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NETSTAT(8)                     Linux System Administrator's Manual                     NETSTAT(8)



NAME
       netstat - Print network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade con-
       nections, and multicast memberships


SYNOPSIS
       netstat  [address_family_options]   [--tcp|-t]   [--udp|-u]   [--udplite|-U]   [--sctp|-S]
       [--raw|-w]  [--listening|-l] [--all|-a] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports]
       [--numeric-users] [--symbolic|-N] [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--timers|-o]  [--program|-p]
       [--verbose|-v] [--continuous|-c] [--wide|-W] [delay]

       netstat  {--route|-r}  [address_family_options]  [--extend|-e[--extend|-e]] [--verbose|-v]
       [--numeric|-n]  [--numeric-hosts]  [--numeric-ports]  [--numeric-users]  [--continuous|-c]
       [delay]

       netstat   {--interfaces|-I|-i}   [--all|-a]  [--extend|-e]  [--verbose|-v]  [--program|-p]
       [--numeric|-n]  [--numeric-hosts]  [--numeric-ports]  [--numeric-users]  [--continuous|-c]
       [delay]

       netstat {--groups|-g} [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports] [--numeric-users]
       [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat {--masquerade|-M} [--extend|-e] [--numeric|-n] [--numeric-hosts] [--numeric-ports]
       [--numeric-users] [--continuous|-c] [delay]

       netstat  {--statistics|-s}  [--tcp|-t]  [--udp|-u]  [--udplite|-U]  [--sctp|-S] [--raw|-w]
       [delay]

       netstat {--version|-V}

       netstat {--help|-h}

       address_family_options:

       [-4|--inet]  [-6|--inet6]  [--protocol={inet,inet6,unix,ipx,ax25,netrom,ddp,   ...   }   ]
       [--unix|-x]  [--inet|--ip|--tcpip]  [--ax25]  [--x25]  [--rose] [--ash] [--ipx] [--netrom]
       [--ddp|--appletalk] [--econet|--ec]


NOTES
       This program is obsolete.  Replacement for netstat is ss.  Replacement for netstat  -r  is
       ip  route.   Replacement  for  netstat -i is ip -s link.  Replacement for netstat -g is ip
       maddr.


DESCRIPTION
       Netstat prints information about the Linux networking subsystem.  The type of  information
       printed is controlled by the first argument, as follows:

   (none)
       By  default,  netstat  displays  a list of open sockets.  If you don't specify any address
       families, then the active sockets of all configured address families will be printed.

   --route , -r
       Display the kernel routing tables. See the description in route(8) for  details.   netstat
       -r and route -e produce the same output.

   --groups , -g
       Display multicast group membership information for IPv4 and IPv6.

   --interfaces=iface , -I=iface , -i
       Display a table of all network interfaces, or the specified iface.

   --masquerade , -M
       Display a list of masqueraded connections.

   --statistics , -s
       Display summary statistics for each protocol.

OPTIONS
   --verbose , -v
       Tell  the user what is going on by being verbose. Especially print some useful information
       about unconfigured address families.

   --wide , -W
       Do not truncate IP addresses by using output as wide as needed. This is optional  for  now
       to not break existing scripts.

   --numeric , -n
       Show numerical addresses instead of trying to determine symbolic host, port or user names.

   --numeric-hosts
       shows numerical host addresses but does not affect the resolution of port or user names.

   --numeric-ports
       shows numerical port numbers but does not affect the resolution of host or user names.

   --numeric-users
       shows numerical user IDs but does not affect the resolution of host or port names.


   --protocol=family , -A
       Specifies the address families (perhaps better described as low level protocols) for which
       connections are to be shown.  family is a comma (',') separated  list  of  address  family
       keywords  like  inet,  inet6, unix, ipx, ax25, netrom, econet, and ddp.  This has the same
       effect as using the --inet|-4, --inet6|-6, --unix|-x, --ipx, --ax25, --netrom,  and  --ddp
       options.

       The address family inet (Iv4) includes raw, udp, udplite and tcp protocol sockets.

   -c, --continuous
       This will cause netstat to print the selected information every second continuously.

   -e, --extend
       Display additional information.  Use this option twice for maximum detail.

   -o, --timers
       Include information related to networking timers.

   -p, --program
       Show the PID and name of the program to which each socket belongs.

   -l, --listening
       Show only listening sockets.  (These are omitted by default.)

   -a, --all
       Show  both  listening and non-listening (for TCP this means established connections) sock-
       ets.  With the --interfaces option, show interfaces that are not up

   -F
       Print routing information from the FIB.  (This is the default.)

   -C
       Print routing information from the route cache.

   delay
       Netstat will cycle printing through statistics every delay seconds.

OUTPUT
   Active Internet connections (TCP, UDP, UDPLite, raw)
   Proto
       The protocol (tcp, udp, udpl, raw) used by the socket.

   Recv-Q
       Established: The count of bytes not copied by the user program connected to  this  socket.
       Listening: Since Kernel 2.6.18 this column contains the current syn backlog.

   Send-Q
       Established:  The  count  of  bytes not acknowledged by the remote host.  Listening: Since
       Kernel 2.6.18 this column contains the maximum size of the syn backlog.

   Local Address
       Address and port number of the local end of the socket.  Unless the --numeric (-n)  option
       is  specified,  the  socket address is resolved to its canonical host name (FQDN), and the
       port number is translated into the corresponding service name.

   Foreign Address
       Address and port number of the remote end of the socket.  Analogous to "Local Address."

   State
       The state of the socket. Since there are no states in raw mode and usually no states  used
       in  UDP  and  UDPLite,  this column may be left blank. Normally this can be one of several
       values:

       ESTABLISHED
              The socket has an established connection.

       SYN_SENT
              The socket is actively attempting to establish a connection.

       SYN_RECV
              A connection request has been received from the network.

       FIN_WAIT1
              The socket is closed, and the connection is shutting down.

       FIN_WAIT2
              Connection is closed, and the socket is waiting for a shutdown from the remote end.

       TIME_WAIT
              The socket is waiting after close to handle packets still in the network.

       CLOSE  The socket is not being used.

       CLOSE_WAIT
              The remote end has shut down, waiting for the socket to close.

       LAST_ACK
              The remote end has shut down, and the socket is closed.  Waiting  for  acknowledge-
              ment.

       LISTEN The socket is listening for incoming connections.  Such sockets are not included in
              the output unless you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

       CLOSING
              Both sockets are shut down but we still don't have all our data sent.

       UNKNOWN
              The state of the socket is unknown.

   User
       The username or the user id (UID) of the owner of the socket.

   PID/Program name
       Slash-separated pair of the process id (PID) and process name of the process that owns the
       socket.  --program causes this column to be included.  You will also need superuser privi-
       leges to see this information on sockets you don't own.  This  identification  information
       is not yet available for IPX sockets.

   Timer
       (this needs to be written)

   Active UNIX domain Sockets
   Proto
       The protocol (usually unix) used by the socket.

   RefCnt
       The reference count (i.e. attached processes via this socket).

   Flags
       The  flags displayed is SO_ACCEPTON (displayed as ACC), SO_WAITDATA (W) or SO_NOSPACE (N).
       SO_ACCECPTON is used on unconnected sockets if their corresponding processes  are  waiting
       for a connect request. The other flags are not of normal interest.

   Type
       There are several types of socket access:

       SOCK_DGRAM
              The socket is used in Datagram (connectionless) mode.

       SOCK_STREAM
              This is a stream (connection) socket.

       SOCK_RAW
              The socket is used as a raw socket.

       SOCK_RDM
              This one serves reliably-delivered messages.

       SOCK_SEQPACKET
              This is a sequential packet socket.

       SOCK_PACKET
              Raw interface access socket.

       UNKNOWN
              Who ever knows what the future will bring us - just fill in here :-)

   State
       This field will contain one of the following Keywords:

       FREE   The socket is not allocated

       LISTENING
              The  socket  is listening for a connection request.  Such sockets are only included
              in the output if you specify the --listening (-l) or --all (-a) option.

       CONNECTING
              The socket is about to establish a connection.

       CONNECTED
              The socket is connected.

       DISCONNECTING
              The socket is disconnecting.

       (empty)
              The socket is not connected to another one.

       UNKNOWN
              This state should never happen.

   PID/Program name
       Process ID (PID) and process name of the process that has  the  socket  open.   More  info
       available in Active Internet connections section written above.

   Path
       This is the path name as which the corresponding processes attached to the socket.

   Active IPX sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active NET/ROM sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

   Active AX.25 sockets
       (this needs to be done by somebody who knows it)

FILES
       /etc/services -- The services translation file

       /proc -- Mount point for the proc filesystem, which gives access to kernel status informa-
       tion via the following files.

       /proc/net/dev -- device information

       /proc/net/raw -- raw socket information

       /proc/net/tcp -- TCP socket information

       /proc/net/udp -- UDP socket information

       /proc/net/udplite -- UDPLite socket information

       /proc/net/igmp -- IGMP multicast information

       /proc/net/unix -- Unix domain socket information

       /proc/net/ipx -- IPX socket information

       /proc/net/ax25 -- AX25 socket information

       /proc/net/appletalk -- DDP (appletalk) socket information

       /proc/net/nr -- NET/ROM socket information

       /proc/net/route -- IP routing information

       /proc/net/ax25_route -- AX25 routing information

       /proc/net/ipx_route -- IPX routing information

       /proc/net/nr_nodes -- NET/ROM nodelist

       /proc/net/nr_neigh -- NET/ROM neighbours

       /proc/net/ip_masquerade -- masqueraded connections

       /proc/net/snmp -- statistics

SEE ALSO
       route(8), ifconfig(8), iptables(8), proc(5) ss(8) ip(8)

BUGS
       Occasionally strange information may appear if a socket changes as it is viewed.  This  is
       unlikely to occur.

AUTHORS
       The  netstat  user  interface  was written by Fred Baumgarten <dc6iq AT insu1.uni-karls-
       ruhe.de>, the man page basically by Matt Welsh <mdw AT tc.edu>.  It  was  updated  by
       Alan  Cox <Alan.Cox AT linux.org>, updated again by Tuan Hoang <tqhoang AT bigfoot.com>. The man
       page and the command included in the net-tools package is totally rewritten by Bernd  Eck-
       enfels <ecki AT linux.de>.  UDPLite options were added by Brian Micek <bmicek AT gmail.com>



net-tools                                   2012-09-15                                 NETSTAT(8)


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