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NICE(2)                    Linux Programmer's Manual                   NICE(2)



NAME
       nice - change process priority

SYNOPSIS
       #include <unistd.h>

       int nice(int inc);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       nice(): _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE || _XOPEN_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION
       nice()  adds  inc  to the nice value for the calling process.  (A higher nice value
       means a low priority.)  Only the superuser may specify  a  negative  increment,  or
       priority increase.  The range for nice values is described in getpriority(2).

RETURN VALUE
       On  success, the new nice value is returned (but see NOTES below).  On error, -1 is
       returned, and errno is set appropriately.

ERRORS
       EPERM  The calling process attempted to increase its priority by supplying a  nega-
              tive  inc  but  has  insufficient  privileges.  Under Linux the CAP_SYS_NICE
              capability is required.  (But see the discussion of the RLIMIT_NICE resource
              limit in setrlimit(2).)

CONFORMING TO
       SVr4,  4.3BSD,  POSIX.1-2001.   However,  the Linux and (g)libc (earlier than glibc
       2.2.4) return value is non-standard, see below.  SVr4 documents an additional  EIN-
       VAL error code.

NOTES
       SUSv2  and POSIX.1-2001 specify that nice() should return the new nice value.  How-
       ever, the Linux syscall and the nice() library function provided in older  versions
       of  (g)libc (earlier than glibc 2.2.4) return 0 on success.  The new nice value can
       be found using getpriority(2).

       Since glibc 2.2.4, nice() is implemented as a library function that calls getprior-
       ity(2) to obtain the new nice value to be returned to the caller.  With this imple-
       mentation, a successful call can legitimately return -1.   To  reliably  detect  an
       error,  set errno to 0 before the call, and check its value when nice() returns -1.

SEE ALSO
       nice(1), fork(2), getpriority(2), setpriority(2), capabilities(7), renice(8)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the  project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.



Linux                             2007-07-26                           NICE(2)

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