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OPENSSL(1)                          OpenSSL                         OPENSSL(1)



NAME
       openssl - OpenSSL command line tool

SYNOPSIS
       openssl command [ command_opts ] [ command_args ]

       openssl [ list-standard-commands | list-message-digest-commands | list-cipher-
       commands | list-cipher-algorithms | list-message-digest-algorithms | list-public-
       key-algorithms]

       openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]

DESCRIPTION
       OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL v2/v3)
       and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and related cryptography
       standards required by them.

       The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various cryptography
       functions of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell.  It can be used for

        o  Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters
        o  Public key cryptographic operations
        o  Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
        o  Calculation of Message Digests
        o  Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
        o  SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
        o  Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail
        o  Time Stamp requests, generation and verification

COMMAND SUMMARY
       The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the SYNOPSIS
       above), each of which often has a wealth of options and arguments (command_opts and
       command_args in the SYNOPSIS).

       The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-commands, and list-
       cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names of all standard
       commands, message digest commands, or cipher commands, respectively, that are
       available in the present openssl utility.

       The pseudo-commands list-cipher-algorithms and list-message-digest-algorithms list
       all cipher and message digest names, one entry per line. Aliases are listed as:

        from => to

       The pseudo-command list-public-key-algorithms lists all supported public key
       algorithms.

       The pseudo-command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name is
       available.  If no command named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and prints
       no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX.  In both cases, the output goes to
       stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.  Additional command line arguments are
       always ignored.  Since for each cipher there is a command of the same name, this
       provides an easy way for shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in
       the openssl program.  (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit,
       list-...-commands, or no-XXX itself.)

   STANDARD COMMANDS
       asn1parse Parse an ASN.1 sequence.

       ca        Certificate Authority (CA) Management.

       ciphers   Cipher Suite Description Determination.

       cms       CMS (Cryptographic Message Syntax) utility

       crl       Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.

       crl2pkcs7 CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.

       dgst      Message Digest Calculation.

       dh        Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       dhparam   Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Superseded by
                 genpkey and pkeyparam

       dsa       DSA Data Management.

       dsaparam  DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by genpkey and
                 pkeyparam

       ec        EC (Elliptic curve) key processing

       ecparam   EC parameter manipulation and generation

       enc       Encoding with Ciphers.

       engine    Engine (loadble module) information and manipulation.

       errstr    Error Number to Error String Conversion.

       gendh     Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters.  Obsoleted by dhparam.

       gendsa    Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by genpkey and
                 pkey

       genpkey   Generation of Private Key or Parameters.

       genrsa    Generation of RSA Private Key. Superceded by genpkey.

       nseq      Create or examine a netscape certificate sequence

       ocsp      Online Certificate Status Protocol utility.

       passwd    Generation of hashed passwords.

       pkcs12    PKCS#12 Data Management.

       pkcs7     PKCS#7 Data Management.

       pkey      Public and private key management.

       pkeyparam Public key algorithm parameter management.

       pkeyutl   Public key algorithm cryptographic operation utility.

       rand      Generate pseudo-random bytes.

       req       PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.

       rsa       RSA key management.

       rsautl    RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and decryption.
                 Superseded by  pkeyutl

       s_client  This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a
                 transparent connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended
                 for testing purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface
                 functionality but internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL
                 ssl library.

       s_server  This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts connections from
                 remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only
                 and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses
                 mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.  It provides both an
                 own command line oriented protocol for testing SSL functions and a simple
                 HTTP response facility to emulate an SSL/TLS-aware webserver.

       s_time    SSL Connection Timer.

       sess_id   SSL Session Data Management.

       smime     S/MIME mail processing.

       speed     Algorithm Speed Measurement.

       spkac     SPKAC printing and generating utility

       ts        Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server)

       verify    X.509 Certificate Verification.

       version   OpenSSL Version Information.

       x509      X.509 Certificate Data Management.

   MESSAGE DIGEST COMMANDS
       md2       MD2 Digest

       md5       MD5 Digest

       mdc2      MDC2 Digest

       rmd160    RMD-160 Digest

       sha       SHA Digest

       sha1      SHA-1 Digest

       sha224    SHA-224 Digest

       sha256    SHA-256 Digest

       sha384    SHA-384 Digest

       sha512    SHA-512 Digest

   ENCODING AND CIPHER COMMANDS
       base64    Base64 Encoding

       bf bf-cbc bf-cfb bf-ecb bf-ofb
                 Blowfish Cipher

       cast cast-cbc
                 CAST Cipher

       cast5-cbc cast5-cfb cast5-ecb cast5-ofb
                 CAST5 Cipher

       des des-cbc des-cfb des-ecb des-ede des-ede-cbc des-ede-cfb des-ede-ofb des-ofb
                 DES Cipher

       des3 desx des-ede3 des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofb
                 Triple-DES Cipher

       idea idea-cbc idea-cfb idea-ecb idea-ofb
                 IDEA Cipher

       rc2 rc2-cbc rc2-cfb rc2-ecb rc2-ofb
                 RC2 Cipher

       rc4       RC4 Cipher

       rc5 rc5-cbc rc5-cfb rc5-ecb rc5-ofb
                 RC5 Cipher

PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
       Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin and -passout
       for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the password to be
       obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these options take a single argument
       whose format is described below. If no password argument is given and a password is
       required then the user is prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from
       the current terminal with echoing turned off.

       pass:password
                 the actual password is password. Since the password is visible to
                 utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this form should only be used where
                 security is not important.

       env:var   obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since the
                 environment of other processes is visible on certain platforms (e.g. ps
                 under certain Unix OSes) this option should be used with caution.

       file:pathname
                 the first line of pathname is the password. If the same pathname argument
                 is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments then the first line will be
                 used for the input password and the next line for the output password.
                 pathname need not refer to a regular file: it could for example refer to
                 a device or named pipe.

       fd:number read the password from the file descriptor number. This can be used to
                 send the data via a pipe for example.

       stdin     read the password from standard input.

SEE ALSO
       asn1parse(1), ca(1), config(5), crl(1), crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1), dhparam(1), dsa(1),
       dsaparam(1), enc(1), gendsa(1), genpkey(1), genrsa(1), nseq(1), openssl(1),
       sslpasswd(1), pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1), sslrand(1), req(1), rsa(1), rsautl(1),
       s_client(1), s_server(1), s_time(1), smime(1), spkac(1), verify(1), version(1),
       x509(1), crypto(3), ssl(3), x509v3_config(5)

HISTORY
       The openssl(1) document appeared in OpenSSL 0.9.2.  The list-XXX-commands pseudo-
       commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.3; The list-XXX-algorithms pseudo-commands were
       added in OpenSSL 1.0.0; the no-XXX pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.5a.
       For notes on the availability of other commands, see their individual manual pages.



1.0.1e                            2017-03-22                        OPENSSL(1)

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