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REGEX(7)                   Linux Programmer's Manual                  REGEX(7)

       regex - POSIX.2 regular expressions

       Regular  expressions  ("RE"s), as defined in POSIX.2, come in two forms: modern REs
       (roughly those of egrep; POSIX.2 calls  these  "extended"  REs)  and  obsolete  REs
       (roughly those of ed(1); POSIX.2 "basic" REs).  Obsolete REs mostly exist for back-
       ward compatibility in some old  programs;  they  will  be  discussed  at  the  end.
       POSIX.2  leaves some aspects of RE syntax and semantics open; "(!)" marks decisions
       on these aspects that may not be fully portable to other POSIX.2 implementations.

       A (modern) RE is one(!) or  more  non-empty(!)  branches,  separated  by  '|'.   It
       matches anything that matches one of the branches.

       A branch is one(!) or more pieces, concatenated.  It matches a match for the first,
       followed by a match for the second, etc.

       A piece is an atom possibly followed by a single(!) '*', '+', '?',  or  bound.   An
       atom  followed by '*' matches a sequence of 0 or more matches of the atom.  An atom
       followed by '+' matches a sequence of 1 or more matches of the atom.  An atom  fol-
       lowed by '?' matches a sequence of 0 or 1 matches of the atom.

       A  bound  is  '{' followed by an unsigned decimal integer, possibly followed by ','
       possibly followed by another unsigned decimal integer, always followed by '}'.  The
       integers must lie between 0 and RE_DUP_MAX (255(!)) inclusive, and if there are two
       of them, the first may not exceed the second.  An atom followed by a bound contain-
       ing one integer i and no comma matches a sequence of exactly i matches of the atom.
       An atom followed by a bound containing one integer i and a comma matches a sequence
       of i or more matches of the atom.  An atom followed by a bound containing two inte-
       gers i and j matches a sequence of i through j (inclusive) matches of the atom.

       An atom is a regular expression enclosed in "()" (matching a match for the  regular
       expression),  an empty set of "()" (matching the null string)(!), a bracket expres-
       sion (see below), '.' (matching any  single  character),  '^'  (matching  the  null
       string  at  the beginning of a line), '$' (matching the null string at the end of a
       line), a '\' followed by one of the characters "^.[$()|*+?{\" (matching that  char-
       acter  taken  as  an  ordinary character), a '\' followed by any other character(!)
       (matching that character taken as an ordinary character, as if the '\' had not been
       present(!)),  or a single character with no other significance (matching that char-
       acter).  A '{' followed by a character other than a digit is an ordinary character,
       not the beginning of a bound(!).  It is illegal to end an RE with '\'.

       A bracket expression is a list of characters enclosed in "[]".  It normally matches
       any single character from the list (but see below).  If the list begins  with  '^',
       it  matches any single character (but see below) not from the rest of the list.  If
       two characters in the list are separated by '-', this is  shorthand  for  the  full
       range  of  characters  between those two (inclusive) in the collating sequence, for
       example, "[0-9]" in ASCII matches any decimal digit.   It  is  illegal(!)  for  two
       ranges  to  share  an  endpoint,  for example, "a-c-e".  Ranges are very collating-
       sequence-dependent, and portable programs should avoid relying on them.

       To include a literal ']' in the list, make it the first character (following a pos-
       sible  '^').  To include a literal '-', make it the first or last character, or the
       second endpoint of a range.  To use a literal '-' as the first endpoint of a range,
       enclose  it in "[." and ".]"  to make it a collating element (see below).  With the
       exception of these and some combinations using '[' (see next paragraphs), all other
       special characters, including '\', lose their special significance within a bracket

       Within a bracket expression, a collating element (a  character,  a  multi-character
       sequence  that  collates  as if it were a single character, or a collating-sequence
       name for either) enclosed in "[." and ".]" stands for the sequence of characters of
       that  collating  element.   The sequence is a single element of the bracket expres-
       sion's list.  A bracket expression containing a multi-character  collating  element
       can  thus  match  more  than  one character, for example, if the collating sequence
       includes a "ch" collating element, then the RE "[[.ch.]]*c" matches the first  five
       characters of "chchcc".

       Within  a  bracket  expression, a collating element enclosed in "[=" and "=]" is an
       equivalence class, standing for the sequences of characters of all  collating  ele-
       ments  equivalent to that one, including itself.  (If there are no other equivalent
       collating elements, the treatment is as if the enclosing delimiters were  "[."  and
       ".]".)   For  example,  if  o  and  ^ are the members of an equivalence class, then
       "[[=o=]]", "[[=_=]]", and "[o_]" are all  synonymous.   An  equivalence  class  may
       not(!) be an endpoint of a range.

       Within  a  bracket  expression,  the name of a character class enclosed in "[:" and
       ":]" stands for the list of all characters belonging to that class.  Standard char-
       acter class names are:

              alnum       digit       punct
              alpha       graph       space
              blank       lower       upper
              cntrl       print       xdigit

       These  stand  for the character classes defined in wctype(3).  A locale may provide
       others.  A character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range.

       In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given string,  the
       RE  matches  the  one  starting earliest in the string.  If the RE could match more
       than one substring starting at that point, it matches the longest.   Subexpressions
       also  match  the  longest  possible  substrings, subject to the constraint that the
       whole match be as long as possible, with subexpressions starting earlier in the  RE
       taking  priority  over  ones starting later.  Note that higher-level subexpressions
       thus take priority over their lower-level component subexpressions.

       Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements.  A null string is
       considered  longer than no match at all.  For example, "bb*" matches the three mid-
       dle characters of "abbbc", "(wee|week)(knights|nights)" matches all ten  characters
       of  "weeknights",  when  "(.*).*" is matched against "abc" the parenthesized subex-
       pression matches all three characters, and when "(a*)*"  is  matched  against  "bc"
       both the whole RE and the parenthesized subexpression match the null string.

       If  case-independent  matching is specified, the effect is much as if all case dis-
       tinctions had vanished from the alphabet.  When an alphabetic that exists in multi-
       ple  cases  appears  as  an  ordinary character outside a bracket expression, it is
       effectively transformed into a bracket expression containing both cases, for  exam-
       ple,  'x'  becomes  "[xX]".   When it appears inside a bracket expression, all case
       counterparts of it are added to the bracket expression, so that, for example, "[x]"
       becomes "[xX]" and "[^x]" becomes "[^xX]".

       No  particular  limit  is imposed on the length of REs(!).  Programs intended to be
       portable should not employ REs longer than 256  bytes,  as  an  implementation  can
       refuse to accept such REs and remain POSIX-compliant.

       Obsolete  ("basic")  regular expressions differ in several respects.  '|', '+', and
       '?' are ordinary characters and there is no  equivalent  for  their  functionality.
       The  delimiters  for bounds are "\{" and "\}", with '{' and '}' by themselves ordi-
       nary characters.  The parentheses for nested subexpressions are "\(" and "\)", with
       '(' and ')' by themselves ordinary characters.  '^' is an ordinary character except
       at the beginning of the RE or(!) the beginning of  a  parenthesized  subexpression,
       '$'  is an ordinary character except at the end of the RE or(!) the end of a paren-
       thesized subexpression, and '*' is an ordinary  character  if  it  appears  at  the
       beginning of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression (after a pos-
       sible leading '^').

       Finally, there is one new type of atom, a back reference: '\' followed  by  a  non-
       zero  decimal  digit  d  matches the same sequence of characters matched by the dth
       parenthesized subexpression (numbering subexpressions by  the  positions  of  their
       opening  parentheses,  left  to  right), so that, for example, "\([bc]\)\1" matches
       "bb" or "cc" but not "bc".

       Having two kinds of REs is a botch.

       The current POSIX.2 spec says that ')' is an ordinary character in the  absence  of
       an  unmatched  '('; this was an unintentional result of a wording error, and change
       is likely.  Avoid relying on it.

       Back references are a dreadful botch, posing major problems for efficient implemen-
       tations.   They  are  also  somewhat  vaguely defined (does "a\(\(b\)*\2\)*d" match
       "abbbd"?).  Avoid using them.

       POSIX.2's specification of case-independent  matching  is  vague.   The  "one  case
       implies  all  cases" definition given above is current consensus among implementors
       as to the right interpretation.

       This page was taken from Henry Spencer's regex package.

       grep(1), regex(3)

       POSIX.2, section 2.8 (Regular Expression Notation).

       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the  project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at http://www.ker-

                                  2009-01-12                          REGEX(7)

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