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PS(1)                         Linux User's Manual                        PS(1)



NAME
       ps - report a snapshot of the current processes.

SYNOPSIS
       ps [options]



DESCRIPTION
       ps displays information about a selection of the active processes. If you want a
       repetitive update of the selection and the displayed information, use top(1)
       instead.

       This version of ps accepts several kinds of options:
       1   UNIX options, which may be grouped and must be preceded by a dash.
       2   BSD options, which may be grouped and must not be used with a dash.
       3   GNU long options, which are preceded by two dashes.

       Options of different types may be freely mixed, but conflicts can appear. There are
       some synonymous options, which are functionally identical, due to the many
       standards and ps implementations that this ps is compatible with.

       Note that "ps -aux" is distinct from "ps aux". The POSIX and UNIX standards require
       that "ps -aux" print all processes owned by a user named "x", as well as printing
       all processes that would be selected by the -a option. If the user named "x" does
       not exist, this ps may interpret the command as "ps aux" instead and print a
       warning. This behavior is intended to aid in transitioning old scripts and habits.
       It is fragile, subject to change, and thus should not be relied upon.

       By default, ps selects all processes with the same effective user ID (euid=EUID) as
       the current user and associated with the same terminal as the invoker. It displays
       the process ID (pid=PID), the terminal associated with the process (tname=TTY), the
       cumulated CPU time in [dd-]hh:mm:ss format (time=TIME), and the executable name
       (ucmd=CMD). Output is unsorted by default.

       The use of BSD-style options will add process state (stat=STAT) to the default
       display and show the command args (args=COMMAND) instead of the executable name.
       You can override this with the PS_FORMAT environment variable. The use of BSD-style
       options will also change the process selection to include processes on other
       terminals (TTYs) that are owned by you; alternately, this may be described as
       setting the selection to be the set of all processes filtered to exclude processes
       owned by other users or not on a terminal. These effects are not considered when
       options are described as being "identical" below, so -M will be considered
       identical to Z and so on.

       Except as described below, process selection options are additive. The default
       selection is discarded, and then the selected processes are added to the set of
       processes to be displayed. A process will thus be shown if it meets any of the
       given selection criteria.


EXAMPLES
       To see every process on the system using standard syntax:
          ps -e
          ps -ef
          ps -eF
          ps -ely

       To see every process on the system using BSD syntax:
          ps ax
          ps axu

       To print a process tree:
          ps -ejH
          ps axjf

       To get info about threads:
          ps -eLf
          ps axms

       To get security info:
          ps -eo euser,ruser,suser,fuser,f,comm,label
          ps axZ
          ps -eM

       To see every process running as root (real & effective ID) in user format:
          ps -U root -u root u

       To see every process with a user-defined format:
          ps -eo pid,tid,class,rtprio,ni,pri,psr,pcpu,stat,wchan:14,comm
          ps axo stat,euid,ruid,tty,tpgid,sess,pgrp,ppid,pid,pcpu,comm
          ps -eopid,tt,user,fname,tmout,f,wchan

       Print only the process IDs of syslogd:
          ps -C syslogd -o pid=

       Print only the name of PID 42:
          ps -q 42 -o comm=



SIMPLE PROCESS SELECTION
       -A              Select all processes. Identical to -e.


       -N              Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
                       conditions. (negates the selection) Identical to --deselect.


       T               Select all processes associated with this terminal. Identical to
                       the t option without any argument.


       -a              Select all processes except both session leaders (see getsid(2))
                       and processes not associated with a terminal.


       a               Lift the BSD-style "only yourself" restriction, which is imposed
                       upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-")
                       options are used or when the ps personality setting is BSD-like.
                       The set of processes selected in this manner is in addition to the
                       set of processes selected by other means. An alternate description
                       is that this option causes ps to list all processes with a terminal
                       (tty), or to list all processes when used together with the x
                       option.


       -d              Select all processes except session leaders.


       -e              Select all processes. Identical to -A.


       g               Really all, even session leaders. This flag is obsolete and may be
                       discontinued in a future release. It is normally implied by the a
                       flag, and is only useful when operating in the sunos4 personality.


       r               Restrict the selection to only running processes.


       x               Lift the BSD-style "must have a tty" restriction, which is imposed
                       upon the set of all processes when some BSD-style (without "-")
                       options are used or when the ps personality setting is BSD-like.
                       The set of processes selected in this manner is in addition to the
                       set of processes selected by other means. An alternate description
                       is that this option causes ps to list all processes owned by you
                       (same EUID as ps), or to list all processes when used together with
                       the a option.


       --deselect      Select all processes except those that fulfill the specified
                       conditions. (negates the selection) Identical to -N.



PROCESS SELECTION BY LIST
       These options accept a single argument in the form of a blank-separated or
       comma-separated list. They can be used multiple times.
       For example: ps -p "1 2" -p 3,4


       -C cmdlist      Select by command name.
                       This selects the processes whose executable name is given in
                       cmdlist.


       -G grplist      Select by real group ID (RGID) or name.
                       This selects the processes whose real group name or ID is in the
                       grplist list. The real group ID identifies the group of the user
                       who created the process, see getgid(2).


       U userlist      Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                       This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is in
                       userlist. The effective user ID describes the user whose file
                       access permissions are used by the process (see geteuid(2)).
                       Identical to -u and --user.


       -U userlist     select by real user ID (RUID) or name.
                       It selects the processes whose real user name or ID is in the
                       userlist list. The real user ID identifies the user who created the
                       process, see getuid(2).


       -g grplist      Select by session OR by effective group name.
                       Selection by session is specified by many standards, but selection
                       by effective group is the logical behavior that several other
                       operating systems use. This ps will select by session when the list
                       is completely numeric (as sessions are). Group ID numbers will work
                       only when some group names are also specified. See the -s and
                       --group options.


       p pidlist       Select by process ID. Identical to -p and --pid.


       -p pidlist      Select by PID.
                       This selects the processes whose process ID numbers appear in
                       pidlist. Identical to p and --pid.


       q pidlist       Quick select by process ID. Identical to -q and --quick-pid.


       -q pidlist      Quick select by PID.
                       This selects the processes whose process ID numbers appear in
                       pidlist. With this option ps reads the necessary info only for the
                       pids listed in the pidlist and doesn't apply additional filtering
                       rules. The order of pids is unsorted and preserved. No additional
                       selection options, sorting and forest type listings are allowed in
                       this mode. Identical to q and --quick-pid.


       -s sesslist     Select by session ID.
                       This selects the processes with a session ID specified in sesslist.


       t ttylist       Select by tty. Nearly identical to -t and --tty, but can also be
                       used with an empty ttylist to indicate the terminal associated with
                       ps. Using the T option is considered cleaner than using T with
                       an empty ttylist.


       -t ttylist      Select by tty.
                       This selects the processes associated with the terminals given in
                       ttylist. Terminals (ttys, or screens for text output) can be
                       specified in several forms: /dev/ttyS1, ttyS1, S1. A plain "-" may
                       be used to select processes not attached to any terminal.


       -u userlist     Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name.
                       This selects the processes whose effective user name or ID is in
                       userlist. The effective user ID describes the user whose file
                       access permissions are used by the process (see geteuid(2)).
                       Identical to U and --user.


       --Group grplist Select by real group ID (RGID) or name. Identical to -G.


       --User userlist Select by real user ID (RUID) or name. Identical to -U.


       --group grplist Select by effective group ID (EGID) or name.
                       This selects the processes whose effective group name or ID is in
                       grouplist. The effective group ID describes the group whose file
                       access permissions are used by the process (see geteuid(2)). The -g
                       option is often an alternative to --group.


       --pid pidlist   Select by process ID. Identical to -p and p.


       --ppid pidlist  Select by parent process ID. This selects the processes with a
                       parent process ID in pidlist. That is, it selects processes that
                       are children of those listed in pidlist.


       --quick-pid pidlist
                       Quick select by process ID. Identical to -q and q.


       --sid sesslist  Select by session ID. Identical to -s.


       --tty ttylist   Select by terminal. Identical to -t and t.


       --user userlist Select by effective user ID (EUID) or name. Identical to -u and U.


       -123            Identical to --sid 123.


       123             Identical to --pid 123.



OUTPUT FORMAT CONTROL
       These options are used to choose the information displayed by ps. The output may
       differ by personality.



       -F              extra full format. See the -f option, which -F implies.


       -O format       is like -o, but preloaded with some default columns. Identical to
                       -o pid,format,state,tname,time,command or
                       -o pid,format,tname,time,cmd, see -o below.


       O format        is preloaded o (overloaded).
                       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format with
                       some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort
                       order. Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of this
                       option. To ensure that the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                       formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g. with -O or
                       --sort). When used as a formatting option, it is identical to -O,
                       with the BSD personality.


       -M              Add a column of security data. Identical to Z. (for SE Linux)


       X               Register format.


       Z               Add a column of security data. Identical to -M. (for SE Linux)


       -c              Show different scheduler information for the -l option.


       -f              does full-format listing. This option can be combined with many
                       other UNIX-style options to add additional columns. It also causes
                       the command arguments to be printed. When used with -L, the NLWP
                       (number of threads) and LWP (thread ID) columns will be added. See
                       the c option, the format keyword args, and the format keyword comm.


       j               BSD job control format.


       -j              jobs format


       l               display BSD long format.


       -l              long format. The -y option is often useful with this.


       o format        specify user-defined format. Identical to -o and --format.


       -o format       user-defined format.
                       format is a single argument in the form of a blank-separated or
                       comma-separated list, which offers a way to specify individual
                       output columns. The recognized keywords are described in the
                       STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section below. Headers may be renamed
                       (ps -o pid,ruser=RealUser -o comm=Command) as desired. If all
                       column headers are empty (ps -o pid= -o comm=) then the header line
                       will not be output. Column width will increase as needed for wide
                       headers; this may be used to widen up columns such as WCHAN
                       (ps -o pid,wchan=WIDE-WCHAN-COLUMN -o comm). Explicit width control
                       (ps opid,wchan:42,cmd) is offered too. The behavior of
                       ps -o pid=X,comm=Y varies with personality; output may be one
                       column named "X,comm=Y" or two columns named "X" and "Y". Use
                       multiple -o options when in doubt. Use the PS_FORMAT environment
                       variable to specify a default as desired; DefSysV and DefBSD are
                       macros that may be used to choose the default UNIX or BSD columns.


       s               display signal format


       u               display user-oriented format


       v               display virtual memory format


       -y              Do not show flags; show rss in place of addr. This option can only
                       be used with -l.


       -Z              display security context format (SELinux, etc.)


       --format format user-defined format. Identical to -o and o.


       --context       Display security context format. (for SE Linux)



OUTPUT MODIFIERS
       -H              show process hierarchy (forest)


       N namelist      Specify namelist file. Identical to -n, see -n above.


       O order         Sorting order. (overloaded)
                       The BSD O option can act like -O (user-defined output format with
                       some common fields predefined) or can be used to specify sort
                       order. Heuristics are used to determine the behavior of this
                       option. To ensure that the desired behavior is obtained (sorting or
                       formatting), specify the option in some other way (e.g. with -O or
                       --sort).

                       For sorting, obsolete BSD O option syntax is
                       O[+|-]k1[,[+|-]k2[,...]]. It orders the processes listing according
                       to the multilevel sort specified by the sequence of one-letter
                       short keys k1, k2, ... described in the OBSOLETE SORT KEYS section
                       below. The "+" is currently optional, merely re-iterating the
                       default direction on a key, but may help to distinguish an O sort
                       from an O format. The "-" reverses direction only on the key it
                       precedes.


       S               Sum up some information, such as CPU usage, from dead child
                       processes into their parent. This is useful for examining a system
                       where a parent process repeatedly forks off short-lived children to
                       do work.


       c               Show the true command name. This is derived from the name of the
                       executable file, rather than from the argv value. Command arguments
                       and any modifications to them (see setproctitle(3)) are thus not
                       shown. This option effectively turns the args format keyword into
                       the comm format keyword; it is useful with the -f format option and
                       with the various BSD-style format options, which all normally
                       display the command arguments. See the -f option, the format
                       keyword args, and the format keyword comm.


       e               Show the environment after the command.


       f               ASCII-art process hierarchy (forest)


       h               No header. (or, one header per screen in the BSD personality)
                       The h option is problematic. Standard BSD ps uses this option to
                       print a header on each page of output, but older Linux ps uses this
                       option to totally disable the header. This version of ps follows
                       the Linux usage of not printing the header unless the BSD
                       personality has been selected, in which case it prints a header on
                       each page of output. Regardless of the current personality, you can
                       use the long options --headers and --no-headers to enable printing
                       headers each page or disable headers entirely, respectively.


       k spec          specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]
                       Choose a multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
                       section. The "+" is optional since default direction is increasing
                       numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to --sort. Examples:
                       ps jaxkuid,-ppid,+pid
                       ps axk comm o comm,args
                       ps kstart_time -ef


       -n namelist     set namelist file. Identical to N.
                       The namelist file is needed for a proper WCHAN display, and must
                       match the current Linux kernel exactly for correct output. Without
                       this option, the default search path for the namelist is:

                            $PS_SYSMAP
                            $PS_SYSTEM_MAP
                            /proc/*/wchan
                            /boot/System.map-`uname -r`
                            /boot/System.map
                            /lib/modules/`uname -r`/System.map
                            /usr/src/linux/System.map
                            /System.map


       n               Numeric output for WCHAN and USER. (including all types of UID and
                       GID)


       -w              Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       w               Wide output. Use this option twice for unlimited width.


       --cols n        set screen width


       --columns n     set screen width


       --cumulative    include some dead child process data (as a sum with the parent)


       --forest        ASCII art process tree


       --headers       repeat header lines, one per page of output


       --no-headers    print no header line at all


       --lines n       set screen height


       --rows n        set screen height


       --sort spec     specify sorting order. Sorting syntax is [+|-]key[,[+|-]key[,...]]
                       Choose a multi-letter key from the STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
                       section. The "+" is optional since default direction is increasing
                       numerical or lexicographic order. Identical to k. For example:
                       ps jax --sort=uid,-ppid,+pid


       --width n       set screen width



THREAD DISPLAY
       H               Show threads as if they were processes

       -L              Show threads, possibly with LWP and NLWP columns

       -T              Show threads, possibly with SPID column

       m               Show threads after processes

       -m              Show threads after processes



OTHER INFORMATION
       L               List all format specifiers.

       -V              Print the procps version.

       V               Print the procps version.

       --help          Print a help message.

       --info          Print debugging info.

       --version       Print the procps version.



NOTES
       This ps works by reading the virtual files in /proc. This ps does not need to be
       setuid kmem or have any privileges to run. Do not give this ps any special
       permissions.

       This ps needs access to namelist data for proper WCHAN display. For kernels prior
       to 2.6, the System.map file must be installed.

       CPU usage is currently expressed as the percentage of time spent running during the
       entire lifetime of a process. This is not ideal, and it does not conform to the
       standards that ps otherwise conforms to. CPU usage is unlikely to add up to
       exactly 100%.

       The SIZE and RSS fields don't count some parts of a process including the page
       tables, kernel stack, struct thread_info, and struct task_struct. This is usually
       at least 20 KiB of memory that is always resident. SIZE is the virtual size of the
       process (code+data+stack).

       Processes marked <defunct> are dead processes (so-called "zombies") that remain
       because their parent has not destroyed them properly. These processes will be
       destroyed by init(8) if the parent process exits.

       If the length of the username is greater than the length of the display column, the
       numeric user ID is displayed instead.


PROCESS FLAGS
       The sum of these values is displayed in the "F" column, which is provided by the
       flags output specifier.
       1    forked but didn't exec
       4    used super-user privileges


PROCESS STATE CODES
       Here are the different values that the s, stat and state output specifiers
       (header "STAT" or "S") will display to describe the state of a process.
       D    Uninterruptible sleep (usually IO)
       R    Running or runnable (on run queue)
       S    Interruptible sleep (waiting for an event to complete)
       T    Stopped, either by a job control signal or because it is being traced.
       W    paging (not valid since the 2.6.xx kernel)
       X    dead (should never be seen)
       Z    Defunct ("zombie") process, terminated but not reaped by its parent.

       For BSD formats and when the stat keyword is used, additional characters may be
       displayed:
       <    high-priority (not nice to other users)
       N    low-priority (nice to other users)
       L    has pages locked into memory (for real-time and custom IO)
       s    is a session leader
       l    is multi-threaded (using CLONE_THREAD, like NPTL pthreads do)
       +    is in the foreground process group



OBSOLETE SORT KEYS
       These keys are used by the BSD O option (when it is used for sorting). The GNU
       --sort option doesn't use these keys, but the specifiers described below in the
       STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS section. Note that the values used in sorting are the
       internal values ps uses and not the "cooked" values used in some of the output
       format fields (e.g. sorting on tty will sort into device number, not according to
       the terminal name displayed). Pipe ps output into the sort(1) command if you want
       to sort the cooked values.


       KEY   LONG         DESCRIPTION
       c     cmd          simple name of executable
       C     pcpu         cpu utilization
       f     flags        flags as in long format F field
       g     pgrp         process group ID
       G     tpgid        controlling tty process group ID
       j     cutime       cumulative user time
       J     cstime       cumulative system time
       k     utime        user time
       m     min_flt      number of minor page faults
       M     maj_flt      number of major page faults
       n     cmin_flt     cumulative minor page faults

       N     cmaj_flt     cumulative major page faults
       o     session      session ID
       p     pid          process ID
       P     ppid         parent process ID
       r     rss          resident set size
       R     resident     resident pages
       s     size         memory size in kilobytes
       S     share        amount of shared pages
       t     tty          the device number of the controlling tty
       T     start_time   time process was started
       U     uid          user ID number
       u     user         user name
       v     vsize        total VM size in kB
       y     priority     kernel scheduling priority



AIX FORMAT DESCRIPTORS
       This ps supports AIX format descriptors, which work somewhat like the formatting
       codes of printf(1) and printf(3). For example, the normal default output can be
       produced with this:  ps -eo "%p %y %x %c". The NORMAL codes are described in the
       next section.

       CODE   NORMAL   HEADER
       %C     pcpu     %CPU
       %G     group    GROUP
       %P     ppid     PPID
       %U     user     USER
       %a     args     COMMAND
       %c     comm     COMMAND
       %g     rgroup   RGROUP
       %n     nice     NI
       %p     pid      PID
       %r     pgid     PGID
       %t     etime    ELAPSED
       %u     ruser    RUSER
       %x     time     TIME
       %y     tty      TTY
       %z     vsz      VSZ


STANDARD FORMAT SPECIFIERS
       Here are the different keywords that may be used to control the output format (e.g.
       with option -o) or to sort the selected processes with the GNU-style --sort option.

       For example:  ps -eo pid,user,args --sort user

       This version of ps tries to recognize most of the keywords used in other
       implementations of ps.

       The following user-defined format specifiers may contain spaces: args, cmd, comm,
       command, fname, ucmd, ucomm, lstart, bsdstart, start.

       Some keywords may not be available for sorting.



CODE       HEADER   DESCRIPTION

%cpu       %CPU     cpu utilization of the process in "##.#" format. Currently, it is the
                    CPU time used divided by the time the process has been running
                    (cputime/realtime ratio), expressed as a percentage. It will not add
                    up to 100% unless you are lucky. (alias pcpu).

%mem       %MEM     ratio of the process's resident set size  to the physical memory on
                    the machine, expressed as a percentage. (alias pmem).


args       COMMAND  command with all its arguments as a string. Modifications to the
                    arguments may be shown. The output in this column may contain spaces.
                    A process marked <defunct> is partly dead, waiting to be fully
                    destroyed by its parent. Sometimes the process args will be
                    unavailable; when this happens, ps will instead print the executable
                    name in brackets. (alias cmd, command). See also the comm format
                    keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
                    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
                    display. If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
                    redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is
                    undefined. (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable,
                    and so on) The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be
                    used to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w option
                    may be also be used to adjust width.

blocked    BLOCKED  mask of the blocked signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
                    the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig_block, sigmask).

bsdstart   START    time the command started. If the process was started less than 24
                    hours ago, the output format is " HH:MM", else it is "mmm dd" (where
                    mmm is the three letters of the month). See also lstart, start,
                    start_time, and stime.

bsdtime    TIME     accumulated cpu time, user + system. The display format is usually
                    "MMM:SS", but can be shifted to the right if the process used more
                    than 999 minutes of cpu time.

c          C        processor utilization. Currently, this is the integer value of the
                    percent usage over the lifetime of the process. (see %cpu).

caught     CAUGHT   mask of the caught signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
                    the field, a 32 or 64 bits mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig_catch, sigcatch).

cgroup     CGROUP   display control groups to which the process belongs.

class      CLS      scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, cls). Field's possible
                    values are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    B   SCHED_BATCH
                    ISO SCHED_ISO
                    IDL SCHED_IDLE
                    ?   unknown value

cls        CLS      scheduling class of the process. (alias policy, class). Field's
                    possible values are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    B   SCHED_BATCH
                    ISO SCHED_ISO
                    IDL SCHED_IDLE
                    ?   unknown value

cmd        CMD      see args. (alias args, command).








comm       COMMAND  command name (only the executable name). Modifications to the command
                    name will not be shown. A process marked <defunct> is partly dead,
                    waiting to be fully destroyed by its parent. The output in this column
                    may contain spaces. (alias ucmd, ucomm). See also the args format
                    keyword, the -f option, and the c option.
                    When specified last, this column will extend to the edge of the
                    display. If ps can not determine display width, as when output is
                    redirected (piped) into a file or another command, the output width is
                    undefined. (it may be 80, unlimited, determined by the TERM variable,
                    and so on) The COLUMNS environment variable or --cols option may be
                    used to exactly determine the width in this case. The w or -w option
                    may be also be used to adjust width.

command    COMMAND  see args. (alias args, cmd).

cp         CP       per-mill (tenths of a percent) CPU usage. (see %cpu).

cputime    TIME     cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias time).

egid       EGID     effective group ID number of the process as a decimal integer.
                    (alias gid).

egroup     EGROUP   effective group ID of the process. This will be the textual group ID,
                    if it can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise. (alias group).

eip        EIP      instruction pointer.

esp        ESP      stack pointer.

etime      ELAPSED  elapsed time since the process was started, in the
                    form [[dd-]hh:]mm:ss.

euid       EUID     effective user ID. (alias uid).

euser      EUSER    effective user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
                    obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
                    otherwise. The n option can be used to force the decimal
                    representation. (alias uname, user).

f          F        flags associated with the process, see the PROCESS FLAGS section.
                    (alias flag, flags).

fgid       FGID     filesystem access group ID. (alias fsgid).

fgroup     FGROUP   filesystem access group ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it
                    can be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal
                    representation otherwise. (alias fsgroup).

flag       F        see f. (alias f, flags).

flags      F        see f. (alias f, flag).

fname      COMMAND  first 8 bytes of the base name of the process's executable file. The
                    output in this column may contain spaces.

fuid       FUID     filesystem access user ID. (alias fsuid).

fuser      FUSER    filesystem access user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can
                    be obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
                    otherwise.

gid        GID      see egid. (alias egid).

group      GROUP    see egroup. (alias egroup).



ignored    IGNORED  mask of the ignored signals, see signal(7). According to the width of
                    the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig_ignore, sigignore).

label      LABEL    security label, most commonly used for SE Linux context data. This is
                    for the Mandatory Access Control ("MAC") found on high-security
                    systems.

lstart     STARTED  time the command started. See also bsdstart, start, start_time, and
                    stime.

lwp        LWP      lwp (light weight process, or thread) ID of the lwp being reported.
                    (alias spid, tid).

ni         NI       nice value. This ranges from 19 (nicest) to -20 (not nice to others),
                    see nice(1). (alias nice).

nice       NI       see ni. (alias ni).

nlwp       NLWP     number of lwps (threads) in the process. (alias thcount).

nwchan     WCHAN    address of the kernel function where the process is sleeping (use
                    wchan if you want the kernel function name). Running tasks will
                    display a dash ('-') in this column.

pcpu       %CPU     see %cpu. (alias %cpu).

pending    PENDING  mask of the pending signals. See signal(7). Signals pending on the
                    process are distinct from signals pending on individual threads. Use
                    the m option or the -m option to see both. According to the width of
                    the field, a 32-bit or 64-bit mask in hexadecimal format is displayed.
                    (alias sig).

pgid       PGID     process group ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the process group
                    leader. (alias pgrp).

pgrp       PGRP     see pgid. (alias pgid).

pid        PID      process ID number of the process.

pmem       %MEM     see %mem. (alias %mem).

policy     POL      scheduling class of the process. (alias class, cls). Possible values
                    are:
                    -   not reported
                    TS  SCHED_OTHER
                    FF  SCHED_FIFO
                    RR  SCHED_RR
                    B   SCHED_BATCH
                    ISO SCHED_ISO
                    IDL SCHED_IDLE
                    ?   unknown value

ppid       PPID     parent process ID.

psr        PSR      processor that process is currently assigned to.

rgid       RGID     real group ID.

rgroup     RGROUP   real group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
                    obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
                    otherwise.

rip        RIP      64-bit instruction pointer.

rsp        RSP      64-bit stack pointer.


rss        RSS      resident set size, the non-swapped physical memory that a task has
                    used (in kiloBytes). (alias rssize, rsz).

rssize     RSS      see rss. (alias rss, rsz).

rsz        RSZ      see rss. (alias rss, rssize).

rtprio     RTPRIO   realtime priority.

ruid       RUID     real user ID.

ruser      RUSER    real user ID. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be obtained
                    and the field width permits, or a decimal representation otherwise.

s          S        minimal state display (one character). See section PROCESS STATE CODES
                    for the different values. See also stat if you want additional
                    information displayed. (alias state).

sched      SCH      scheduling policy of the process. The policies SCHED_OTHER
                    (SCHED_NORMAL), SCHED_FIFO, SCHED_RR, SCHED_BATCH, SCHED_ISO, and
                    SCHED_IDLE are respectively displayed as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5.

sess       SESS     session ID or, equivalently, the process ID of the session leader.
                    (alias session, sid).

sgi_p      P        processor that the process is currently executing on. Displays "*" if
                    the process is not currently running or runnable.

sgid       SGID     saved group ID. (alias svgid).

sgroup     SGROUP   saved group name. This will be the textual group ID, if it can be
                    obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
                    otherwise.

sid        SID      see sess. (alias sess, session).

sig        PENDING  see pending. (alias pending, sig_pend).

sigcatch   CAUGHT   see caught. (alias caught, sig_catch).

sigignore  IGNORED  see ignored. (alias ignored, sig_ignore).

sigmask    BLOCKED  see blocked. (alias blocked, sig_block).

size       SZ       approximate amount of swap space that would be required if the process
                    were to dirty all writable pages and then be swapped out. This number
                    is very rough!

spid       SPID     see lwp. (alias lwp, tid).

stackp     STACKP   address of the bottom (start) of stack for the process.

start      STARTED  time the command started. If the process was started less than 24
                    hours ago, the output format is "HH:MM:SS", else it is "  mmm dd"
                    (where mmm is a three-letter month name). See also lstart, bsdstart,
                    start_time, and stime.

start_time START    starting time or date of the process. Only the year will be displayed
                    if the process was not started the same year ps was invoked,
                    or "mmmdd" if it was not started the same day, or "HH:MM" otherwise.
                    See also bsdstart, start, lstart, and stime.

stat       STAT     multi-character process state. See section PROCESS STATE CODES for the
                    different values meaning. See also s and state if you just want the
                    first character displayed.

state      S        see s. (alias s).


suid       SUID     saved user ID. (alias svuid).

suser      SUSER    saved user name. This will be the textual user ID, if it can be
                    obtained and the field width permits, or a decimal representation
                    otherwise. (alias svuser).

svgid      SVGID    see sgid. (alias sgid).

svuid      SVUID    see suid. (alias suid).

sz         SZ       size in physical pages of the core image of the process. This includes
                    text, data, and stack space. Device mappings are currently excluded;
                    this is subject to change. See vsz and rss.

thcgr      THCGR    display control groups to which the thread belongs.

thcount    THCNT    see nlwp. (alias nlwp). number of kernel threads owned by the process.

tid        TID      see lwp. (alias lwp).

time       TIME     cumulative CPU time, "[dd-]hh:mm:ss" format. (alias cputime).

tname      TTY      controlling tty (terminal). (alias tt, tty).

tpgid      TPGID    ID of the foreground process group on the tty (terminal) that the
                    process is connected to, or -1 if the process is not connected to a
                    tty.

tt         TT       controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tty).

tty        TT       controlling tty (terminal). (alias tname, tt).

ucmd       CMD      see comm. (alias comm, ucomm).

ucomm      COMMAND  see comm. (alias comm, ucmd).

uid        UID      see euid. (alias euid).

uname      USER     see euser. (alias euser, user).

user       USER     see euser. (alias euser, uname).

vsize      VSZ      see vsz. (alias vsz).

vsz        VSZ      virtual memory size of the process in KiB (1024-byte units). Device
                    mappings are currently excluded; this is subject to change.
                    (alias vsize).

wchan      WCHAN    name of the kernel function in which the process is sleeping, a "-" if
                    the process is running, or a "*" if the process is multi-threaded and
                    ps is not displaying threads.



ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables could affect ps:

       COLUMNS
          Override default display width.

       LINES
          Override default display height.

       PS_PERSONALITY
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
          (see section PERSONALITY below).

       CMD_ENV
          Set to one of posix, old, linux, bsd, sun, digital...
          (see section PERSONALITY below).

       I_WANT_A_BROKEN_PS
          Force obsolete command line interpretation.

       LC_TIME
          Date format.

       PS_COLORS
          Not currently supported.

       PS_FORMAT
          Default output format override. You may set this to a format string of the type
          used for the -o option. The DefSysV and DefBSD values are particularly useful.

       PS_SYSMAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       PS_SYSTEM_MAP
          Default namelist (System.map) location.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       POSIX2
          When set to "on", acts as POSIXLY_CORRECT.

       UNIX95
          Don't find excuses to ignore bad "features".

       _XPG
          Cancel CMD_ENV=irix non-standard behavior.

       In general, it is a bad idea to set these variables. The one exception is CMD_ENV
       or PS_PERSONALITY, which could be set to Linux for normal systems. Without that
       setting, ps follows the useless and bad parts of the Unix98 standard.



PERSONALITY
       390        like the S/390 OpenEdition ps
       aix        like AIX ps
       bsd        like FreeBSD ps (totally non-standard)
       compaq     like Digital Unix ps
       debian     like the old Debian ps
       digital    like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       gnu        like the old Debian ps
       hp         like HP-UX ps
       hpux       like HP-UX ps
       irix       like Irix ps
       linux      ***** RECOMMENDED *****
       old        like the original Linux ps (totally non-standard)
       os390      like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       posix      standard
       s390       like OS/390 Open Edition ps
       sco        like SCO ps
       sgi        like Irix ps
       solaris2   like Solaris 2+ (SunOS 5) ps
       sunos4     like SunOS 4 (Solaris 1) ps (totally non-standard)
       svr4       standard
       sysv       standard
       tru64      like Tru64 (was Digital Unix, was OSF/1) ps
       unix       standard
       unix95     standard
       unix98     standard



SEE ALSO
       top(1), pgrep(1), pstree(1), proc(5).



STANDARDS
       This ps conforms to:

       1   Version 2 of the Single Unix Specification
       2   The Open Group Technical Standard Base Specifications, Issue 6
       3   IEEE Std 1003.1, 2004 Edition
       4   X/Open System Interfaces Extension [UP XSI]
       5   ISO/IEC 9945:2003


AUTHOR
       ps was originally written by Branko Lankester <lankeste AT fwi.nl>. Michael K.
       Johnson <johnsonm AT redhat.com> re-wrote it significantly to use the proc filesystem,
       changing a few things in the process. Michael Shields <mjshield AT nyx.edu>
       added the pid-list feature. Charles Blake <cblake AT bbn.com> added multi-level
       sorting, the dirent-style library, the device name-to-number mmaped database, the
       approximate binary search directly on System.map, and many code and documentation
       cleanups. David Mossberger-Tang wrote the generic BFD support for psupdate. Albert
       Cahalan <albert AT users.net> rewrote ps for full Unix98 and BSD support, along
       with some ugly hacks for obsolete and foreign syntax.

       Please send bug reports to <procps-feedback AT lists.net>. No subscription is
       required or suggested.



Linux                            July 28, 2004                           PS(1)

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