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NETSTAT(8)                 Linux Programmer's Manual                NETSTAT(8)

       netstat - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquer-
       ade connections, and multicast memberships

       netstat [address_family_options] [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w]  [--listening|-l]
       [--all|-a]    [--numeric|-n]    [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]
       [--symbolic|-N]  [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]]  [--timers|-o]  [--program|-p]  [--ver-
       bose|-v] [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat  {--route|-r}  [address_family_options]  [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--ver-
       bose|-v] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports] [--con-
       tinuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat   {--interfaces|-I|-i}   [iface]  [--all|-a]  [--extend|-e]  [--verbose|-v]
       [--program|-p]  [--numeric|-n]  [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-ports]
       [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat  {--groups|-g} [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-ports][--numeric-
       ports] [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat {--masquerade|-M} [--extend|-e] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts][--numeric-
       ports][--numeric-ports] [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat {--statistics|-s} [--tcp|-t] [--udp|-u] [--raw|-w] [delay]

       netstat {--version|-V}

       netstat {--help|-h}


       [--protocol={inet,inet6,unix,ipx,ax25,netrom,ddp, ... } ] [--unix|-x] [--inet|--ip]
       [--ax25] [--ipx] [--netrom] [--ddp]

       This program is obsolete.  Replacement for netstat is ss.  Replacement for  netstat
       -r is ip route.  Replacement for netstat -i is ip -s link.  Replacement for netstat
       -g is ip maddr.

       Netstat prints information about the  Linux  networking  subsystem.   The  type  of
       information printed is controlled by the first argument, as follows:

       By  default,  netstat  displays  a  list of open sockets.  If you don't specify any
       address families, then the active sockets of all configured address  families  will
       be printed.

   --route , -r
       Display the kernel routing tables.

   --groups , -g
       Display multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6.

   --interfaces=iface , -I=iface , -i
       Display a table of all network interfaces, or the specified iface.

   --masquerade , -M
       Display a list of masqueraded connections.

   --statistics , -s
       Display summary statistics for each protocol.

   --verbose , -v
       Tell  the  user  what  is  going  on by being verbose. Especially print some useful
       information about unconfigured address families.

   --numeric , -n
       Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user

       shows  numerical  host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user

       shows numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution  of  host  or  user

       shows  numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names.

   --protocol=family , -A
       Specifies the address families (perhaps better described as  low  level  protocols)
       for  which  connections are to be shown.  family is a comma (',') separated list of
       address family keywords like inet, inet6, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, and  ddp.   This
       has  the  same  effect  as  using  the --inet, --inet6, --unix (-x), --ipx, --ax25,
       --netrom, and --ddp options.

       The address family inet includes raw, udp and tcp protocol sockets.

   -c, --continuous
       This will cause netstat to print the selected  information  every  second  continu-

   -e, --extend
       Display additional information.  Use this option twice for maximum detail.

   -o, --timers
       Include information related to networking timers.

   -p, --program
       Show the PID and name of the program to which each socket belongs.

   -l, --listening
       Show only listening sockets.  (These are omitted by default.)

   -a, --all
       Show  both listening and non-listening (for TCP this means established connections)
       sockets.  With the --interfaces option, show interfaces that are not marked

       Print routing information from the FIB.  (This is the default.)

       Print routing information from the route cache.

   -Z --context
       If SELinux enabled print SELinux context.

   -T --notrim
       Stop trimming long addresses.

       Netstat will cycle printing through statistics every delay seconds.  UP.

   Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, raw)
       The protocol (tcp, udp, raw) used by the socket.

       The count of bytes not copied by the user program connected to this socket.

       The count of bytes not acknowledged by the remote host.

   Local Address
       Address and port number of the local end of the socket.  Unless the --numeric  (-n)
       option  is  specified,  the  socket  address is resolved to its canonical host name
       (FQDN), and the port number is translated into the corresponding service name.

   Foreign Address
       Address and port number of the remote end  of  the  socket.   Analogous  to  "Local

       The  state  of  the  socket.  Since  there are no states in raw mode and usually no
       states used in UDP, this column may be left blank. Normally this can be one of sev-
       eral values:

              The socket has an established connection.

              The socket is actively attempting to establish a connection.

              A connection request has been received from the network.

              The socket is closed, and the connection is shutting down.

              Connection  is  closed,  and  the  socket is waiting for a shutdown from the
              remote end.

              The socket is waiting after close to handle packets still in the network.

       CLOSED The socket is not being used.

              The remote end has shut down, waiting for the socket to close.

              The remote end has shut down, and the socket is closed. Waiting for acknowl-

       LISTEN The  socket  is  listening  for  incoming connections.  Such sockets are not
              included in the output unless you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a)

              Both sockets are shut down but we still don't have all our data sent.

              The state of the socket is unknown.

       The username or the user id (UID) of the owner of the socket.

   PID/Program name
       Slash-separated  pair  of the process id (PID) and process name of the process that
       owns the socket.  --program causes this column to be included.  You will also  need
       superuser  privileges to see this information on sockets you don't own.  This iden-
       tification information is not yet available for IPX sockets.

       (this needs to be written)

   Active UNIX domain Sockets
       The protocol (usually unix) used by the socket.

       The reference count (i.e. attached processes via this socket).

       The  flags  displayed  is  SO_ACCEPTON  (displayed  as  ACC),  SO_WAITDATA  (W)  or
       SO_NOSPACE (N).  SO_ACCECPTON is used on unconnected sockets if their corresponding
       processes are waiting for a connect request. The other  flags  are  not  of  normal

       There are several types of socket access:

              The socket is used in Datagram (connectionless) mode.

              This is a stream (connection) socket.

              The socket is used as a raw socket.

              This one serves reliably-delivered messages.

              This is a sequential packet socket.

              Raw interface access socket.

              Who ever knows what the future will bring us - just fill in here :-)

       This field will contain one of the following Keywords:

       FREE   The socket is not allocated

              The  socket  is  listening  for a connection request.  Such sockets are only
              included in the output if you specify the --listening  (-l)  or  --all  (-a)

              The socket is about to establish a connection.

              The socket is connected.

              The socket is disconnecting.

              The socket is not connected to another one.

              This state should never happen.

   PID/Program name
       Process  ID  (PID)  and process name of the process that has the socket open.  More
       info available in Active Internet connections section written above.

       This is the path name as which the corresponding processes attached to the  socket.

   Active IPX sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active NET/ROM sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active AX.25 sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

       Starting  with  Linux release 2.2 netstat -i does not show interface statistics for
       alias interfaces. To get per alias interface counters you need  to  setup  explicit
       rules using the ipchains(8) command.

       /etc/services -- The services translation file

       /proc  --  Mount point for the proc filesystem, which gives access to kernel status
       information via the following files.

       /proc/net/dev -- device information

       /proc/net/raw -- raw socket information

       /proc/net/tcp -- TCP socket information

       /proc/net/udp -- UDP socket information

       /proc/net/igmp -- IGMP multicast information

       /proc/net/unix -- Unix domain socket information

       /proc/net/ipx -- IPX socket information

       /proc/net/ax25 -- AX25 socket information

       /proc/net/appletalk -- DDP (appletalk) socket information

       /proc/net/nr -- NET/ROM socket information

       /proc/net/route -- IP routing information

       /proc/net/ax25_route -- AX25 routing information

       /proc/net/ipx_route -- IPX routing information

       /proc/net/nr_nodes -- NET/ROM nodelist

       /proc/net/nr_neigh -- NET/ROM neighbours

       /proc/net/ip_masquerade -- masqueraded connections

       /proc/net/snmp -- statistics


       Occasionally strange information may appear if a socket changes as  it  is  viewed.
       This is unlikely to occur.

       The  netstat  user  interface was written by Fred Baumgarten <dc6iq AT insu1.uni-> the man page basically by Matt  Welsh  <mdw AT>.  It  was
       updated by Alan Cox <Alan.Cox AT> but could do with a bit more work.  It was
       updated again by Tuan Hoang <tqhoang AT>.
       The man page and the command included in the net-tools package is totally rewritten
       by Bernd Eckenfels <ecki AT>.

net-tools                      19 December 2000                     NETSTAT(8)

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