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POPT(3)                             Linux Programmer's Manual                             POPT(3)

       popt - Parse command line options

       #include <popt.h>

       poptContext poptGetContext(const char * name, int argc,
                                  const char ** argv,
                                  const struct poptOption * options,
                                  int flags);

       void poptFreeContext(poptContext con);

       void poptResetContext(poptContext con);

       int poptGetNextOpt(poptContext con);

       const char * poptGetOptArg(poptContext con);

       const char * poptGetArg(poptContext con);

       const char * poptPeekArg(poptContext con);

       const char ** poptGetArgs(poptContext con);

       const char *const poptStrerror(const int error);

       const char * poptBadOption(poptContext con, int flags);

       int poptReadDefaultConfig(poptContext con, int flags);

       int poptReadConfigFile(poptContext con, char * fn);

       int poptAddAlias(poptContext con, struct poptAlias alias,
                        int flags);

       int poptParseArgvString(char * s, int *  argcPtr,
                               const char *** argvPtr);

       int poptDupArgv(int argc, const char ** argv, int * argcPtr,
                               const char *** argvPtr);

       int poptStuffArgs(poptContext con, const char ** argv);

       The popt library exists essentially for parsing command-line options. It is found superior
       in many ways when compared to parsing the argv array by hand or using the getopt functions
       getopt() and getopt_long() [see getopt(3)].  Some specific advantages of popt are: it does
       not utilize global variables, thus enabling multiple passes in parsing argv ; it can parse
       an  arbitrary  array of argv-style elements, allowing parsing of command-line-strings from
       any source; it provides a standard method of option aliasing (to be  discussed  at  length
       below.);  it can exec external option filters; and, finally, it can automatically generate
       help and usage messages for the application.

       Like getopt_long(), the popt library supports short and long style options.  Recall that a
       short  option  consists  of  a - character followed by a single alphanumeric character.  A
       long option, common in GNU utilities, consists of two - characters followed  by  a  string
       made  up  of  letters,  numbers and hyphens.  Long options are optionally allowed to begin
       with a single -, primarily to allow command-line compatibility between  popt  applications
       and  X  toolkit  applications.   Either  type of option may be followed by an argument.  A
       space separates a short option from its arguments; either a space or an = separates a long
       option from an argument.

       The  popt  library  is  highly portable and should work on any POSIX platform.  The latest
       version    is    distributed    with    rpm    and    is    always     available     from:

       It  may  be redistributed under the X consortium license, see the file COPYING in the popt
       source distribution for details.

       Applications provide popt with information on their command-line options by  means  of  an
       "option table," i.e., an array of struct poptOption structures:

       #include <popt.h>

       struct poptOption {
           const char * longName; /* may be NULL */
           char shortName;        /* may be '\0' */
           int argInfo;
           void * arg;            /* depends on argInfo */
           int val;               /* 0 means don't return, just update flag */
           char * descrip;        /* description for autohelp -- may be NULL */
           char * argDescrip;     /* argument description for autohelp */

       Each  member of the table defines a single option that may be passed to the program.  Long
       and short options are considered a single option that may occur in  two  different  forms.
       The  first  two members, longName and shortName, define the names of the option; the first
       is a long name, while the latter is a single character.

       The argInfo member tells popt what type of argument is expected after the argument.  If no
       option  is expected, POPT_ARG_NONE should be used.  The rest of the valid values are shown
       in the following table:

       Value             Description                        arg Type
       POPT_ARG_NONE     No argument expected               int
       POPT_ARG_STRING   No type checking to be performed   char *
       POPT_ARG_INT      An integer argument is expected    int
       POPT_ARG_LONG     A long integer is expected         long
       POPT_ARG_VAL      Integer value taken from val       int
       POPT_ARG_FLOAT    An float argument is expected      float
       POPT_ARG_DOUBLE   A double argument is expected      double

       For numeric values, if the argInfo value is bitwise  or'd  with  one  of  POPT_ARGFLAG_OR,
       POPT_ARGFLAG_AND,  or  POPT_ARGFLAG_XOR,  the  value is saved by performing an OR, AND, or
       XOR.  If the argInfo value is bitwise  or'd  with  POPT_ARGFLAG_NOT,  the  value  will  be
       negated  before  saving.  For  the  common  operations  of  setting  and/or clearing bits,
       POPT_BIT_SET and POPT_BIT_CLR have the appropriate flags set to perform bit operations.

       If the argInfo value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_ONEDASH, the long argument  may  be
       given  with  a  single  -  instead  of  two.  For  example, if --longopt is an option with
       POPT_ARGFLAG_ONEDASH, is specified, -longopt is accepted as well.

       The next element, arg, allows popt to automatically  update  program  variables  when  the
       option is used. If arg is NULL, it is ignored and popt takes no special action.  Otherwise
       it should point to a variable of the type indicated in the right-most column of the  table

       If the option takes no argument (argInfo is POPT_ARG_NONE), the variable pointed to by arg
       is set to 1 when the option is used.  (Incidentally, it will perhaps not escape the atten-
       tion  of  hunt-and-peck typists that the value of POPT_ARG_NONE is 0.)  If the option does
       take an argument, the variable that arg points to is updated to reflect the value  of  the
       argument.   Any  string  is  acceptable  for  POPT_ARG_STRING arguments, but POPT_ARG_INT,
       POPT_ARG_LONG, POPT_ARG_FLOAT, and POPT_ARG_DOUBLE are converted to the appropriate  type,
       and an error returned if the conversion fails.

       POPT_ARG_VAL  causes  arg  to  be  set  to the (integer) value of val when the argument is
       found.  This is most often useful for mutually-exclusive arguments in cases  where  it  is
       not  an  error for multiple arguments to occur and where you want the last argument speci-
       fied to win; for example, "rm -i -f".  POPT_ARG_VAL causes the  parsing  function  not  to
       return a value, since the value of val has already been used.

       If  the argInfo value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_OPTIONAL, the argument to the long
       option may be omitted. If the long option is used without an argument, a default value  of
       zero  or  NULL  will  be saved (if the arg pointer is present), otherwise behavior will be
       identical to a long option with argument.

       The next option, val, is the value popt's parsing function should return when  the  option
       is encountered.  If it is 0, the parsing function does not return a value, instead parsing
       the next command-line argument.

       The last two options, descrip and argDescrip are only required if automatic help  messages
       are  desired  (automatic  usage messages can be generated without them). descrip is a text
       description of the argument and argdescrip is a short summary of the type of arguments the
       option expects, or NULL if the option doesn't require any arguments.

       If popt should automatically provide --usage and --help (-?)  options, one line in the ta-
       ble should be the macro POPT_AUTOHELP.  This macro  includes  another  option  table  (via
       POPT_ARG_INCLUDE_TABLE;  see  below)  in the main one which provides the table entries for
       these arguments. When --usage or --help are passed to programs which use popt's  automati-
       cal  help, popt displays the appropriate message on stderr as soon as it finds the option,
       and exits the program with a return code of 0. If you want to use  popt's  automatic  help
       generation  in a different way, you need to explicitly add the option entries to your pro-
       grams option table instead of using POPT_AUTOHELP.

       If the argInfo value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_DOC_HIDDEN, the argument  will  not
       be shown in help output.

       If  the  argInfo value is bitwise or'd with POPT_ARGFLAG_SHOW_DEFAULT, the inital value of
       the arg will be shown in help output.

       The final structure in the table should have all the pointer values set to  NULL  and  all
       the  arithmetic  values set to 0, marking the end of the table. The macro POPT_TABLEEND is
       provided to do that.

       There are two types of option table entries which do not  specify  command  line  options.
       When  either of these types of entries are used, the longName element must be NULL and the
       shortName element must be '\0'.

       The first of these special entry types allows the application to nest another option table
       in  the  current one; such nesting may extend quite deeply (the actual depth is limited by
       the program's stack). Including other option tables allows a library to provide a standard
       set  of command-line options to every program which uses it (this is often done in graphi-
       cal  programming  toolkits,  for  example).  To  do  this,  set  the  argInfo   field   to
       POPT_ARG_INCLUDE_TABLE and the arg field to point to the table which is being included. If
       automatic help generation is being used,  the  descrip  field  should  contain  a  overall
       description of the option table being included.

       The  other special option table entry type tells popt to call a function (a callback) when
       any option in that table is found. This is especially usefull when included option  tables
       are  being  used, as the program which provides the top-level option table doesn't need to
       be aware of the other options which are provided by the included table. When a callback is
       set for a table, the parsing function never returns information on an option in the table.
       Instead, options information must be retained via the callback or by  having  popt  set  a
       variable through the option's arg field.  Option callbacks should match the following pro-

       void poptCallbackType(poptContext con,
                             const struct poptOption * opt,
                             const char * arg, void * data);

       The first parameter is the context which is being parsed (see the next section for  infor-
       mation  on  contexts),  opt points to the option which triggered this callback, and arg is
       the option's argument.  If the option does not take an argument, arg is NULL.   The  final
       parameter,  data  is  taken from the descrip field of the option table entry which defined
       the callback. As descrip is a pointer, this allows callback  functions  to  be  passed  an
       arbitrary set of data (though a typecast will have to be used).

       The  option  table  entry which defines a callback has an argInfo of POPT_ARG_CALLBACK, an
       arg which points to the callback function, and a descrip field which  specifies  an  arbi-
       trary pointer to be passed to the callback.

       popt  can  interleave the parsing of multiple command-line sets. It allows this by keeping
       all the state information for a particular set of command-line arguments in a  poptContext
       data structure, an opaque type that should not be modified outside the popt library.

       New popt contexts are created by poptGetContext():

       poptContext poptGetContext(const char * name, int argc,
                                  const char ** argv,
                                  const struct poptOption * options,
                                  int flags);

       The first parameter, name, is used only for alias handling (discussed later). It should be
       the name of the application whose options are being parsed, or should be NULL if no option
       aliasing  is  desired. The next two arguments specify the command-line arguments to parse.
       These are generally passed to poptGetContext() exactly as they were  passed  to  the  pro-
       gram's main() function. The options parameter points to the table of command-line options,
       which was described in the previous section. The final parameter, flags, can take  one  of
       three values:

       Value                        Description
       POPT_CONTEXT_NO_EXEC         Ignore exec expansions
       POPT_CONTEXT_KEEP_FIRST      Do not ignore argv[0]
       POPT_CONTEXT_POSIXMEHARDER   Options cannot follow arguments

       A  poptContext  keeps  track  of  which options have already been parsed and which remain,
       among other things. If a program wishes to restart option processing of  a  set  of  argu-
       ments, it can reset the poptContext by passing the context as the sole argument to poptRe-

       When argument processing is complete, the process should free the poptContext as  it  con-
       tains dynamically allocated components. The poptFreeContext() function takes a poptContext
       as its sole argument and frees the resources the context is using.

       Here are the prototypes of both poptResetContext() and poptFreeContext():

       #include <popt.h>
       void poptFreeContext(poptContext con);
       void poptResetContext(poptContext con);

       After an application has created a poptContext, it may begin parsing  arguments.  poptGet-
       NextOpt() performs the actual argument parsing.

       #include <popt.h>
       int poptGetNextOpt(poptContext con);

       Taking  the context as its sole argument, this function parses the next command-line argu-
       ment found. After finding the next argument in the option table, the function fills in the
       object  pointed  to  by the option table entry's arg pointer if it is not NULL. If the val
       entry for the option is non-0, the function then returns that value.  Otherwise,  poptGet-
       NextOpt() continues on to the next argument.

       poptGetNextOpt()  returns  -1  when the final argument has been parsed, and other negative
       values when errors occur. This makes it a good idea  to  keep  the  val  elements  in  the
       options table greater than 0.

       If  all of the command-line options are handled through arg pointers, command-line parsing
       is reduced to the following line of code:

       rc = poptGetNextOpt(poptcon);

       Many applications require more complex command-line parsing than this,  however,  and  use
       the following structure:

       while ((rc = poptGetNextOpt(poptcon)) > 0) {
            switch (rc) {
                 /* specific arguments are handled here */

       When  returned  options  are handled, the application needs to know the value of any argu-
       ments that were specified after the option. There are two ways to discover them. One is to
       ask popt to fill in a variable with the value of the option through the option table's arg
       elements. The other is to use poptGetOptArg():

       #include <popt.h>
       char * poptGetOptArg(poptContext con);

       This function returns the argument given for the  final  option  returned  by  poptGetNex-
       tOpt(),  or it returns NULL if no argument was specified.  The calling function is respon-
       sible for deallocating this string.

       Many applications take an arbitrary number of command-line arguments, such as  a  list  of
       file  names.  When popt encounters an argument that does not begin with a -, it assumes it
       is such an argument and adds it to a list of leftover  arguments.  Three  functions  allow
       applications to access such arguments:

       const char * poptGetArg(poptContext con);
              This function returns the next leftover argument and marks it as processed.

       const char * poptPeekArg(poptContext con);
              The next leftover argument is returned but not marked as processed.  This allows an
              application to look ahead into the argument list, without modifying the list.

       const char ** poptGetArgs(poptContext con);
              All the leftover arguments are returned in a manner identical to argv.   The  final
              element in the returned array points to NULL, indicating the end of the arguments.

       The  popt  library  can  automatically generate help messages which describe the options a
       program accepts. There are two types of help messages which can be generated.  Usage  mes-
       sages  are  a  short  messages which lists valid options, but does not describe them. Help
       messages describe each option on one (or more) lines, resulting in a longer, but more use-
       ful, message. Whenever automatic help messages are used, the descrip and argDescrip fields
       struct poptOption members should be filled in for each option.

       The POPT_AUTOHELP macro makes it easy to add --usage and --help messages to your  program,
       and is described in part 1 of this man page. If more control is needed over your help mes-
       sages, the following two functions are available:

       #include <popt.h>
       void poptPrintHelp(poptContext con, FILE * f, int flags);
       void poptPrintUsage(poptContext con, FILE * f, int flags);

       poptPrintHelp() displays the standard help message to the stdio file descriptor  f,  while
       poptPrintUsage()  displays  the shorter usage message. Both functions currently ignore the
       flags argument; it is there to allow future changes.

       All of the popt functions that can return errors return integers.  When an error occurs, a
       negative  error  code  is  returned.  The  following table summarizes the error codes that

            Error                      Description
       POPT_ERROR_NOARG       Argument missing for an option.
       POPT_ERROR_BADOPT      Option's argument couldn't be parsed.
       POPT_ERROR_OPTSTOODEEP Option aliasing nested too deeply.
       POPT_ERROR_BADQUOTE    Quotations do not match.
       POPT_ERROR_BADNUMBER   Option couldn't be converted to number.
       POPT_ERROR_OVERFLOW    A given number was too big or small.

       Here is a more detailed discussion of each error:

              An option that requires an argument was specified on the command line, but no argu-
              ment was given. This can be returned only by poptGetNextOpt().

              An  option  was specified in argv but is not in the option table. This error can be
              returned only from poptGetNextOpt().

              A set of option aliases is nested too deeply. Currently, popt follows options  only
              10  levels  to  prevent  infinite  recursion. Only poptGetNextOpt() can return this

              A parsed string has a quotation mismatch (such as a single quotation  mark).  popt-
              ParseArgvString(), poptReadConfigFile(), or poptReadDefaultConfig() can return this

              A conversion from a string to a number (int or long) failed due to the string  con-
              taining  nonnumeric  characters. This occurs when poptGetNextOpt() is processing an
              argument of type POPT_ARG_INT, POPT_ARG_LONG, POPT_ARG_FLOAT, or POPT_ARG_DOUBLE.

              A string-to-number conversion failed because the number was too large or too small.
              Like  POPT_ERROR_BADNUMBER, this error can occur only when poptGetNextOpt() is pro-
              cessing  an  argument  of  type  POPT_ARG_INT,  POPT_ARG_LONG,  POPT_ARG_FLOAT,  or

              A  system  call returned with an error, and errno still contains the error from the
              system call. Both poptReadConfigFile() and poptReadDefaultConfig() can return  this

       Two  functions  are  available to make it easy for applications to provide good error mes-

              const char *const poptStrerror(const int error);
              This function takes a popt error code and returns a string  describing  the  error,
              just as with the standard strerror() function.

              const char * poptBadOption(poptContext con, int flags);
              If an error occurred during poptGetNextOpt(), this function returns the option that
              caused the error. If the flags argument is set to POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS, the  out-
              ermost  option  is  returned.  Otherwise, flags should be 0, and the option that is
              returned may have been specified through an alias.

       These two functions make popt error handling trivial for most applications. When an  error
       is  detected  from most of the functions, an error message is printed along with the error
       string from poptStrerror(). When an error occurs during argument parsing, code similiar to
       the following displays a useful error message:

       fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n",
               poptBadOption(optCon, POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS),

       One  of  the  primary  benefits  of  using popt over getopt() is the ability to use option
       aliasing. This lets the user specify options that popt expands  into  other  options  when
       they  are  specified.  If  the  standard  grep program made use of popt, users could add a
       --text option that expanded to -i -n -E -2 to let them more  easily  find  information  in
       text files.

       Aliases  are  normally specified in two places: /etc/popt and the .popt file in the user's
       home directory (found through the HOME environment variable). Both  files  have  the  same
       format, an arbitrary number of lines formatted like this:

       appname alias newoption expansion

       The  appname  is the name of the application, which must be the same as the name parameter
       passed to poptGetContext(). This allows each file to specify  aliases  for  multiple  pro-
       grams. The alias keyword specifies that an alias is being defined; currently popt configu-
       ration files support only aliases, but other abilities may be added  in  the  future.  The
       next  option  is the option that should be aliased, and it may be either a short or a long
       option. The rest of the line specifies the expansion for the alias. It is parsed similarly
       to a shell command, which allows \, ", and ' to be used for quoting. If a backslash is the
       final character on a line, the next line in the file is assumed to be a logical  continua-
       tion of the line containing the backslash, just as in shell.

       The  following  entry  would  add a --text option to the grep command, as suggested at the
       beginning of this section.

       grep alias --text -i -n -E -2

       An application must enable alias expansion for a poptContext  before  calling  poptGetNex-
       tArg() for the first time. There are three functions that define aliases for a context:

              int poptReadDefaultConfig(poptContext con, int flags);
              This  function  reads  aliases from /etc/popt and the .popt file in the user's home
              directory. Currently, flags should be NULL, as  it  is  provided  only  for  future

              int poptReadConfigFile(poptContext con, char * fn);
              The  file  specified  by fn is opened and parsed as a popt configuration file. This
              allows programs to use program-specific configuration files.

              int poptAddAlias(poptContext con, struct poptAlias alias,
                               int flags);
              Occasionally, processes want to specify aliases without having to read them from  a
              configuration file. This function adds a new alias to a context. The flags argument
              should be 0, as it is currently reserved for future expansion.  The  new  alias  is
              specified as a struct poptAlias, which is defined as:

              struct poptAlias {
                   const char * longName; /* may be NULL */
                   char shortName; /* may be '\0' */
                   int argc;
                   const char ** argv; /* must be free()able */

              The first two elements, longName and shortName, specify the option that is aliased.
              The final two, argc and argv, define the expansion to use when the  aliases  option
              is encountered.

       Although  popt  is  usually  used for parsing arguments already divided into an argv-style
       array, some programs need to parse strings  that  are  formatted  identically  to  command
       lines.  To facilitate this, popt provides a function that parses a string into an array of
       strings, using rules similiar to normal shell parsing.

       #include <popt.h>
       int poptParseArgvString(char * s, int * argcPtr,
                               char *** argvPtr);
       int poptDupArgv(int argc, const char ** argv, int * argcPtr,
                               const char *** argvPtr);

       The string s is parsed into an argv-style array. The integer pointed  to  by  the  argcPtr
       parameter contains the number of elements parsed, and the final argvPtr parameter contains
       the address of the newly created array.  The routine poptDupArgv() can be used to  make  a
       copy of an existing argument array.

       The argvPtr created by poptParseArgvString() or poptDupArgv() is suitable to pass directly
       to poptGetContext().  Both routines return a single dynamically allocated contiguous block
       of storage and should be free()ed when the application is finished with the storage.

       Some  applications  implement  the equivalent of option aliasing but need to do so through
       special logic. The poptStuffArgs() function allows an application to insert new  arguments
       into the current poptContext.

       #include <popt.h>
       int poptStuffArgs(poptContext con, const char ** argv);

       The  passed  argv  must have a NULL pointer as its final element. When poptGetNextOpt() is
       next called, the "stuffed" arguments are the first to be parsed. popt returns to the  nor-
       mal arguments once all the stuffed arguments have been exhausted.

       The  following  example  is  a  simplified version of the program "robin" which appears in
       Chapter 15 of the text cited below.  Robin has been stripped of everything but  its  argu-
       ment-parsing  logic, slightly reworked, and renamed "parse." It may prove useful in illus-
       trating at least some of the features of the extremely rich popt library.

       #include <popt.h>
       #include <stdio.h>

       void usage(poptContext optCon, int exitcode, char *error, char *addl) {
           poptPrintUsage(optCon, stderr, 0);
           if (error) fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s0, error, addl);

       int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
          char    c;            /* used for argument parsing */
          int     i = 0;        /* used for tracking options */
          char    *portname;
          int     speed = 0;    /* used in argument parsing to set speed */
          int     raw = 0;      /* raw mode? */
          int     j;
          char    buf[BUFSIZ+1];
          poptContext optCon;   /* context for parsing command-line options */

          struct poptOption optionsTable[] = {
                                     { "bps", 'b', POPT_ARG_INT, &speed, 0,
                                                                   "signaling rate in bits-per-second", "BPS" },
                                     { "crnl", 'c', 0, 0, 'c',
                                                                   "expand cr characters to cr/lf sequences" },
                                     { "hwflow", 'h', 0, 0, 'h',
                                                                   "use hardware (RTS/CTS) flow control" },
                                     { "noflow", 'n', 0, 0, 'n',
                                                                   "use no flow control" },
                                     { "raw", 'r', 0, &raw, 0,
                                                                   "don't perform any character conversions" },
                                     { "swflow", 's', 0, 0, 's',
                                                                   "use software (XON/XOF) flow control" } ,
                                     { NULL, 0, 0, NULL, 0 }

          optCon = poptGetContext(NULL, argc, argv, optionsTable, 0);
          poptSetOtherOptionHelp(optCon, "[OPTIONS]* <port>");

          if (argc < 2) {
                                 poptPrintUsage(optCon, stderr, 0);

          /* Now do options processing, get portname */
          while ((c = poptGetNextOpt(optCon)) >= 0) {
             switch (c) {
                case 'c':
                   buf[i++] = 'c';
                case 'h':
                   buf[i++] = 'h';
                case 's':
                   buf[i++] = 's';
                case 'n':
                   buf[i++] = 'n';
          portname = poptGetArg(optCon);
          if((portname == NULL) || !(poptPeekArg(optCon) == NULL))
             usage(optCon, 1, "Specify a single port", ".e.g., /dev/cua0");

          if (c < -1) {
             /* an error occurred during option processing */
             fprintf(stderr, "%s: %s\n",
                     poptBadOption(optCon, POPT_BADOPTION_NOALIAS),
             return 1;

          /* Print out options, portname chosen */
          printf("Options  chosen: ");
          for(j = 0; j < i ; j++)
             printf("-%c ", buf[j]);
          if(raw) printf("-r ");
          if(speed) printf("-b %d ", speed);
          printf("\nPortname chosen: %s\n", portname);


       RPM, a popular Linux package management program, makes heavy use of popt's features.  Many
       of  its  command-line  arguments  are implemented through popt aliases, which makes RPM an
       excellent example of how to take advantage of the popt library. For  more  information  on
       RPM,  see  http://www.rpm.org.  The popt source code distribution includes test program(s)
       which use all of the features of the popt libraries in various ways. If  a  feature  isn't
       working for you, the popt test code is the first place to look.

       None presently known.

       Erik W. Troan <ewt AT redhat.com>

       This  man page is derived in part from Linux Application Development by Michael K. Johnson
       and Erik W. Troan, Copyright (c) 1998 by Addison Wesley Longman, Inc., and included in the
       popt  documentation  with  the  permission  of  the  Publisher and the appreciation of the

       Thanks to Robert Lynch for his extensive work on this man page.


       Linux Application Development, by Michael K. Johnson and Erik  W.  Troan  (Addison-Wesley,
       1998; ISBN 0-201-30821-5), Chapter 24.

       popt.ps  is  a  Postscript version of the above cited book chapter. It can be found in the
       source archive for popt available at: ftp://ftp.rpm.org/pub/rpm.

                                          June 30, 1998                                   POPT(3)

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