.config(5).)

       -M  path
              Specify  the  list  of  directories  to  search for man pages.  Separate the
              directories with colons.  An empty list is the same as not specifying -M  at
              all.  See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       -P  pager
              Specify  which pager to use.  This option overrides the MANPAGER environment
              variable, which in turn overrides the PAGER variable.  By default, man  uses
              /usr/bin/less -is.

       -B     Specify  which  browser  to  use  on  HTML files.  This option overrides the
              BROWSER environment variable. By default, man uses /usr/bin/less-is,

       -H     Specify a command that renders HTML files as text.   This  option  overrides
              the HTMLPAGER environment variable. By default, man uses /bin/cat,

       -S  section_list
              List  is  a  colon separated list of manual sections to search.  This option
              overrides the MANSECT environment variable.

       -a     By default, man will exit after displaying the first manual page  it  finds.
              Using  this  option  forces  man  to display all the manual pages that match
              name, not just the first.

       -c     Reformat the source man page, even when an up-to-date cat page exists.  This
              can  be meaningful if the cat page was formatted for a screen with a differ-
              ent number of columns, or if the preformatted page is corrupted.

       -d     Don't actually display the man pages, but do print gobs of debugging  infor-
              mation.

       -D     Both display and print debugging info.

       -f     Equivalent to whatis.

       -F or --preformat
              Format only - do not display.

       -h or --help
              Print a help message and exit.

       -v, -V or --version
              Print version information and exit.

       -k     Equivalent to apropos.

       -K     Search  for the specified string in *all* man pages. Warning: this is proba-
              bly very slow! It helps to specify a section.  (Just to give a  rough  idea,
              on my machine this takes about a minute per 500 man pages.)

       -m  system
              Specify  an  alternate  set  of man pages to search based on the system name
              given.

       -p  string
              Specify the sequence of preprocessors to run before nroff or troff.  Not all
              installations will have a full set of preprocessors.  Some of the preproces-
              sors and the letters used to designate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p),
              tbl  (t), vgrind (v), refer (r).  This option overrides the MANROFFSEQ envi-
              ronment variable.

       -t     Use /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc to format the manual page, passing the  out-
              put  to stdout.  The default output format of /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc is
              Postscript, refer to the manual page of /usr/bin/groff -Tps -mandoc for ways
              to pick an alternate format.

       Depending on the selected format and the availability of printing devices, the out-
       put may need to be passed through some filter or another before being printed.

       -w or --path
              Don't actually display the man pages, but do print the  location(s)  of  the
              files that would be formatted or displayed. If no argument is given: display
              (on stdout) the list of directories that is searched by man for  man  pages.
              If manpath is a link to man, then "manpath" is equivalent to "man --path".

       -W     Like  -w, but print file names one per line, without additional information.
              This is useful in shell commands like man -aW man | xargs ls -l


CAT PAGES
       Man will try to save the formatted man pages, in order to save formatting time  the
       next  time  these  pages are needed.  Traditionally, formatted versions of pages in
       DIR/manX are saved in DIR/catX, but other mappings from man dir to cat dir  can  be
       specified  in /etc/man.config.  No cat pages are saved when the required cat direc-
       tory does not exist.  No cat pages are saved when they are  formatted  for  a  line
       length different from 80.  No cat pages are saved when man.config contains the line
       NOCACHE.

       It is possible to make man suid to a user man. Then, if a cat directory  has  owner
       man and mode 0755 (only writable by man), and the cat files have owner man and mode
       0644 or 0444 (only writable by man, or not writable at all), no ordinary  user  can
       change  the  cat  pages or put other files in the cat directory. If man is not made
       suid, then a cat directory should have mode 0777 if all users  should  be  able  to
       leave cat pages there.

       The option -c forces reformatting a page, even if a recent cat page exists.


HTML PAGES
       Man  will  find  HTML  pages  if  they  live in directories named as expected to be
       ".html", thus a valid name for an HTML version of  the  ls(1)  man  page  would  be
       /usr/share/man/htmlman1/ls.1.html.


SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES
       man  uses a sophisticated method of finding manual page files, based on the invoca-
       tion options and environment variables, the /etc/man.config configuration file, and
       some built in conventions and heuristics.

       First of all, when the name argument to man contains a slash (/), man assumes it is
       a file specification itself, and there is no searching involved.

       But in the normal case where name doesn't contain a slash, man searches  a  variety
       of directories for a file that could be a manual page for the topic named.

       If  you  specify  the -M pathlist option, pathlist is a colon-separated list of the
       directories that man searches.

       If you don't specify -M but set the MANPATH environment variable, the value of that
       variable is the list of the directories that man searches.

       If you don't specify an explicit path list with -M or MANPATH, man develops its own
       path list based on the contents of the  configuration  file  /etc/man.config.   The
       MANPATH  statements  in  the  configuration file identify particular directories to
       include in the search path.

       Furthermore, the MANPATH_MAP statements add to the search path  depending  on  your
       command search path (i.e. your PATH environment variable).  For each directory that
       may be in the command search path, a MANPATH_MAP statement  specifies  a  directory
       that  should  be  added to the search path for manual page files.  man looks at the
       PATH variable and adds the corresponding directories to the manual page file search
       path.   Thus,  with  the  proper use of MANPATH_MAP, when you issue the command man
       xyz, you get a manual page for the program that would run if you issued the command
       xyz.

       In  addition,  for each directory in the command search path (we'll call it a "com-
       mand directory") for which you do not have a MANPATH_MAP statement,  man  automati-
       cally  looks  for  a manual page directory "nearby" namely as a subdirectory in the
       command directory itself or in the parent directory of the command directory.

       You can disable the automatic "nearby" searches by including a NOAUTOPATH statement
       in /etc/man.config.

       In  each  directory  in the search path as described above, man searches for a file
       named topic.section, with an optional suffix on the section number and  possibly  a
       compression suffix.  If it doesn't find such a file, it then looks in any subdirec-
       tories named manN or catN where N is the manual section number.  If the file is  in
       a  catN  subdirectory,  man  assumes it is a formatted manual page file (cat page).
       Otherwise, man assumes it is unformatted.  In either case, if the  filename  has  a
       known compression suffix (like .gz), man assumes it is gzipped.

       If  you  want  to see where (or if) man would find the manual page for a particular
       topic, use the --path (-w) option.


ENVIRONMENT
       MANPATH
              If MANPATH is set, man uses it as the path to search for manual page  files.
              It  overrides  the  configuration file and the automatic search path, but is
              overridden by the -M invocation option.  See SEARCH PATH FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       MANPL  If MANPL is set, its value is used as the display page  length.   Otherwise,
              the entire man page will occupy one (long) page.

       MANROFFSEQ
              If  MANROFFSEQ  is set, its value is used to determine the set of preproces-
              sors run before running nroff  or  troff.   By  default,  pages  are  passed
              through the tbl preprocessor before nroff.

       MANSECT
              If  MANSECT  is set, its value is used to determine which manual sections to
              search.

       MANWIDTH
              If MANWIDTH is set, its value is used as the width manpages should  be  dis-
              played.   Otherwise  the pages may be displayed over the whole width of your
              screen.

       MANPAGER
              If MANPAGER is set, its value is used as the name of the program to  use  to
              display  the  man  page.   If  not, then PAGER is used. If that has no value
              either, /usr/bin/less -is is used.

       BROWSER
              The name of a browser to use for displaying HTML manual pages.  If it is not
              set, /usr/bin/less -is is used.

       HTMLPAGER
              The  command  to  use for rendering HTML manual pages as text.  If it is not
              set, /bin/cat is used.

       LANG   If LANG is set, its value defines the name of  the  subdirectory  where  man
              first  looks for man pages. Thus, the command 'LANG=dk man 1 foo' will cause
              man to look for the foo man page in .../dk/man1/foo.1, and if it cannot find
              such  a file, then in .../man1/foo.1, where ... is a directory on the search
              path.

       NLSPATH, LC_MESSAGES, LANG
              The environment variables NLSPATH and LC_MESSAGES (or LANG when  the  latter
              does  not  exist)  play  a  role  in locating the message catalog.  (But the
              English messages are compiled in, and for English no catalog  is  required.)
              Note that programs like col(1) called by man also use e.g. LC_CTYPE.

       PATH   PATH helps determine the search path for manual page files.  See SEARCH PATH
              FOR MANUAL PAGES.

       SYSTEM SYSTEM is used to get the default alternate system name (for use with the -m
              option).

BUGS
       The -t option only works if a troff-like program is installed.
       If  you  see  blinking \255 or <AD> instead of hyphens, put 'LESSCHARSET=latin1' in
       your environment.

TIPS
       If you add the line

        (global-set-key [(f1)] (lambda () (interactive) (manual-entry (current-word))))

       to your .emacs file, then hitting F1 will give you the man  page  for  the  library
       call at the current cursor position.

       To get a plain text version of a man page, without backspaces and underscores, try

         # man foo | col -b > foo.mantxt

AUTHOR
       John  W. Eaton was the original author of man.  Zeyd M. Ben-Halim released man 1.2,
       and Andries Brouwer followed up with versions 1.3 thru  1.5p.   Federico  Lucifredi
       <flucifredi AT acm.org> is the current maintainer.

SEE ALSO
       apropos(1), whatis(1), less(1), groff(1), man.config(5).



                              September 19, 2005                        man(1)

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