ncurses(3X) - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  

ncurses(3X)                                                                           ncurses(3X)

       ncurses - CRT screen handling and optimization package

       #include <curses.h>

       The ncurses library routines give the user a terminal-independent method of updating char-
       acter screens  with  reasonable  optimization.   This  implementation  is  ``new  curses''
       (ncurses)  and  is the approved replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been dis-
       continued.  This describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20130511).

       The ncurses library emulates the curses library of System  V  Release  4  UNIX,  and  XPG4
       (X/Open  Portability Guide) curses (also known as XSI curses).  XSI stands for X/Open Sys-
       tem Interfaces Extension.  The ncurses library is freely redistributable in  source  form.
       Differences  from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the EXTENSIONS and PORTABILITY sec-
       tions below and described in detail in the respective  EXTENSIONS,  PORTABILITY  and  BUGS
       sections of individual man pages.

       The  ncurses  library also provides many useful extensions, i.e., features which cannot be
       implemented by a simple add-on library but which require access to the  internals  of  the

       A  program  using  these  routines must be linked with the -lncurses option, or (if it has
       been generated) with the debugging library -lncurses_g.  (Your system integrator may  also
       have  installed  these  libraries under the names -lcurses and -lcurses_g.)  The ncurses_g
       library generates trace logs (in a file called 'trace'  in  the  current  directory)  that
       describe curses actions.  See also the section on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS.

       The  ncurses package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipulation; output to win-
       dows and pads; reading terminal input; control over terminal and curses input  and  output
       options;  environment query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo
       capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.

       The library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.  That  is  normally
       done with setlocale:

             setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

       If  the locale is not initialized, the library assumes that characters are printable as in
       ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.  You should initialize  the  locale  and
       not rely on specific details of the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The function initscr or newterm must be called to initialize the library before any of the
       other routines that deal with windows and screens are used.  The routine  endwin  must  be
       called before exiting.

       To  get  character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive, screen oriented pro-
       grams want this), the following sequence should be used:

             initscr(); cbreak(); noecho();

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

             intrflush(stdscr, FALSE);
             keypad(stdscr, TRUE);

       Before a curses program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be set and  its  ini-
       tialization  strings,  if defined, must be output.  This can be done by executing the tput
       init command after the shell environment variable TERM has been exported.  tset(1) is usu-
       ally responsible for doing this.  [See terminfo(5) for further details.]

       The  ncurses library permits manipulation of data structures, called windows, which can be
       thought of as two-dimensional arrays of characters representing  all  or  part  of  a  CRT
       screen.  A default window called stdscr, which is the size of the terminal screen, is sup-
       plied.  Others may be created with newwin.

       Note that curses does not  handle  overlapping  windows,  that's  done  by  the  panel(3X)
       library.   This  means that you can either use stdscr or divide the screen into tiled win-
       dows and not using stdscr at all.  Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and  unde-
       sired, effects.

       Windows  are  referred  to  by  variables declared as WINDOW *.  These data structures are
       manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere in the ncurses manual pages.  Among
       those,  the  most  basic routines are move and addch.  More general versions of these rou-
       tines are included with names beginning with w, allowing the user  to  specify  a  window.
       The routines not beginning with w affect stdscr.

       After using routines to manipulate a window, refresh is called, telling curses to make the
       user's CRT screen look like stdscr.  The characters in  a  window  are  actually  of  type
       chtype,  (character  and attribute data) so that other information about the character may
       also be stored with each character.

       Special windows called pads may also be manipulated.  These are windows which are not con-
       strained  to  the  size of the screen and whose contents need not be completely displayed.
       See curs_pad(3X) for more information.

       In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and colors may  be  sup-
       ported,  causing  the characters to show up in such modes as underlined, in reverse video,
       or in color on terminals that support such display enhancements.  Line drawing  characters
       may be specified to be output.  On input, curses is also able to translate arrow and func-
       tion keys that transmit escape sequences into single values.  The video  attributes,  line
       drawing  characters, and input values use names, defined in <curses.h>, such as A_REVERSE,
       ACS_HLINE, and KEY_LEFT.

       If the environment variables LINES and COLUMNS are set, or if the program is executing  in
       a  window environment, line and column information in the environment will override infor-
       mation read by terminfo.  This would affect a program running in an AT&T  630  layer,  for
       example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see ENVIRONMENT).

       If  the  environment  variable  TERMINFO is defined, any program using curses checks for a
       local terminal definition before checking in the standard place.  For example, if TERM  is
       set to att4424, then the compiled terminal definition is found in


       (The  a is copied from the first letter of att4424 to avoid creation of huge directories.)
       However, if TERMINFO is set to $HOME/myterms, curses first checks


       and if that fails, it then checks


       This is useful for  developing  experimental  definitions  or  when  write  permission  in
       /usr/share/terminfo is not available.

       The  integer  variables  LINES and COLS are defined in <curses.h> and will be filled in by
       initscr with the size of the screen.  The constants TRUE and FALSE have the values  1  and
       0, respectively.

       The  curses  routines  also  define the WINDOW * variable curscr which is used for certain
       low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a screen containing garbage.  The  curscr
       can be used in only a few routines.

   Routine and Argument Names
       Many  curses  routines  have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed with w require a
       window argument.  The routines prefixed with p require a pad argument.   Those  without  a
       prefix generally use stdscr.

       The  routines  prefixed  with mv require a y and x coordinate to move to before performing
       the appropriate action.  The mv routines imply a call to move before the call to the other
       routine.   The  coordinate y always refers to the row (of the window), and x always refers
       to the column.  The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with mvw take both a window argument and x and y  coordinates.   The
       window argument is always specified before the coordinates.

       In  each  case,  win  is the window affected, and pad is the pad affected; win and pad are
       always pointers to type WINDOW.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag bf with the value  TRUE  or  FALSE;  bf  is
       always of type bool.  Most of the data types used in the library routines, such as WINDOW,
       SCREEN, bool, and chtype are defined in <curses.h>.  Types used for the terminfo  routines
       such as TERMINAL are defined in <term.h>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configuration of the library.
       There are two common configurations of the library:

                   the "normal" library, which handles  8-bit  characters.   The  normal  (8-bit)
                   library stores characters combined with attributes in chtype data.

                   Attributes  alone  (no corresponding character) may be stored in chtype or the
                   equivalent attr_t data.  In either case, the data is stored in something  like
                   an integer.

                   Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a chtype.

                   the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte characters (see the sec-
                   tion on ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS).  The "wide" library  includes  all  of  the
                   calls  from  the  "normal"  library.  It adds about one third more calls using
                   data types which store multibyte characters:

                        corresponds to chtype.  However it is a structure, because more  data  is
                        stored  than can fit into an integer.  The characters are large enough to
                        require a full integer value - and there may be more than  one  character
                        per  cell.   The video attributes and color are stored in separate fields
                        of the structure.

                        Each cell (row and column) in a WINDOW is stored as a cchar_t.

                        stores a "wide" character.  Like chtype, this may be an integer.

                        stores a wchar_t or WEOF - not the same, though both may  have  the  same

                   The  "wide" library provides new functions which are analogous to functions in
                   the "normal" library.  There is a naming convention which relates many of  the
                   normal/wide  variants:  a "_w" is inserted into the name.  For example, waddch
                   becomes wadd_wch.

   Routine Name Index
       The following table lists each curses routine and the name of the manual page on which  it
       is  described.   Routines  flagged with `*' are ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or
       present in SVr4.

                              curses Routine Name     Manual Page Name
                              COLOR_PAIR              curs_color(3X)
                              PAIR_NUMBER             curs_attr(3X)

                              _nc_free_and_exit       curs_memleaks(3X)*
                              _nc_freeall             curs_memleaks(3X)*
                              _nc_tracebits           curs_trace(3X)*
                              _traceattr              curs_trace(3X)*
                              _traceattr2             curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracechar              curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracechtype            curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracechtype2           curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracedump              curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracef                 curs_trace(3X)*
                              _tracemouse             curs_trace(3X)*
                              add_wch                 curs_add_wch(3X)
                              add_wchnstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              add_wchstr              curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              addch                   curs_addch(3X)
                              addchnstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                              addchstr                curs_addchstr(3X)
                              addnstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                              addnwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                              addstr                  curs_addstr(3X)
                              addwstr                 curs_addwstr(3X)
                              assume_default_colors   default_colors(3X)*
                              attr_get                curs_attr(3X)
                              attr_off                curs_attr(3X)
                              attr_on                 curs_attr(3X)
                              attr_set                curs_attr(3X)
                              attroff                 curs_attr(3X)
                              attron                  curs_attr(3X)
                              attrset                 curs_attr(3X)
                              baudrate                curs_termattrs(3X)
                              beep                    curs_beep(3X)
                              bkgd                    curs_bkgd(3X)
                              bkgdset                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                              bkgrnd                  curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              bkgrndset               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              border                  curs_border(3X)
                              border_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                              box                     curs_border(3X)
                              box_set                 curs_border_set(3X)
                              can_change_color        curs_color(3X)
                              cbreak                  curs_inopts(3X)
                              chgat                   curs_attr(3X)
                              clear                   curs_clear(3X)
                              clearok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                              clrtobot                curs_clear(3X)
                              clrtoeol                curs_clear(3X)
                              color_content           curs_color(3X)
                              color_set               curs_attr(3X)
                              copywin                 curs_overlay(3X)
                              curs_set                curs_kernel(3X)
                              curses_version          curs_extend(3X)*
                              def_prog_mode           curs_kernel(3X)
                              def_shell_mode          curs_kernel(3X)
                              define_key              define_key(3X)*
                              del_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                              delay_output            curs_util(3X)
                              delch                   curs_delch(3X)
                              deleteln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                              delscreen               curs_initscr(3X)
                              delwin                  curs_window(3X)
                              derwin                  curs_window(3X)
                              doupdate                curs_refresh(3X)
                              dupwin                  curs_window(3X)
                              echo                    curs_inopts(3X)
                              echo_wchar              curs_add_wch(3X)
                              echochar                curs_addch(3X)
                              endwin                  curs_initscr(3X)

                              erase                   curs_clear(3X)
                              erasechar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                              erasewchar              curs_termattrs(3X)
                              filter                  curs_util(3X)
                              flash                   curs_beep(3X)
                              flushinp                curs_util(3X)
                              get_wch                 curs_get_wch(3X)
                              get_wstr                curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              getattrs                curs_attr(3X)
                              getbegx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getbegy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getbegyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                              getbkgd                 curs_bkgd(3X)
                              getbkgrnd               curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              getcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                              getch                   curs_getch(3X)
                              getcurx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getcury                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getmaxx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getmaxy                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getmaxyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                              getmouse                curs_mouse(3X)*
                              getn_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              getnstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                              getparx                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getpary                 curs_legacy(3X)*
                              getparyx                curs_getyx(3X)
                              getstr                  curs_getstr(3X)
                              getsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                              getwin                  curs_util(3X)
                              getyx                   curs_getyx(3X)
                              halfdelay               curs_inopts(3X)
                              has_colors              curs_color(3X)
                              has_ic                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                              has_il                  curs_termattrs(3X)
                              has_key                 curs_getch(3X)*
                              hline                   curs_border(3X)
                              hline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                              idcok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                              idlok                   curs_outopts(3X)
                              immedok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                              in_wch                  curs_in_wch(3X)
                              in_wchnstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              in_wchstr               curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              inch                    curs_inch(3X)
                              inchnstr                curs_inchstr(3X)
                              inchstr                 curs_inchstr(3X)
                              init_color              curs_color(3X)
                              init_pair               curs_color(3X)
                              initscr                 curs_initscr(3X)
                              innstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                              innwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                              ins_nwstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              ins_wch                 curs_ins_wch(3X)
                              ins_wstr                curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              insch                   curs_insch(3X)
                              insdelln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                              insertln                curs_deleteln(3X)
                              insnstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                              insstr                  curs_insstr(3X)
                              instr                   curs_instr(3X)
                              intrflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                              inwstr                  curs_inwstr(3X)
                              is_cleared              curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_idcok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_idlok                curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_immedok              curs_opaque(3X)*

                              is_keypad               curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_leaveok              curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_linetouched          curs_touch(3X)
                              is_nodelay              curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_notimeout            curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_scrollok             curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_syncok               curs_opaque(3X)*
                              is_term_resized         resizeterm(3X)*
                              is_wintouched           curs_touch(3X)
                              isendwin                curs_initscr(3X)
                              key_defined             key_defined(3X)*
                              key_name                curs_util(3X)
                              keybound                keybound(3X)*
                              keyname                 curs_util(3X)
                              keyok                   keyok(3X)*
                              keypad                  curs_inopts(3X)
                              killchar                curs_termattrs(3X)
                              killwchar               curs_termattrs(3X)
                              leaveok                 curs_outopts(3X)
                              longname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                              mcprint                 curs_print(3X)*
                              meta                    curs_inopts(3X)
                              mouse_trafo             curs_mouse(3X)*
                              mouseinterval           curs_mouse(3X)*
                              mousemask               curs_mouse(3X)*
                              move                    curs_move(3X)
                              mvadd_wch               curs_add_wch(3X)
                              mvadd_wchnstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              mvadd_wchstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              mvaddch                 curs_addch(3X)
                              mvaddchnstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                              mvaddchstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                              mvaddnstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                              mvaddnwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                              mvaddstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                              mvaddwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                              mvchgat                 curs_attr(3X)
                              mvcur                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                              mvdelch                 curs_delch(3X)
                              mvderwin                curs_window(3X)
                              mvget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                              mvget_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              mvgetch                 curs_getch(3X)
                              mvgetn_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              mvgetnstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                              mvgetstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                              mvhline                 curs_border(3X)
                              mvhline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                              mvin_wch                curs_in_wch(3X)
                              mvin_wchnstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              mvin_wchstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              mvinch                  curs_inch(3X)
                              mvinchnstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                              mvinchstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                              mvinnstr                curs_instr(3X)
                              mvinnwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                              mvins_nwstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              mvins_wch               curs_ins_wch(3X)
                              mvins_wstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              mvinsch                 curs_insch(3X)
                              mvinsnstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                              mvinsstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                              mvinstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                              mvinwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                              mvprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                              mvscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                              mvvline                 curs_border(3X)

                              mvvline_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                              mvwadd_wch              curs_add_wch(3X)
                              mvwadd_wchnstr          curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              mvwadd_wchstr           curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              mvwaddch                curs_addch(3X)
                              mvwaddchnstr            curs_addchstr(3X)
                              mvwaddchstr             curs_addchstr(3X)
                              mvwaddnstr              curs_addstr(3X)
                              mvwaddnwstr             curs_addwstr(3X)
                              mvwaddstr               curs_addstr(3X)
                              mvwaddwstr              curs_addwstr(3X)
                              mvwchgat                curs_attr(3X)
                              mvwdelch                curs_delch(3X)
                              mvwget_wch              curs_get_wch(3X)
                              mvwget_wstr             curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              mvwgetch                curs_getch(3X)
                              mvwgetn_wstr            curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              mvwgetnstr              curs_getstr(3X)
                              mvwgetstr               curs_getstr(3X)
                              mvwhline                curs_border(3X)
                              mvwhline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                              mvwin                   curs_window(3X)
                              mvwin_wch               curs_in_wch(3X)
                              mvwin_wchnstr           curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              mvwin_wchstr            curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              mvwinch                 curs_inch(3X)
                              mvwinchnstr             curs_inchstr(3X)
                              mvwinchstr              curs_inchstr(3X)
                              mvwinnstr               curs_instr(3X)
                              mvwinnwstr              curs_inwstr(3X)
                              mvwins_nwstr            curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              mvwins_wch              curs_ins_wch(3X)
                              mvwins_wstr             curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              mvwinsch                curs_insch(3X)
                              mvwinsnstr              curs_insstr(3X)
                              mvwinsstr               curs_insstr(3X)
                              mvwinstr                curs_instr(3X)
                              mvwinwstr               curs_inwstr(3X)
                              mvwprintw               curs_printw(3X)
                              mvwscanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                              mvwvline                curs_border(3X)
                              mvwvline_set            curs_border_set(3X)
                              napms                   curs_kernel(3X)
                              newpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                              newterm                 curs_initscr(3X)
                              newwin                  curs_window(3X)
                              nl                      curs_outopts(3X)
                              nocbreak                curs_inopts(3X)
                              nodelay                 curs_inopts(3X)
                              noecho                  curs_inopts(3X)
                              nofilter                curs_util(3X)*
                              nonl                    curs_outopts(3X)
                              noqiflush               curs_inopts(3X)
                              noraw                   curs_inopts(3X)
                              notimeout               curs_inopts(3X)
                              overlay                 curs_overlay(3X)
                              overwrite               curs_overlay(3X)
                              pair_content            curs_color(3X)
                              pechochar               curs_pad(3X)
                              pnoutrefresh            curs_pad(3X)
                              prefresh                curs_pad(3X)
                              printw                  curs_printw(3X)
                              putp                    curs_terminfo(3X)
                              putwin                  curs_util(3X)
                              qiflush                 curs_inopts(3X)
                              raw                     curs_inopts(3X)
                              redrawwin               curs_refresh(3X)

                              refresh                 curs_refresh(3X)
                              reset_prog_mode         curs_kernel(3X)
                              reset_shell_mode        curs_kernel(3X)
                              resetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                              resizeterm              resizeterm(3X)*
                              restartterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                              ripoffline              curs_kernel(3X)
                              savetty                 curs_kernel(3X)
                              scanw                   curs_scanw(3X)
                              scr_dump                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                              scr_init                curs_scr_dump(3X)
                              scr_restore             curs_scr_dump(3X)
                              scr_set                 curs_scr_dump(3X)
                              scrl                    curs_scroll(3X)
                              scroll                  curs_scroll(3X)
                              scrollok                curs_outopts(3X)
                              set_curterm             curs_terminfo(3X)
                              set_term                curs_initscr(3X)
                              setcchar                curs_getcchar(3X)
                              setscrreg               curs_outopts(3X)
                              setsyx                  curs_kernel(3X)
                              setterm                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                              setupterm               curs_terminfo(3X)
                              slk_attr                curs_slk(3X)*
                              slk_attr_off            curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_attr_on             curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_attr_set            curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_attroff             curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_attron              curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_attrset             curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_clear               curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_color               curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_init                curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_label               curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_noutrefresh         curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_refresh             curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_restore             curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_set                 curs_slk(3X)
                              slk_touch               curs_slk(3X)
                              standend                curs_attr(3X)
                              standout                curs_attr(3X)
                              start_color             curs_color(3X)
                              subpad                  curs_pad(3X)
                              subwin                  curs_window(3X)
                              syncok                  curs_window(3X)
                              term_attrs              curs_termattrs(3X)
                              termattrs               curs_termattrs(3X)
                              termname                curs_termattrs(3X)
                              tgetent                 curs_termcap(3X)
                              tgetflag                curs_termcap(3X)
                              tgetnum                 curs_termcap(3X)
                              tgetstr                 curs_termcap(3X)
                              tgoto                   curs_termcap(3X)
                              tigetflag               curs_terminfo(3X)
                              tigetnum                curs_terminfo(3X)
                              tigetstr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                              timeout                 curs_inopts(3X)
                              touchline               curs_touch(3X)
                              touchwin                curs_touch(3X)
                              tparm                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                              tputs                   curs_termcap(3X)
                              tputs                   curs_terminfo(3X)
                              trace                   curs_trace(3X)*
                              typeahead               curs_inopts(3X)
                              unctrl                  curs_util(3X)
                              unget_wch               curs_get_wch(3X)
                              ungetch                 curs_getch(3X)

                              ungetmouse              curs_mouse(3X)*
                              untouchwin              curs_touch(3X)
                              use_default_colors      default_colors(3X)*
                              use_env                 curs_util(3X)
                              use_extended_names      curs_extend(3X)*
                              use_legacy_coding       legacy_coding(3X)*
                              use_tioctl              curs_util(3X)
                              vid_attr                curs_terminfo(3X)
                              vid_puts                curs_terminfo(3X)
                              vidattr                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                              vidputs                 curs_terminfo(3X)
                              vline                   curs_border(3X)
                              vline_set               curs_border_set(3X)
                              vw_printw               curs_printw(3X)
                              vw_scanw                curs_scanw(3X)
                              vwprintw                curs_printw(3X)
                              vwscanw                 curs_scanw(3X)
                              wadd_wch                curs_add_wch(3X)
                              wadd_wchnstr            curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              wadd_wchstr             curs_add_wchstr(3X)
                              waddch                  curs_addch(3X)
                              waddchnstr              curs_addchstr(3X)
                              waddchstr               curs_addchstr(3X)
                              waddnstr                curs_addstr(3X)
                              waddnwstr               curs_addwstr(3X)
                              waddstr                 curs_addstr(3X)
                              waddwstr                curs_addwstr(3X)
                              wattr_get               curs_attr(3X)
                              wattr_off               curs_attr(3X)
                              wattr_on                curs_attr(3X)
                              wattr_set               curs_attr(3X)
                              wattroff                curs_attr(3X)
                              wattron                 curs_attr(3X)
                              wattrset                curs_attr(3X)
                              wbkgd                   curs_bkgd(3X)
                              wbkgdset                curs_bkgd(3X)
                              wbkgrnd                 curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              wbkgrndset              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              wborder                 curs_border(3X)
                              wborder_set             curs_border_set(3X)
                              wchgat                  curs_attr(3X)
                              wclear                  curs_clear(3X)
                              wclrtobot               curs_clear(3X)
                              wclrtoeol               curs_clear(3X)
                              wcolor_set              curs_attr(3X)
                              wcursyncup              curs_window(3X)
                              wdelch                  curs_delch(3X)
                              wdeleteln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                              wecho_wchar             curs_add_wch(3X)
                              wechochar               curs_addch(3X)
                              wenclose                curs_mouse(3X)*
                              werase                  curs_clear(3X)
                              wget_wch                curs_get_wch(3X)
                              wget_wstr               curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              wgetbkgrnd              curs_bkgrnd(3X)
                              wgetch                  curs_getch(3X)
                              wgetn_wstr              curs_get_wstr(3X)
                              wgetnstr                curs_getstr(3X)
                              wgetstr                 curs_getstr(3X)
                              whline                  curs_border(3X)
                              whline_set              curs_border_set(3X)
                              win_wch                 curs_in_wch(3X)
                              win_wchnstr             curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              win_wchstr              curs_in_wchstr(3X)
                              winch                   curs_inch(3X)
                              winchnstr               curs_inchstr(3X)
                              winchstr                curs_inchstr(3X)

                              winnstr                 curs_instr(3X)
                              winnwstr                curs_inwstr(3X)
                              wins_nwstr              curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              wins_wch                curs_ins_wch(3X)
                              wins_wstr               curs_ins_wstr(3X)
                              winsch                  curs_insch(3X)
                              winsdelln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                              winsertln               curs_deleteln(3X)
                              winsnstr                curs_insstr(3X)
                              winsstr                 curs_insstr(3X)
                              winstr                  curs_instr(3X)
                              winwstr                 curs_inwstr(3X)
                              wmouse_trafo            curs_mouse(3X)*
                              wmove                   curs_move(3X)
                              wnoutrefresh            curs_refresh(3X)
                              wprintw                 curs_printw(3X)
                              wredrawln               curs_refresh(3X)
                              wrefresh                curs_refresh(3X)
                              wresize                 wresize(3X)*
                              wscanw                  curs_scanw(3X)
                              wscrl                   curs_scroll(3X)
                              wsetscrreg              curs_outopts(3X)
                              wstandend               curs_attr(3X)
                              wstandout               curs_attr(3X)
                              wsyncdown               curs_window(3X)
                              wsyncup                 curs_window(3X)
                              wtimeout                curs_inopts(3X)
                              wtouchln                curs_touch(3X)
                              wunctrl                 curs_util(3X)
                              wvline                  curs_border(3X)
                              wvline_set              curs_border_set(3X)

       Routines that return an integer return ERR upon failure and an integer  value  other  than
       ERR upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted in the routine descriptions.

       As  a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as parameters, and handle this
       as an error.

       All macros return the value of the w version, except setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx,  getbe-
       gyx,  and getmaxyx.  The return values of setscrreg, wsetscrreg, getyx, getbegyx, and get-
       maxyx are undefined (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side  of  assignment

       Routines that return pointers return NULL on error.

       The  following  environment symbols are useful for customizing the runtime behavior of the
       ncurses library.  The most important ones have been already discussed in detail.

            The debugging library checks this environment variable when the application has redi-
            rected  output to a file.  The variable's numeric value is used for the baudrate.  If
            no value is found, ncurses uses 9600.  This allows testers  to  construct  repeatable
            test-cases that take into account costs that depend on baudrate.

       CC   When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the cmdch capability) of
            the loaded terminfo entries to the value of this variable.  Very few terminfo entries
            provide this feature.

            Because  this  name  is also used in development environments to represent the C com-
            piler's name, ncurses ignores it if it does not happen to be a single character.

            Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications running in  a  windowing
            environment usually are able to obtain the width of the window in which they are exe-
            cuting.  If neither the COLUMNS value nor the terminal's screen  size  is  available,
            ncurses uses the size which may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the cols

            It is important that your application use a correct size for the screen.  This is not
            always  possible  because  your  application  may be running on a host which does not
            honor NAWS (Negotiations About Window Size), or because you are  temporarily  running
            as  another  user.  However, setting COLUMNS and/or LINES overrides the library's use
            of the screen size obtained from the operating system.

            Either COLUMNS or LINES symbols may be specified independently.  This is mainly  use-
            ful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal descriptions, e.g., xterm which com-
            monly specifies a 65 line screen.  For best results, lines and  cols  should  not  be
            specified in a terminal description for terminals which are run as emulations.

            Use  the use_env function to disable all use of external environment (but not includ-
            ing system calls) to determine the screen  size.   Use  the  use_tioctl  function  to
            update  COLUMNS  or  LINES to match the screen size obtained from system calls or the
            terminal database.

            Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await  a  character
            sequence,  e.g., a function key.  The default value, 1000 milliseconds, is enough for
            most uses.  However, it is made a variable to accommodate unusual applications.

            The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to work with slow
            hosts,  e.g.,  running  on  a  network.   If  the host cannot read characters rapidly
            enough, it will have the same effect as if  the  terminal  did  not  send  characters
            rapidly enough.  The library will still see a timeout.

            Note  that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences received from the
            xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of multiple-clicking,  you  may  wish  to
            lengthen  this  default value because the timeout applies to the composed multi-click
            event as well as the individual clicks.

            In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides a global  vari-
            able  with the same name.  Portable applications should not rely upon the presence of
            ESCDELAY in either form, but setting the environment variable rather than the  global
            variable does not create problems when compiling an application.

       HOME Tells ncurses where your home directory is.  That is where it may read and write aux-
            iliary terminal descriptions:


            Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in  characters.   See  COLUMNS  for  a
            detailed description.

            This  applies  only  to  the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of buttons on the
            mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently from other platforms:

            1 = left
            2 = right
            3 = middle.

            This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be three numeric  dig-
            its 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is not specified, ncurses uses 132.

            Override  the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors are white-on-
            black (see default_colors(3X)).  You may set the foreground and background color val-
            ues  with  this  environment  variable  by proving a 2-element list: foreground,back-
            ground.  For example, to tell ncurses to not assume anything about  the  colors,  set
            this  to  "-1,-1".   To  make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0".  Any positive value
            from zero to the terminfo max_colors value is allowed.

            This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

            If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more terminal names  against
            which  the  TERM  environment variable is matched.  Setting it to an empty value dis-
            ables the GPM interface; using the built-in support for xterm, etc.

            If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open GPM if TERM  con-
            tains "linux".

            Ncurses  may  use  tabs  as part of the cursor movement optimization.  In some cases,
            your terminal driver may not handle these properly.  Set this environment variable to
            disable the feature.  You can also adjust your stty settings to avoid the problem.

            Some  terminals  use  a  magic-cookie feature which requires special handling to make
            highlighting and other video attributes display properly.  You can suppress the high-
            lighting entirely for these terminals by setting this environment variable.

            Most  of  the  terminal  descriptions  in  the terminfo database are written for real
            "hardware" terminals.  Many people use terminal emulators which run  in  a  windowing
            environment  and use curses-based applications.  Terminal emulators can duplicate all
            of the important aspects of a hardware terminal, but they do not have the same  limi-
            tations.   The  chief  limitation  of a hardware terminal from the standpoint of your
            application is the management of dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a hardware  terminal
            is  interfaced  into  a  terminal concentrator (which does flow control), it (or your
            application) must manage dataflow, preventing overruns.  The  cheapest  solution  (no
            hardware  cost)  is  for your program to do this by pausing after operations that the
            terminal does slowly, such as clearing the display.

            As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have delay times embed-
            ded.   You  may  wish  to use these descriptions, but not want to pay the performance

            Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but mandatory padding.
            Mandatory padding is used as a part of special control sequences such as flash.

            This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

            o   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

            o   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

            ncurses enabled buffered output during terminal initialization.  This was done (as in
            SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For testing purposes, both of ncurses and cer-
            tain  applications,  this  feature  was made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF
            variable disabled output buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually  line
            buffered) mode.

            In  the  current  implementation,  ncurses  performs  its  own buffering and does not
            require this workaround.  It does not modify the buffering of the standard output.

            The reason for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and  other  signals
            more  robust.   One drawback is that certain nonconventional programs would mix ordi-
            nary stdio calls with ncurses calls and (usually) work.  This is no  longer  possible
            since  ncurses  is  not using the buffered standard output but its own output (to the
            same file descriptor).  As a special case, the low-level calls such as putp still use
            the standard output.  But high-level curses calls do not.

            During initialization, the ncurses library checks for special cases where VT100 line-
            drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set capabilities) described in the
            terminfo  are known to be missing.  Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the
            Linux console emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses  checks  the
            TERM  environment  variable  for these.  For other special cases, you should set this
            environment variable.  Doing this tells ncurses to use Unicode  values  which  corre-
            spond  to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.  That works for the special cases cited, and
            is likely to work for terminal emulators.

            When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.  Setting it to zero
            (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check for "linux" and "screen".

            As  an  alternative  to the environment variable, ncurses checks for an extended ter-
            minfo capability U8.  This is a  numeric  capability  which  can  be  compiled  using
            tic -x.  For example

            # linux console, if patched to provide working
            # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
            linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                    U8#0, use=linux,

            # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
            xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                    U8#1, use=xterm,

            The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used by applications
            that use ncurses' termcap interface.

            During initialization, the ncurses debugging library checks the  NCURSES_TRACE  envi-
            ronment  variable.   If  it  is  defined, to a numeric value, ncurses calls the trace
            function, using that value as the argument.

            The argument values, which are defined in curses.h, provide several types of informa-
            tion.   When  running with traces enabled, your application will write the file trace
            to the current directory.

       TERM Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal type is distinct, though many are similar.

            If the ncurses library has been configured with termcap support, ncurses  will  check
            for  a  terminal's description in termcap form if it is not available in the terminfo

            The TERMCAP environment variable contains either a terminal  description  (with  new-
            lines stripped out), or a file name telling where the information denoted by the TERM
            environment variable exists.  In either case, setting it directs  ncurses  to  ignore
            the usual place for this information, e.g., /etc/termcap.

            Overrides  the  directory  in  which  ncurses searches for your terminal description.
            This is the simplest, but not the only way to change the list  of  directories.   The
            complete list of directories in order follows:

            o   the last directory to which ncurses wrote, if any, is searched first

            o   the directory specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

            o   $HOME/.terminfo

            o   directories listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

            o   one  or more directories whose names are configured and compiled into the ncurses
                library, i.e.,

                o   no default value (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS variable)

                o   /usr/share/terminfo (corresponding to the TERMINFO variable)

            Specifies a list of directories to search for terminal  descriptions.   The  list  is
            separated by colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

            All  of the terminal descriptions are in terminfo form.  Normally these are stored in
            a directory tree, using subdirectories named by the  first  letter  of  the  terminal
            names therein.

            If  ncurses is built with a hashed database, then each entry in this list can also be
            the path of the corresponding database file.

            If ncurses is built with a support for reading termcap files directly, then an  entry
            in this list may be the path of a termcap file.

            If  TERMCAP  does  not  hold a file name then ncurses checks the TERMPATH environment
            variable.  This is a list of filenames separated by spaces or colons (i.e.,  ":")  on
            Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

            If  the  TERMPATH  environment  variable  is  not  set,  ncurses  looks  in the files
            /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap, in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when the  current  user
       is the superuser (root), or if the application uses setuid or setgid permissions:

              $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.

       Several  different  configurations are possible, depending on the configure script options
       used when building ncurses.  There are a few main options whose effects are visible to the
       applications developer using ncurses:

            The standard include for ncurses is as noted in SYNOPSIS:

            #include <curses.h>

            This  option  is used to avoid filename conflicts when ncurses is not the main imple-
            mentation of curses of the computer.  If ncurses is installed disabling overwrite, it
            puts its headers in a subdirectory, e.g.,

            #include <ncurses/curses.h>

            It also omits a symbolic link which would allow you to use -lcurses to build executa-

            The configure script renames the library and (if the  --disable-overwrite  option  is
            used)  puts  the  header files in a different subdirectory.  All of the library names
            have a "w" appended to them, i.e., instead of


            you link with


            You must also define _XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED when  compiling  for  the  wide-character
            library  to  use the extended (wide-character) functions.  The curses.h file which is
            installed for the wide-character library is designed to be compatible with the normal
            library's header.  Only the size of the WINDOW structure differs, and very few appli-
            cations require more than a pointer to WINDOWs.  If the headers are installed  allow-
            ing  overwrite,  the  wide-character  library's  headers should be installed last, to
            allow applications to be built using either library from the same set of headers.




            The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their  suffixes,  e.g.,  libn-
    and libncurses.a.  The debug and profiling libraries add a "_g" and a "_p"
            to the root names respectively, e.g., libncurses_g.a and libncurses_p.a.

            The trace function normally resides in the debug library, but it is sometimes  useful
            to  configure  this  in  the  shared library.  Configure scripts should check for the
            function's existence rather than assuming it is always in the debug library.

            directory containing  initialization  files  for  the  terminal  capability  database
            /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database

       terminfo(5) and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed routine descriptions.

       The  ncurses  library can be compiled with an option (-DUSE_GETCAP) that falls back to the
       old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup code cannot find a terminfo entry corre-
       sponding  to  TERM.  Use of this feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an
       entire termcap compiler in the ncurses startup code,  at  significant  cost  in  core  and
       startup cycles.

       The  ncurses  library  includes facilities for capturing mouse events on certain terminals
       (including xterm).  See the curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes facilities for responding to window  resizing  events,  e.g.,
       when  running  in  an  xterm.   See  the  resizeterm(3X)  and wresize(3X) manual pages for
       details.  In addition, the library may be configured with a SIGWINCH handler.

       The ncurses library extends the fixed set of function key  capabilities  of  terminals  by
       allowing  the application designer to define additional key sequences at runtime.  See the
       define_key(3X) key_defined(3X), and keyok(3X) manual pages for details.

       The ncurses library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which implement the ISO-6429
       SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an application to reset the terminal to its origi-
       nal foreground and background colors.  From the users'  perspective,  the  application  is
       able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set independently, providing bet-
       ter control over color contrasts.  See the default_colors(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library includes a function for directing  application  output  to  a  printer
       attached to the terminal device.  See the curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       The ncurses library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI Curses.  The EXTENDED
       XSI Curses functionality (including color support) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences  between  the  XSI
       Curses and ncurses calls) are described in PORTABILITY sections of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as pointers to WINDOW struc-
       tures to ensure they are not null.  The main reason for  providing  this  behavior  is  to
       guard  against  programmer  error.   The standard interface does not provide a way for the
       library to tell an application which of several possible errors were detected.  Relying on
       this  (or  some  other) extension will adversely affect the portability of curses applica-

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       o   The routine has_key is not part  of  XPG4,  nor  is  it  present  in  SVr4.   See  the
           curs_getch(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The  routine  slk_attr  is  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  is it present in SVr4.  See the
           curs_slk(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routines getmouse, mousemask, ungetmouse, mouseinterval, and wenclose relating  to
           mouse  interfacing  are  not  part  of  XPG4,  nor  are they present in SVr4.  See the
           curs_mouse(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The routine mcprint was not present in any previous curses  implementation.   See  the
           curs_print(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The  routine  wresize  is  not  part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.  See the wre-
           size(3X) manual page for details.

       o   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from application programs.   See
           curs_opaque(3X) for the discussion of is_scrollok, etc.

       o   This  implementation  can  be  configured  to  provide  rudimentary support for multi-
           threaded applications.  See curs_threads(3X) for details.

       o   This implementation can also be configured to provide a set of functions which improve
           the ability to manage multiple screens.  See curs_sp_funcs(3X) for details.

       In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities cr, ind, cub1, ff and tab
       activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX tty driver.  In  this  implementation,  all
       padding is done by sending NUL bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows
       the interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and  increases  the  package's  portability

       The  header  file  <curses.h>  automatically includes the header files <stdio.h> and <unc-

       If standard output from a ncurses program is re-directed to something which is not a  tty,
       screen  updates  will  be directed to standard error.  This was an undocumented feature of
       AT&T System V Release 3 curses.

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.


Generated by $Id: phpMan.php,v 4.55 2007/09/05 04:42:51 chedong Exp $ Author: Che Dong
On Apache
Under GNU General Public License
2018-04-26 13:02 @ CrawledBy CCBot/2.0 (
Valid XHTML 1.0!Valid CSS!