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REQ(1)                              OpenSSL                             REQ(1)



NAME
       req - PKCS#10 certificate request and certificate generating utility.

SYNOPSIS
       openssl req [-inform PEM|DER] [-outform PEM|DER] [-in filename] [-passin arg] [-out
       filename] [-passout arg] [-text] [-pubkey] [-noout] [-verify] [-modulus] [-new]
       [-rand file(s)] [-newkey rsa:bits] [-newkey alg:file] [-nodes] [-key filename]
       [-keyform PEM|DER] [-keyout filename] [-keygen_engine id] [-[digest]] [-config
       filename] [-subj arg] [-multivalue-rdn] [-x509] [-days n] [-set_serial n]
       [-asn1-kludge] [-no-asn1-kludge] [-newhdr] [-extensions section] [-reqexts section]
       [-utf8] [-nameopt] [-reqopt] [-subject] [-subj arg] [-batch] [-verbose] [-engine
       id]

DESCRIPTION
       The req command primarily creates and processes certificate requests in PKCS#10
       format. It can additionally create self signed certificates for use as root CAs for
       example.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -inform DER|PEM
           This specifies the input format. The DER option uses an ASN1 DER encoded form
           compatible with the PKCS#10. The PEM form is the default format: it consists of
           the DER format base64 encoded with additional header and footer lines.

       -outform DER|PEM
           This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning as the
           -inform option.

       -in filename
           This specifies the input filename to read a request from or standard input if
           this option is not specified. A request is only read if the creation options
           (-new and -newkey) are not specified.

       -passin arg
           the input file password source. For more information about the format of arg
           see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -out filename
           This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output by default.

       -passout arg
           the output file password source. For more information about the format of arg
           see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS section in openssl(1).

       -text
           prints out the certificate request in text form.

       -subject
           prints out the request subject (or certificate subject if -x509 is specified)

       -pubkey
           outputs the public key.

       -noout
           this option prevents output of the encoded version of the request.

       -modulus
           this option prints out the value of the modulus of the public key contained in
           the request.

       -verify
           verifies the signature on the request.

       -new
           this option generates a new certificate request. It will prompt the user for
           the relevant field values. The actual fields prompted for and their maximum and
           minimum sizes are specified in the configuration file and any requested
           extensions.

           If the -key option is not used it will generate a new RSA private key using
           information specified in the configuration file.

       -subj arg
           Replaces subject field of input request with specified data and outputs
           modified request. The arg must be formatted as
           /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be escaped by \
           (backslash), no spaces are skipped.

       -rand file(s)
           a file or files containing random data used to seed the random number
           generator, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files can be specified
           separated by a OS-dependent character.  The separator is ; for MS-Windows, ,
           for OpenVMS, and : for all others.

       -newkey arg
           this option creates a new certificate request and a new private key. The
           argument takes one of several forms. rsa:nbits, where nbits is the number of
           bits, generates an RSA key nbits in size. If nbits is omitted, i.e. -newkey rsa
           specified, the default key size, specified in the configuration file is used.

           All other algorithms support the -newkey alg:file form, where file may be an
           algorithm parameter file, created by the genpkey -genparam command or and X.509
           certificate for a key with approriate algorithm.

           param:file generates a key using the parameter file or certificate file, the
           algorithm is determined by the parameters. algname:file use algorithm algname
           and parameter file file: the two algorithms must match or an error occurs.
           algname just uses algorithm algname, and parameters, if neccessary should be
           specified via -pkeyopt parameter.

           dsa:filename generates a DSA key using the parameters in the file filename.
           ec:filename generates EC key (usable both with ECDSA or ECDH algorithms),
           gost2001:filename generates GOST R 34.10-2001 key (requires ccgost engine
           configured in the configuration file). If just gost2001 is specified a
           parameter set should be specified by -pkeyopt paramset:X

       -pkeyopt opt:value
           set the public key algorithm option opt to value. The precise set of options
           supported depends on the public key algorithm used and its implementation. See
           KEY GENERATION OPTIONS in the genpkey manual page for more details.

       -key filename
           This specifies the file to read the private key from. It also accepts PKCS#8
           format private keys for PEM format files.

       -keyform PEM|DER
           the format of the private key file specified in the -key argument. PEM is the
           default.

       -keyout filename
           this gives the filename to write the newly created private key to.  If this
           option is not specified then the filename present in the configuration file is
           used.

       -nodes
           if this option is specified then if a private key is created it will not be
           encrypted.

       -[digest]
           this specifies the message digest to sign the request with (such as -md5,
           -sha1). This overrides the digest algorithm specified in the configuration
           file. For full list of possible digests see openssl dgst -h output.

           Some public key algorithms may override this choice. For instance, DSA
           signatures always use SHA1, GOST R 34.10 signatures always use GOST R 34.11-94
           (-md_gost94).

       -config filename
           this allows an alternative configuration file to be specified, this overrides
           the compile time filename or any specified in the OPENSSL_CONF environment
           variable.

       -subj arg
           sets subject name for new request or supersedes the subject name when
           processing a request.  The arg must be formatted as
           /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=..., characters may be escaped by \
           (backslash), no spaces are skipped.

       -multivalue-rdn
           this option causes the -subj argument to be interpreted with full support for
           multivalued RDNs. Example:

           /DC=org/DC=OpenSSL/DC=users/UID=123456+CN=John Doe

           If -multi-rdn is not used then the UID value is 123456+CN=John Doe.

       -x509
           this option outputs a self signed certificate instead of a certificate request.
           This is typically used to generate a test certificate or a self signed root CA.
           The extensions added to the certificate (if any) are specified in the
           configuration file. Unless specified using the set_serial option 0 will be used
           for the serial number.

       -days n
           when the -x509 option is being used this specifies the number of days to
           certify the certificate for. The default is 30 days.

       -set_serial n
           serial number to use when outputting a self signed certificate. This may be
           specified as a decimal value or a hex value if preceded by 0x.  It is possible
           to use negative serial numbers but this is not recommended.

       -extensions section
       -reqexts section
           these options specify alternative sections to include certificate extensions
           (if the -x509 option is present) or certificate request extensions. This allows
           several different sections to be used in the same configuration file to specify
           requests for a variety of purposes.

       -utf8
           this option causes field values to be interpreted as UTF8 strings, by default
           they are interpreted as ASCII. This means that the field values, whether
           prompted from a terminal or obtained from a configuration file, must be valid
           UTF8 strings.

       -nameopt option
           option which determines how the subject or issuer names are displayed. The
           option argument can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas.
           Alternatively the -nameopt switch may be used more than once to set multiple
           options. See the x509(1) manual page for details.

       -reqopt
           customise the output format used with -text. The option argument can be a
           single option or multiple options separated by commas.

           See discission of the  -certopt parameter in the x509 command.

       -asn1-kludge
           by default the req command outputs certificate requests containing no
           attributes in the correct PKCS#10 format. However certain CAs will only accept
           requests containing no attributes in an invalid form: this option produces this
           invalid format.

           More precisely the Attributes in a PKCS#10 certificate request are defined as a
           SET OF Attribute. They are not OPTIONAL so if no attributes are present then
           they should be encoded as an empty SET OF. The invalid form does not include
           the empty SET OF whereas the correct form does.

           It should be noted that very few CAs still require the use of this option.

       -no-asn1-kludge
           Reverses effect of -asn1-kludge

       -newhdr
           Adds the word NEW to the PEM file header and footer lines on the outputed
           request. Some software (Netscape certificate server) and some CAs need this.

       -batch
           non-interactive mode.

       -verbose
           print extra details about the operations being performed.

       -engine id
           specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause req to attempt to
           obtain a functional reference to the specified engine, thus initialising it if
           needed. The engine will then be set as the default for all available
           algorithms.

       -keygen_engine id
           specifies an engine (by its unique id string) which would be used for key
           generation operations.

CONFIGURATION FILE FORMAT
       The configuration options are specified in the req section of the configuration
       file. As with all configuration files if no value is specified in the specific
       section (i.e. req) then the initial unnamed or default section is searched too.

       The options available are described in detail below.

       input_password output_password
           The passwords for the input private key file (if present) and the output
           private key file (if one will be created). The command line options passin and
           passout override the configuration file values.

       default_bits
           This specifies the default key size in bits. If not specified then 512 is used.
           It is used if the -new option is used. It can be overridden by using the
           -newkey option.

       default_keyfile
           This is the default filename to write a private key to. If not specified the
           key is written to standard output. This can be overridden by the -keyout
           option.

       oid_file
           This specifies a file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS.  Each line of
           the file should consist of the numerical form of the object identifier followed
           by white space then the short name followed by white space and finally the long
           name.

       oid_section
           This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra object
           identifiers. Each line should consist of the short name of the object
           identifier followed by = and the numerical form. The short and long names are
           the same when this option is used.

       RANDFILE
           This specifies a filename in which random number seed information is placed and
           read from, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  It is used for private key
           generation.

       encrypt_key
           If this is set to no then if a private key is generated it is not encrypted.
           This is equivalent to the -nodes command line option. For compatibility
           encrypt_rsa_key is an equivalent option.

       default_md
           This option specifies the digest algorithm to use. Possible values include md5
           sha1 mdc2. If not present then MD5 is used. This option can be overridden on
           the command line.

       string_mask
           This option masks out the use of certain string types in certain fields. Most
           users will not need to change this option.

           It can be set to several values default which is also the default option uses
           PrintableStrings, T61Strings and BMPStrings if the pkix value is used then only
           PrintableStrings and BMPStrings will be used. This follows the PKIX
           recommendation in RFC2459. If the utf8only option is used then only UTF8Strings
           will be used: this is the PKIX recommendation in RFC2459 after 2003. Finally
           the nombstr option just uses PrintableStrings and T61Strings: certain software
           has problems with BMPStrings and UTF8Strings: in particular Netscape.

       req_extensions
           this specifies the configuration file section containing a list of extensions
           to add to the certificate request. It can be overridden by the -reqexts command
           line switch. See the x509v3_config(5) manual page for details of the extension
           section format.

       x509_extensions
           this specifies the configuration file section containing a list of extensions
           to add to certificate generated when the -x509 switch is used. It can be
           overridden by the -extensions command line switch.

       prompt
           if set to the value no this disables prompting of certificate fields and just
           takes values from the config file directly. It also changes the expected format
           of the distinguished_name and attributes sections.

       utf8
           if set to the value yes then field values to be interpreted as UTF8 strings, by
           default they are interpreted as ASCII. This means that the field values,
           whether prompted from a terminal or obtained from a configuration file, must be
           valid UTF8 strings.

       attributes
           this specifies the section containing any request attributes: its format is the
           same as distinguished_name. Typically these may contain the challengePassword
           or unstructuredName types. They are currently ignored by OpenSSL's request
           signing utilities but some CAs might want them.

       distinguished_name
           This specifies the section containing the distinguished name fields to prompt
           for when generating a certificate or certificate request. The format is
           described in the next section.

DISTINGUISHED NAME AND ATTRIBUTE SECTION FORMAT
       There are two separate formats for the distinguished name and attribute sections.
       If the prompt option is set to no then these sections just consist of field names
       and values: for example,

        CN=My Name
        OU=My Organization
        emailAddress=someone AT somewhere.org

       This allows external programs (e.g. GUI based) to generate a template file with all
       the field names and values and just pass it to req. An example of this kind of
       configuration file is contained in the EXAMPLES section.

       Alternatively if the prompt option is absent or not set to no then the file
       contains field prompting information. It consists of lines of the form:

        fieldName="prompt"
        fieldName_default="default field value"
        fieldName_min= 2
        fieldName_max= 4

       "fieldName" is the field name being used, for example commonName (or CN).  The
       "prompt" string is used to ask the user to enter the relevant details. If the user
       enters nothing then the default value is used if no default value is present then
       the field is omitted. A field can still be omitted if a default value is present if
       the user just enters the '.' character.

       The number of characters entered must be between the fieldName_min and
       fieldName_max limits: there may be additional restrictions based on the field being
       used (for example countryName can only ever be two characters long and must fit in
       a PrintableString).

       Some fields (such as organizationName) can be used more than once in a DN. This
       presents a problem because configuration files will not recognize the same name
       occurring twice. To avoid this problem if the fieldName contains some characters
       followed by a full stop they will be ignored. So for example a second
       organizationName can be input by calling it "1.organizationName".

       The actual permitted field names are any object identifier short or long names.
       These are compiled into OpenSSL and include the usual values such as commonName,
       countryName, localityName, organizationName, organizationUnitName,
       stateOrProvinceName. Additionally emailAddress is include as well as name, surname,
       givenName initials and dnQualifier.

       Additional object identifiers can be defined with the oid_file or oid_section
       options in the configuration file. Any additional fields will be treated as though
       they were a DirectoryString.

EXAMPLES
       Examine and verify certificate request:

        openssl req -in req.pem -text -verify -noout

       Create a private key and then generate a certificate request from it:

        openssl genrsa -out key.pem 1024
        openssl req -new -key key.pem -out req.pem

       The same but just using req:

        openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem

       Generate a self signed root certificate:

        openssl req -x509 -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout key.pem -out req.pem

       Example of a file pointed to by the oid_file option:

        1.2.3.4        shortName       A longer Name
        1.2.3.6        otherName       Other longer Name

       Example of a section pointed to by oid_section making use of variable expansion:

        testoid1=1.2.3.5
        testoid2=${testoid1}.6

       Sample configuration file prompting for field values:

        [ req ]
        default_bits           = 1024
        default_keyfile        = privkey.pem
        distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
        attributes             = req_attributes
        x509_extensions        = v3_ca

        dirstring_type = nobmp

        [ req_distinguished_name ]
        countryName                    = Country Name (2 letter code)
        countryName_default            = AU
        countryName_min                = 2
        countryName_max                = 2

        localityName                   = Locality Name (eg, city)

        organizationalUnitName         = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)

        commonName                     = Common Name (eg, YOUR name)
        commonName_max                 = 64

        emailAddress                   = Email Address
        emailAddress_max               = 40

        [ req_attributes ]
        challengePassword              = A challenge password
        challengePassword_min          = 4
        challengePassword_max          = 20

        [ v3_ca ]

        subjectKeyIdentifier=hash
        authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always
        basicConstraints = CA:true

       Sample configuration containing all field values:

        RANDFILE               = $ENV::HOME/.rnd

        [ req ]
        default_bits           = 1024
        default_keyfile        = keyfile.pem
        distinguished_name     = req_distinguished_name
        attributes             = req_attributes
        prompt                 = no
        output_password        = mypass

        [ req_distinguished_name ]
        C                      = GB
        ST                     = Test State or Province
        L                      = Test Locality
        O                      = Organization Name
        OU                     = Organizational Unit Name
        CN                     = Common Name
        emailAddress           = test AT email.address

        [ req_attributes ]
        challengePassword              = A challenge password

NOTES
       The header and footer lines in the PEM format are normally:

        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
        -----END CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----

       some software (some versions of Netscape certificate server) instead needs:

        -----BEGIN NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----
        -----END NEW CERTIFICATE REQUEST-----

       which is produced with the -newhdr option but is otherwise compatible.  Either form
       is accepted transparently on input.

       The certificate requests generated by Xenroll with MSIE have extensions added. It
       includes the keyUsage extension which determines the type of key (signature only or
       general purpose) and any additional OIDs entered by the script in an
       extendedKeyUsage extension.

DIAGNOSTICS
       The following messages are frequently asked about:

               Using configuration from /some/path/openssl.cnf
               Unable to load config info

       This is followed some time later by...

               unable to find 'distinguished_name' in config
               problems making Certificate Request

       The first error message is the clue: it can't find the configuration file! Certain
       operations (like examining a certificate request) don't need a configuration file
       so its use isn't enforced. Generation of certificates or requests however does need
       a configuration file. This could be regarded as a bug.

       Another puzzling message is this:

               Attributes:
                   a0:00

       this is displayed when no attributes are present and the request includes the
       correct empty SET OF structure (the DER encoding of which is 0xa0 0x00). If you
       just see:

               Attributes:

       then the SET OF is missing and the encoding is technically invalid (but it is
       tolerated). See the description of the command line option -asn1-kludge for more
       information.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The variable OPENSSL_CONF if defined allows an alternative configuration file
       location to be specified, it will be overridden by the -config command line switch
       if it is present. For compatibility reasons the SSLEAY_CONF environment variable
       serves the same purpose but its use is discouraged.

BUGS
       OpenSSL's handling of T61Strings (aka TeletexStrings) is broken: it effectively
       treats them as ISO-8859-1 (Latin 1), Netscape and MSIE have similar behaviour.
       This can cause problems if you need characters that aren't available in
       PrintableStrings and you don't want to or can't use BMPStrings.

       As a consequence of the T61String handling the only correct way to represent
       accented characters in OpenSSL is to use a BMPString: unfortunately Netscape
       currently chokes on these. If you have to use accented characters with Netscape and
       MSIE then you currently need to use the invalid T61String form.

       The current prompting is not very friendly. It doesn't allow you to confirm what
       you've just entered. Other things like extensions in certificate requests are
       statically defined in the configuration file. Some of these: like an email address
       in subjectAltName should be input by the user.

SEE ALSO
       x509(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), config(5), x509v3_config(5)



1.0.1e                            2017-03-22                            REQ(1)

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