pkcs12(1) - phpMan

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PKCS12(1)                           OpenSSL                          PKCS12(1)



NAME
       pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility

SYNOPSIS
       openssl pkcs12 [-export] [-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile filename] [-name
       name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename] [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts]
       [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info] [-des | -des3 | -idea | -aes128 | -aes192 |
       -aes256 | -camellia128 | -camellia192 | -camellia256 | -nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter
       | -nomaciter | -nomac] [-twopass] [-descert] [-certpbe cipher] [-keypbe cipher]
       [-macalg digest] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg] [-passin arg] [-passout arg]
       [-rand file(s)] [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-CSP name]

DESCRIPTION
       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX files) to be
       created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several programs including Netscape,
       MSIE and MS Outlook.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a PKCS#12 file is
       being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is parsed. A PKCS#12 file can be
       created by using the -export option (see below).

PARSING OPTIONS
       -in filename
           This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard input is
           used by default.

       -out filename
           The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard output by
           default.  They are all written in PEM format.

       -pass arg, -passin arg
           the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more information about
           the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -passout arg
           pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For more
           information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in
           openssl(1).

       -noout
           this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the output file
           version of the PKCS#12 file.

       -clcerts
           only output client certificates (not CA certificates).

       -cacerts
           only output CA certificates (not client certificates).

       -nocerts
           no certificates at all will be output.

       -nokeys
           no private keys will be output.

       -info
           output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure, algorithms used
           and iteration counts.

       -des
           use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -des3
           use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is the default.

       -idea
           use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -aes128, -aes192, -aes256
           use AES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -camellia128, -camellia192, -camellia256
           use Camellia to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -nodes
           don't encrypt the private keys at all.

       -nomacver
           don't attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

       -twopass
           prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most software always
           assumes these are the same so this option will render such PKCS#12 files
           unreadable.

FILE CREATION OPTIONS
       -export
           This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather than parsed.

       -out filename
           This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard output is used
           by default.

       -in filename
           The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard input by
           default.  They must all be in PEM format. The order doesn't matter but one
           private key and its corresponding certificate should be present. If additional
           certificates are present they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

       -inkey filename
           file to read private key from. If not present then a private key must be
           present in the input file.

       -name friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private key. This
           name is typically displayed in list boxes by software importing the file.

       -certfile filename
           A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This option may be
           used multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order they
           appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on other certificates whereas MSIE
           displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
           the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more information about
           the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -passin password
           pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more information
           about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -chain
           if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the entire
           certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard CA store is used for
           this search. If the search fails it is considered a fatal error.

       -descert
           encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may render the PKCS#12 file
           unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default the private key is
           encrypted using triple DES and the certificate using 40 bit RC2.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
           these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and
           certificates to be selected. Any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 PBE algorithm name can
           be used (see NOTES section for more information). If a a cipher name (as output
           by the list-cipher-algorithms command is specified then it is used with PKCS#5
           v2.0. For interoperability reasons it is advisable to only use PKCS#12
           algorithms.

       -keyex|-keysig
           specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or just signing.
           This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar MS software. Normally
           "export grade" software will only allow 512 bit RSA keys to be used for
           encryption purposes but arbitrary length keys for signing. The -keysig option
           marks the key for signing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME
           signing, authenticode (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client authentication,
           however due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later support the use of signing only
           keys for SSL client authentication.

       -macalg digest
           specify the MAC digest algorithm. If not included them SHA1 will be used.

       -nomaciter, -noiter
           these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key algorithms.
           Unless you wish to produce files compatible with MSIE 4.0 you should leave
           these options alone.

           To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common passwords the
           algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an iteration count applied
           to it: this causes a certain part of the algorithm to be repeated and slows it
           down. The MAC is used to check the file integrity but since it will normally
           have the same password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
           By default both MAC and encryption iteration counts are set to 2048, using
           these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts can be set to 1, since
           this reduces the file security you should not use these options unless you
           really have to. Most software supports both MAC and key iteration counts.  MSIE
           4.0 doesn't support MAC iteration counts so it needs the -nomaciter option.

       -maciter
           This option is included for compatibility with previous versions, it used to be
           needed to use MAC iterations counts but they are now used by default.

       -nomac
           don't attempt to provide the MAC integrity.

       -rand file(s)
           a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
           generator, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files can be specified
           separated by a OS-dependent character.  The separator is ; for MS-Windows, ,
           for OpenVMS, and : for all others.

       -CAfile file
           CA storage as a file.

       -CApath dir
           CA storage as a directory. This directory must be a standard certificate
           directory: that is a hash of each subject name (using x509 -hash) should be
           linked to each certificate.

       -CSP name
           write name as a Microsoft CSP name.

NOTES
       Although there are a large number of options most of them are very rarely used. For
       PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used for PKCS#12 file creation
       -export and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are present then all
       certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input PKCS#12 files.
       There is no guarantee that the first certificate present is the one corresponding
       to the private key. Certain software which requires a private key and certificate
       and assumes the first certificate in the file is the one corresponding to the
       private key: this may not always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve
       this problem by only outputting the certificate corresponding to the private key.
       If the CA certificates are required then they can be output to a separate file
       using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption algorithms for
       private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally the defaults are fine but
       occasionally software can't handle triple DES encrypted private keys, then the
       option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be used to reduce the private key encryption to
       40 bit RC2. A complete description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8
       manual page.

EXAMPLES
       Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don't encrypt the private key:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
         -certfile othercerts.pem

BUGS
       Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :-)

       Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key generation routines.
       Under rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12 file encrypted with an
       invalid key. As a result some PKCS#12 files which triggered this bug from other
       implementations (MSIE or Netscape) could not be decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly
       OpenSSL could produce PKCS#12 files which could not be decrypted by other
       implementations. The chances of producing such a file are relatively small: less
       than 1 in 256.

       A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted PKCS#12 files
       cannot no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under such circumstances the
       pkcs12 utility will report that the MAC is OK but fail with a decryption error when
       extracting private keys.

       This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and certificates from
       the PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL and recreating the PKCS#12 file
       from the keys and certificates using a newer version of OpenSSL. For example:

        old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
        openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12

SEE ALSO
       pkcs8(1)



1.0.1e                            2013-02-11                         PKCS12(1)

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