# rsync - phpMan

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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

NAME
rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

Usages  with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of
copying.

DESCRIPTION
Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile  file  copying  tool.   It  can  copy
locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync dae-
mon.  It offers a large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior
and  permit  very  flexible  specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is
famous for its delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over
the network by sending only the differences between the source files and the exist-
ing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for backups and  mirroring  and
as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync  finds  files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by
default) that looks for files that have changed in size or in  last-modified  time.
Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on
the destination file directly when the quick check indicates that the  file's  data
does not need to be updated.

Some of the additional features of rsync are:

o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

o      does not require super-user privileges

o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

GENERAL
Rsync  copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host
(it does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

There are two different ways  for  rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:  using  a
remote-shell  program  as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync
daemon directly via TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or
destination  path contains a single colon (:) separator after a host specification.
Contacting an rsync daemon directly happens when the  source  or  destination  path
contains  a  double  colon  (::)  separator  after a host specification, OR when an
rsync:// URL is  specified  (see  also  the  "USING  RSYNC-DAEMON  FEATURES  VIA  A
REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this latter rule).

As  a  special case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the
files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote  host,  the

Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".
Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server,  but  a
server can be either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.

SETUP
See the file README for installation instructions.

Once  installed,  you can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote
shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync  daemon-mode  protocol).
For  remote  transfers,  a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may
have been configured to use a different remote shell by default,  such  as  rsh  or
remsh.

You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the -e command line
option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

USAGE
You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destina-
tion, one of which may be remote.

Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

rsync -t *.c foo:src/

This  would  transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory
to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist  on  the
remote  system  then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by
sending only the differences in the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards  on
the  commandline  (*.c) into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs
rsync and not by rsync itself (exactly the same as all other posix-style programs).

rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine
foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.  The  files  are  trans-
ferred  in  "archive" mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes,
permissions, ownerships, etc. are preserved in the  transfer.   Additionally,  com-
pression will be used to reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

A  trailing  slash  on  the source changes this behavior to avoid creating an addi-
tional directory level at the destination.  You can think of  a  trailing  /  on  a
source  as  meaning  "copy  the contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the
directory by name", but in both cases the attributes of  the  containing  directory
are  transferred  to  the containing directory on the destination.  In other words,
each of the following commands copies the files in the same  way,  including  their
setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

rsync -av /src/foo /dest
rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

Note  also  that  host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy
the contents of the default directory.  For example, both of these copy the  remote
directory's contents into "/dest":

rsync -av host: /dest
rsync -av host::module /dest

You  can  also  use rsync in local-only mode, where both the source and destination
don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like an  improved  copy  com-
mand.

Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync
daemon by leaving off the module name:

rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

See the following section for more details.

The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by  specifying
additional  remote-host  args  in the same style as the first, or with the hostname
omitted.  For instance, all these work:

rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like  these  exam-
ples:

rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

This  word-splitting  still  works  (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not as
easy to use as the first method.

If you need to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify
the  --protect-args  (-s)  option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace in a way
that the remote shell will understand.  For instance:

rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In  this
case  you  will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port
873.  (This obviously requires the daemon to be running on the  remote  system,  so
refer  to  the  STARTING  AN  RSYNC  DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for
information on that.)

Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to  separate  the
hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

o      if you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible
paths on the daemon will be shown.

o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified files on
the remote daemon is provided.

o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

rsync -av host::src /dest

Some  modules  on  the  remote  daemon  may require authentication. If so, you will
setting  the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to the password you want to use or
using the --password-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users.  On  those

You  may  establish the connection via a web proxy by setting the environment vari-
able RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your  web  proxy.   Note  that
your web proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

You  may  also  establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by setting
the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands  you  wish  to  run  in
place of making a direct socket connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H"
to represent the hostname specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a
single "%" in your string).  For example:

export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

The  command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which for-
wards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon  (such  as  named
modules)  without actually allowing any new socket connections into a system (other
than what is already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync  supports  con-
necting  to  a  host  using  a remote shell and then spawning a single-use "daemon"
server that expects to read its config file in the home dir  of  the  remote  user.
This can be useful if you want to encrypt a daemon-style transfer's data, but since
the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you may not be able to use  fea-
tures  such  as  chroot  or change the uid used by the daemon.  (For another way to
encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a local port  to  a  remote
machine  and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow con-
nections from "localhost".)

From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  connection  uses
nearly  the  same  command-line  syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with the
only exception being that you must explicitly set the remote shell program  on  the
command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environ-
ment will not turn on this functionality.)  For example:

rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that  the  user@
prefix  in  front of the host is specifying the rsync-user value (for a module that
requires user-based authentication).  This means that you must give the  '-l  user'
option  to  ssh  when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the
short version of the --rsh option:

rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the  "rsync-user"  will  be  used  to
log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
In  order  to  connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a daemon
already running (or it needs to have configured something like inetd  to  spawn  an
rsync  daemon for incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information
on how to start a daemon that will handling incoming socket  connections,  see  the
rsyncd.conf(5)  man page -- that is the config file for the daemon, and it contains
the full details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd config-
urations).

If  you're  using  one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no
need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer  list.   This
handles  the  merging  together  of  the contents of identically named directories,
makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files
are transferred in a different order than what was given on the command-line.

If  you  need a particular file to be transferred prior to another, either separate
the files into different rsync calls,  or  consider  using  --delay-updates  (which
doesn't  affect  the  sorted  transfer order, but does make the final file-updating
phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES
Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and  mail
folders, I use a cron job that runs

rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

each  night  over  a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvids-
jaur".

To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

get:
rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
put:
rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
sync: get put

this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the  connection.  I
then  do  CVS  operations  on  the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the
remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY
Here is a short summary of the options available in  rsync.  Please  refer  to  the
detailed description below for a complete description.

-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
--info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
--debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
--msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
-q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
--no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
-c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
--db=CONFIG_FILE        specify a CONFIG_FILE for DB checksums
--db-only=CONFIG_FILE   Behave like rsyncdb (see that manpage).
--db-lax                Ignore ctime changes (use with CAUTION).
-a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
--no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
-r, --recursive             recurse into directories
-R, --relative              use relative path names
--no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
-b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
--backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
--suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
--inplace               update destination files in-place
--append                append data onto shorter files
--append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
-d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
-p, --perms                 preserve permissions
-E, --executability         preserve executability
--chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
-A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
-X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
-o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
-g, --group                 preserve group
--devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
--specials              preserve special files
-D                          same as --devices --specials
-t, --times                 preserve modification times
-O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
--fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
-S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
--preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
-n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
-W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
-x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
-B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
-e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
--rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
--existing              skip creating new files on receiver
--ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
--remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
--del                   an alias for --delete-during
--delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
--delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
--delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
--delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
--delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
--delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
--ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
--delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
--ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
--force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
--max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
--max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
--min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
--partial               keep partially transferred files
--partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
--delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
-m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
--numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
--groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
--timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
--contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
-I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
--size-only             skip files that match in size
--modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
-T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
-y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
--compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
--copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
-z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
--compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
--skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
-C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
-f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
-F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
--exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
--exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
--include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
--include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
--files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
-0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
-s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
--port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
--blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
--outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
--stats                 give some file-transfer stats
-8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
--progress              show progress during transfer
-P                          same as --partial --progress
-i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
-M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
--out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
--log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
--log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
--list-only             list the files instead of copying them
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
--only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
--protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
--iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
--checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
--version               print version number
(-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

Rsync  can  also  be  run  as  a  daemon,  in  which case the following options are
accepted:

--daemon                run as an rsync daemon
--bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
--config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
--no-detach             do not detach from the parent
--port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
--log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
--log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
--sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
-v, --verbose               increase verbosity
-4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
-6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
-h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
Rsync accepts both long (double-dash +  word)  and  short  (single-dash  +  letter)
options.  The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option
can be specified in more than one  way,  the  choices  are  comma-separated.   Some
options  only  have  a long variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter,
the parameter is only listed after the long variant, even though it  must  also  be
specified  for the short.  When specifying a parameter, you can either use the form
--option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may  need  to  be
quoted  in some manner for it to survive the shell's command-line parsing.  Keep in
mind that a leading tilde (~) in a  filename  is  substituted  by  your  shell,  so
--option=~/foo  will  not change the tilde into your home directory (remove the '='
for that).

--help Print a short help page describing the options available in rsync and  exit.
For  backward-compatibility with older versions of rsync, the help will also
be output if you use the -h option without any other args.

--version
print the rsync version number and exit.

-v, --verbose
This option increases the amount of information you  are  given  during  the
transfer.   By  default,  rsync  works  silently.  A single -v will give you
information about what files are being transferred and a  brief  summary  at
the  end.  Two  -v options will give you information on what files are being
skipped and slightly more information at the end. More than two  -v  options
should only be used if you are debugging rsync.

In  a  modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups of
--info and --debug options.  You can choose to use these  newer  options  in
addition  to,  or  in place of using --verbose, as any fine-grained settings
override the implied settings of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way  to
ask  for help that tells you exactly what flags are set for each increase in
verbosity.

However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting will  limit
how  high  of  a level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon
side.  For instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug  flag  that
is set to a higher value than what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to
the -vv level in the daemon's logging.

--info=FLAGS
This option lets you have fine-grained control over the  information  output
you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number,
with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output level, and
higher  numbers  increasing  the output of that flag (for those that support
higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the available flag  names,  what
they  output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the verbose
level.  Some examples:

rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

Note that --info=name's output is affected by the --out-format  and  --item-
ize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is
output and when.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server  side  might
reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to
be send to the server and the server was too old to understand  them).   See
also the "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--debug=FLAGS
This  option  lets  you  have fine-grained control over the debug output you
want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed  by  a  level  number,
with 0 meaning to silence that output, 1 being the default output level, and
higher numbers increasing the output of that flag (for  those  that  support
higher  levels).  Use --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what
they output, and what flag names are added for each increase in the  verbose
level.  Some examples:

rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

Note  that  some  debug  messages  will only be output when --msgs2stderr is
specified, especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server  side  might
reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to
be send to the server and the server was too old to understand  them).   See
also the "max verbosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

--msgs2stderr
This  option  changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather
than to send messages to the client side via the  protocol  (which  normally
outputs info messages via stdout).  This is mainly intended for debugging in
order to avoid changing the data sent via the protocol, since the extra pro-
tocol data can change what is being tested.  Keep in mind that a daemon con-
nection does not have a stderr channel to send messages back to  the  client
side,  so  if you are doing any daemon-transfer debugging using this option,
you should start up a daemon using --no-detach  so  that  you  can  see  the
stderr output on the daemon side.

This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered so
that the merging of the output of 3 programs happens in a more readable man-
ner.

-q, --quiet
This  option  decreases  the  amount of information you are given during the
transfer, notably suppressing information messages from the  remote  server.
This option is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

--no-motd
This  option  affects  the  information  that is output by the client at the
start of a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the  message-of-the-day  (MOTD)
text,  but  it  also  affects  the  list of modules that the daemon sends in
response to the "rsync host::" request (due to a  limitation  in  the  rsync
protocol),  so  omit  this option if you want to request the list of modules
from the daemon.

-I, --ignore-times
Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size  and  have
the  same  modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check"
behavior, causing all files to be updated.

--size-only
This modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files that need to
be  transferred,  changing  it  from  the default of transferring files with
either a changed size or a changed last-modified time to  just  looking  for
files  that have changed in size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync
after using another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
exactly.

--modify-window
When comparing two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if
they differ by no more than the modify-window value.   This  is  normally  0
(for  an  exact  match),  but you may find it useful to set this to a larger
value in some situations.  In particular, when transferring to or from an MS
Windows  FAT filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second resolution),
--modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

-c, --checksum
This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are  in
need  of  a  transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses a "quick check" that
(by default) checks if each file's size and time of last modification  match
between  the  sender  and  receiver.   This option changes this to compare a
128-bit checksum for each file that has a  matching  size.   Generating  the
checksums  means  that  both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O reading all
the data in the files in the transfer (and this is prior to any reading that
will  be  done to transfer changed files), so this can slow things down sig-
nificantly.

The sending side generates its checksums while it is doing  the  file-system
scan  that  builds  the list of the available files.  The receiver generates
its checksums when it is scanning for changed files, and will  checksum  any
file  that has the same size as the corresponding sender's file:  files with
either a changed size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

Note that rsync always verifies that each  transferred  file  was  correctly
reconstructed  on  the receiving side by checking a whole-file checksum that
is  generated   as   the   file   is   transferred,   but   that   automatic
after-the-transfer  verification  has  nothing  to  do  with  this  option's
before-the-transfer "Does this file need to be updated?" check.

For protocol 30 and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used  is
MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

--db=CONFIG_FILE
This  option  specifies  a CONFIG_FILE to read that holds connection details
for a database of checksum information.  When combined with  the  --checksum
(-c)  option, rsync will try to use cached checksum information from the DB,
and will update it if it is missing.

The currently supported DB choices are MySQL and  SQLite.   For  example,  a
MySQL configuration might look like this:

dbtype: mysql
dbhost: 127.0.0.1
dbname: rsyncdb
dbuser: rsyncuser
dbpass: somepass
port: 3306
thishost: hostname

And a SQLite configuration might look like this:

dbtype: SQLite
dbname: /var/cache/rsync/sum.db
transaction: 1

Both  the --db and --db-lax options only affect the side where the option is
used.  To affect the remote side  of  a  remote-shell  connection,  use  the
--remote-option  (-M)  option.   For example, to specify the same options on
both sides, you could specify something like this:

rsync -avc {-M,}--db=/etc/rsyncdb.conf src/ host:dest/

For a local copy, this option affects both the source and  the  destination.
If  you  wish  a  local  copy to enable this option just for the destination
files, specify -M--db=CONFIG (the same for -M--db-lax.  If you wish a  local
copy  to  enable  this option just for the source files, combine --db=CONFIG
with -M--no-db (similarly use -M--no-db-lax).

See the perl script "rsyncdb" in the support directory of  the  source  code
(which  may  also  be installed in /usr/bin) for a way to create the tables,
populate the mounted-disk information, check files against their  checksums,
and  update both the MD4 and MD5 checksums for files at the same time (since
an rsync copy will only update one or the other).

You can use a single MySQL DB for all your hosts if you give each one  their
own  "thishost"  name  and setup their device-mapping data.  Or feel free to
use separate databases, separate servers, etc.  See the rsync  daemon's  "db
config"  parameter for how to configure a daemon to use a DB (since a client
cannot control this parameter on a daemon).

--db-lax
This option can be used to modify the inode-matching algorithm used by  --db
to one that ignores the ctime.  This can be very DANGEROUS unless your files
are known to ALWAYS be updated in a safe manner.  If unsure, don't use it.

The reason you might want to use it is that the ctime (inode change time) is
changed by an added hard-link, or the file being moving around.  To use this
option safely you must be CERTAIN that either rsync w/--db is the only  pro-
gram  adding  files  into the cached hierarchies, OR that all new files will
have new modify times (never a historical mtime that might match an orphaned
inode).   So, for certain applications, such as mirrors of new tar releases,
this option can save a lot of unneeded checksum re-computation due to  ctime
changes.

-a, --archive
This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recur-
sion and want to preserve almost everything (with -H being a  notable  omis-
sion).   The only exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is
specified, in which case -r is not implied.

files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

--no-OPTION
You  may  turn  off one or more implied options by prefixing the option name
with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that
are  implied  by  other  options (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different
defaults in various circumstances (e.g.  --no-whole-file,  --no-blocking-io,
--no-dirs).   You may specify either the short or the long option name after
the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o  (--owner),
instead  of  converting  -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a
--no-owner).

The order of the options is important:  if you specify  --no-r  -a,  the  -r
option  would  end up being turned on, the opposite of -a --no-r.  Note also
that the side-effects of the --files-from option are NOT positional,  as  it
affects  the default state of several options and slightly changes the mean-
ing of -a (see the --files-from option for more details).

-r, --recursive

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremen-
tal  scan  that  uses  much  less memory than before and begins the transfer
after the scanning of the first few directories have been  completed.   This
incremental scan only affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a
non-recursive transfer.  It is also only possible  when  both  ends  of  the
transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options dis-
able  the  incremental  recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,
--delete-after,  --prune-empty-dirs,  and --delay-updates.  Because of this,
the default delete mode when you specify  --delete  is  now  --delete-during
when  both  ends  of  the  connection  are  at  least  3.0.0  (use  --del or
--delete-during to request this improved  deletion  mode  explicitly).   See
also   the  --delete-delay  option  that  is  a  better  choice  than  using
--delete-after.

Incremental recursion can be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or
its shorter --no-i-r alias.

-R, --relative
Use  relative  paths.  This  means that the full path names specified on the
command line are sent to the server rather than just the last parts  of  the
filenames. This is particularly useful when you want to send several differ-
ent directories at the same time. For example, if you used this command:

rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine.  If

rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote machine,
preserving its full path.  These extra path  elements  are  called  "implied
directories"  (i.e.  the  "foo"  and  the "foo/bar" directories in the above
example).

Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied directories  as
real  directories  in the file list, even if a path element is really a sym-
link on the sending side.  This prevents some  really  unexpected  behaviors
when  copying  the full path of a file that you didn't realize had a symlink
in its path.  If you want to duplicate a server-side symlink,  include  both
the  symlink  via  its  path,  and referent directory via its real path.  If
you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you may need to  use
the --no-implied-dirs option.

It  is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as
implied directories for each path you specify.  With a modern rsync  on  the
sending  side  (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into
the source path, like this:

rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the  dot
must  be  followed  by  a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  For
older rsync versions, you would need to use a  chdir  to  limit  the  source
path.  For example, when pushing files:

(cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

(Note  that  the  parens  put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the
"cd" command doesn't remain in  effect  for  future  commands.)   If  you're
pulling files from an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon
transfer):

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

--no-implied-dirs
This option affects the default behavior of the --relative option.  When  it
is  specified,  the  attributes  of  the implied directories from the source
names are not included in the transfer.  This means that  the  corresponding
path  elements  on  the destination system are left unchanged if they exist,
and any missing implied directories are  created  with  default  attributes.
This  even  allows these implied path elements to have big differences, such
as being a symlink to a directory on the receiving side.

For instance, if a command-line arg or a  files-from  entry  told  rsync  to
transfer the file "path/foo/file", the directories "path" and "path/foo" are
implied when --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the
destination  system, the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo",
recreate it as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
With  --no-implied-dirs,  the  receiving rsync updates "path/foo/file" using
the existing path elements, which means that the file ends up being  created
in  "path/bar".   Another way to accomplish this link preservation is to use
in the rest of the transfer).

When  pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this
option if the sending side has a symlink in the path  you  request  and  you
wish the implied directories to be transferred as normal directories.

-b, --backup
With  this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is
transferred or deleted.  You can control where the backup file goes and what
(if any) suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option
will  be  implied,  and  (2)  if  --delete  is  also  in   effect   (without
--delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup
suffix to the end of all your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will
prevent previously backed-up files from being deleted.  Note that if you are
supplying your own filter rules, you may need to manually  insert  your  own
exclude/protect  rule  somewhere higher up in the list so that it has a high
enough priority to be effective (e.g., if  your  rules  specify  a  trailing
inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

--backup-dir=DIR
In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all back-
ups in the specified directory on the receiving side.  This can be used  for
incremental backups.  You can additionally specify a backup suffix using the
--suffix option (otherwise the files backed up in  the  specified  directory
will keep their original filenames).

Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be rela-
tive to the destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an
absolute  path  or a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the
receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module's path  hierarchy,  so
take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.

--suffix=SUFFIX
This  option  allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the
--backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was spec-
ified, otherwise it is an empty string.

-u, --update
This  forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination and have
a modified time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing  desti-
nation  file  has a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be
updated if the sizes are different.)

Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or other  spe-
cial  files.   Also,  a  difference  of  file  format between the sender and
receiver is always considered to be important enough for an update, no  mat-
ter what date is on the objects.  In other words, if the source has a direc-
tory where the destination has a file, the transfer would  occur  regardless
of the timestamps.

This  option  is  a  transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it  doesn't  affect  deletions.
It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--inplace
This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be
updated: instead of the default method of creating a new copy  of  the  file
and  moving  it  into  place  when  it is complete, rsync instead writes the
updated data directly to the destination file.

This has several effects:

o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will  be  visible
through other hard links to the destination file.  Moreover, attempts
to copy differing source files  onto  a  multiply-linked  destination
file will result in a "tug of war" with the destination data changing
back and forth.

o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS  will  prevent  this
from  happening,  or binaries that attempt to swap-in their data will
misbehave or crash).

o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent state during the  transfer
and  will  be  left  that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an
update fails.

o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated.  While  a  super
user  can  update  any  file, a normal user needs to be granted write
permission for the open of the file for writing to be successful.

o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be reduced  if
some  data  in  the  destination file is overwritten before it can be
copied to a position later in the file.  This does not apply  if  you
use  --backup,  since rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as
the basis file for the transfer.

WARNING: you should not use this option  to  update  files  that  are  being
accessed by others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

This  option is useful for transferring large files with block-based changes
or appended data, and also on systems  that  are  disk  bound,  not  network
bound.   It  can  also  help  keep  a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from
diverging the entire contents of a file that only has minor changes.

The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does not  delete
the  file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to
rsync  2.6.4  --inplace  was  also  incompatible  with  --compare-dest   and

--append
This  causes  rsync  to  update a file by appending data onto the end of the
file, which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side
is  identical  with  the  start  of the file on the sending side.  If a file
needs to be transferred and its size on the receiver is the same  or  longer
than  the  size on the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not interfere
with the updating of a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permissions, own-
ership,  etc.)  when  the  file does not need to be transferred, nor does it
affect the updating of any non-regular files.  Implies --inplace,  but  does
not conflict with --sparse (since it is always extending a file's length).

--append-verify
This  works  just  like  the  --append  option, but the existing data on the
receiving side is included in  the  full-file  checksum  verification  step,
which  will  cause  a file to be resent if the final verification step fails
(rsync uses a normal, non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

Note: prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify,
so  if  you  are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a
protocol prior to 30), specifying either  append  option  will  initiate  an
--append-verify transfer.

-d, --dirs
Tell  the  sending  side  to  include  any directories that are encountered.
Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not copied unless the  direc-
tory name specified is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.",
"dir/", etc.).  Without this option or the --recursive  option,  rsync  will
skip  all directories it encounters (and output a message to that effect for
each one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive  takes
precedence.

The  --dirs  option is implied by the --files-from option or the --list-only
option (including an implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't speci-
fied  (so  that directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or
--no-d) if you want to turn this off.

There  is  also  a  backward-compatibility  helper  option,  --old-dirs  (or
--old-d)  that  tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get an
older rsync to list a single directory without recursing.

When symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the referent) is
copied,  rather  than  the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option
such as symlinks to directories.  In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll
need to specify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
exception is when sending files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K
-- in that case, the -L option will still have the side-effect of -K on that
older receiving rsync.

This  tells  rsync to copy the referent of symbolic links that point outside
the copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated  like  ordinary  files,
and  so  are any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.

This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied
tree.  All absolute symlinks are also ignored. Using this option in conjunc-
tion with --relative may give unexpected results.

This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side  in
a  way  that  makes  them  unusable  but  recoverable (see below), or (2) to
unmunge symlinks on the sending side that had been stored in a munged state.
This is useful if you don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to
slip in a symlink to a unexpected place.

The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each  one  with  the
string  "/rsyncd-munged/".   This prevents the links from being used as long
as that directory does not exist.  When this option is enabled,  rsync  will
refuse to run if that path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

The  option  only affects the client side of the transfer, so if you need it
to affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.  (Note that in a local
transfer, the client side is the sender.)

This  option  has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether
it wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter.  See  also  the
"munge-symlinks" perl script in the support directory of the source code.

This  option  causes  the  sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as
though it were a real directory.  This is useful if you don't want  symlinks
to non-directories to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

Without  this  option,  if  the sending side has replaced a directory with a
symlink to a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that  is  in
the  way  of  the  new  symlink, including a directory hierarchy (as long as
--force or --delete is in effect).

you  want to follow only a few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to
pass them as additional source args with a trailing slash, using  --relative
to make the paths match up right.  For example:

rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

This  works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the
trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise to a directory
in  the  file-list  which  overrides  the  symlink  found during the scan of
"src/./".

This option causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a  directory  as
though  it  were  a  real directory, but only if it matches a real directory
deleted and replaced with a real directory.

For  example,  suppose  you  transfer a directory "foo" that contains a file
"file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar" on the receiver.   Without
directory,  and  receives  the  file   into   the   new   directory.    With

One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you  must  trust  all  the
symlinks  in  the  copy!   If it is possible for an untrusted user to create
their own symlink to any directory, the user could  then  (on  a  subsequent
copy)  replace  the  symlink with a real directory and affect the content of
whatever directory the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  bet-
ter  off  using  something  like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify

This tells rsync to look for  hard-linked  files  in  the  source  and  link
together  the  corresponding files on the destination.  Without this option,
hard-linked files in the source are treated as  though  they  were  separate
files.

This  option  does  NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on
the destination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which the des-
tination may end up with extra hard links include the following:

what is present in the source file list), the copying algorithm  will
not break them explicitly.  However, if one or more of the paths have
content differences, the normal file-update process will break  those
extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

o      If  you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the
cause  some paths in the destination to become linked together due to

Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the
transfer  set.  If rsync updates a file that has extra hard-link connections
to files outside the transfer, that linkage will  be  broken.   If  you  are
tempted  to use the --inplace option to avoid this breakage, be very careful
that you know how your files are being updated so that you are certain  that
no  unintended  changes  happen  due  to  lingering  hard links (and see the
--inplace option for more caveats).

If incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may  transfer  a
missing hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents
exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of the
transfer  (i.e.  which  files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency
(i.e. copying the data for a new, early copy  of  a  hard-linked  file  that
could  have  been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in another member of the
hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this inefficiency is to disable
incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive option.

-p, --perms
This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to
be the same as the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option  for  a
way to modify what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

o      Existing  files  (including updated files) retain their existing per-
missions, though the --executability option  might  change  just  the
execute permission for the file.

o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source file's
permissions masked with the receiving directory's default permissions
(either  the  receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified
via the destination directory's default ACL), and their special  per-
mission bits disabled except in the case where a new directory inher-
its a setgid bit from its parent directory.

Thus, when --perms and --executability are both disabled,  rsync's  behavior
is  the same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

In summary: to give destination files (both old and new) the source  permis-
sions,  use  --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions
(while leaving existing files unchanged), make sure that the --perms  option
is  off  and use --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures that all non-masked bits get
enabled).  If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier  to  type,  you
could  define  a  popt  alias  for it, such as putting this line in the file
~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option, and includes --no-g to use the
default group of the destination dir):

rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

rsync -avZ src/ dest/

(Caveat:  make sure that -a does not follow -Z, or it will re-enable the two
"--no-*" options mentioned above.)

The preservation of the destination's setgid bit on  newly-created  directo-
ries  when  --perms  is  off was added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older rsync versions
erroneously preserved the three special permission  bits  for  newly-created
files  when  --perms  was off, while overriding the destination's setgid bit
setting on a newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance was  added  to
the  ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the
umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in mind that it is  the  ver-
sion of the receiving rsync that affects these behaviors.)

-E, --executability
This  option  causes rsync to preserve the executability (or non-executabil-
ity) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular file  is  con-
sidered  to  be  executable  if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permis-
sions.  When an existing destination file's executability differs from  that
of the corresponding source file, rsync modifies the destination file's per-
missions as follows:

o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all  its  'x'  permis-
sions.

o      To  make  a  file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' permission that
has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

-A, --acls
This option causes rsync to update the destination ACLs to be  the  same  as
the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this
option to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a  way  to  backup
and restore ACLs that are not compatible.

-X, --xattrs
This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes to be
the same as the source ones.

For systems that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy being done by
a  super-user  copies  all  namespaces  except system.*.  A normal user only
copies the user.* namespace.  To be able  to  backup  and  restore  non-user
namespaces as a normal user, see the --fake-super option.

Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those
used by --fake-super) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX).   This  "copy
all xattrs" mode cannot be used with --fake-super.

--chmod
This  option  tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes
to the permission of the files in the  transfer.   The  resulting  value  is
treated as though it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for
the file, which means that this option can seem to have no effect on  exist-
ing files if --perms is not enabled.

In  addition  to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage,
you can specify an item that should only apply to a directory  by  prefixing
it  with  a 'D', or specify an item that should only apply to a file by pre-
fixing it with a 'F'.  For example,  the  following  will  ensure  that  all
directories  get marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both
are user-writable and group-writable, and that  both  have  consistent  exe-
cutability across all bits:

--chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

--chmod=D2775,F664

It  is  also  legal  to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional
option is just appended to the list of changes to make.

See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission
value can be applied to the files in the transfer.

-o, --owner
This  option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the
same as the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being run as the
super-user  (see  also  the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this
option, the owner of new and/or transferred files are set  to  the  invoking
user on the receiving side.

The  preservation of ownership will associate matching names by default, but
may fall back to using the ID number in some  circumstances  (see  also  the
--numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

-g, --group
This  option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the
same as the source file.  If the receiving program is  not  running  as  the
super-user  (or  if --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking
user on the receiving side is a member of will be preserved.   Without  this
option,  the  group  is set to the default group of the invoking user on the
receiving side.

The preservation of group  information  will  associate  matching  names  by
default, but may fall back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see
also the --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

--devices
This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the
remote  system  to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the
receiving rsync is not run as the  super-user  (see  also  the  --super  and
--fake-super options).

--specials
This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and
fifos.

-D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

-t, --times
This tells rsync to transfer modification times along  with  the  files  and
update them on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the
optimization that excludes files that  have  not  been  modified  cannot  be
effective;  in  other words, a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer
to behave as if it used -I, causing all files to be updated (though  rsync's
delta-transfer  algorithm will make the update fairly efficient if the files
haven't actually changed, you're much better off using -t).

-O, --omit-dir-times
This tells rsync to omit directories  when  it  is  preserving  modification
times  (see  --times).   If  NFS is sharing the directories on the receiving
side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This  option  is  inferred  if  you  use
--backup without --backup-dir.

This  option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of directo-
ries in incremental recursion copies.  The default  --inc-recursive  copying
normally  does  an  early-create pass of all the sub-directories in a parent
directory in order for it to be able to then set the modify time of the par-
ent  directory  right  away  (without  having to delay that until a bunch of
recursive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is  not  necessary
if  directory modify times are not being preserved, so it is skipped.  Since
early-create directories don't have accurate mode, mtime, or ownership,  the
use of this option can help when someone wants to avoid these partially-fin-
ished directories.

This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modification  times
(see --times).

--super
This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the
receiving rsync wasn't run by the  super-user.   These  activities  include:
preserving users via the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the
current user's groups) via the --groups option, and copying devices via  the
--devices  option.   This  is  useful for systems that allow such activities
without being the super-user, and also for ensuring that you will get errors
if  the  receiving  side  isn't  being  run  as the super-user.  To turn off
super-user activities, the super-user can use --no-super.

--fake-super
When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user activities  by  sav-
ing/restoring the privileged attributes via special extended attributes that
are attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's  owner  and
group  (if  it is not the default), the file's device info (device & special
files are created as empty text files), and  any  permission  bits  that  we
won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t
for safety)  or  that  would  limit  the  owner's  access  (since  the  real
super-user  can  always access/change a file, the files we create can always
be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option  also  handles  ACLs
(if  --acls was specified) and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was
specified).

This is a good way to backup data without using a super-user, and  to  store
ACLs from incompatible systems.

The  --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To
affect the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option
(-M) option:

rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

For  a  local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.
If you wish a local copy to enable this  option  just  for  the  destination
files,  specify  -M--fake-super.   If  you  wish a local copy to enable this
option just for the source files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

-S, --sparse
Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up  less  space  on  the
destination.   Conflicts  with  --inplace because it's not possible to over-
write data in a sparse fashion.

--preallocate
This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file  to  its  eventual
size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will only use the real filesys-
tem-level preallocation support provided by Linux's fallocate(2) system call
or  Cygwin's  posix_fallocate(3),  not  the  slow  glibc implementation that
writes a zero byte into each block.

Without this option, larger files may not  be  entirely  contiguous  on  the
filesystem,  but  with this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If
the destination is not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as  ext4,  xfs,
NTFS, etc.), this option may have no positive effect at all.

-n, --dry-run
This makes rsync perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and pro-
duces mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most  commonly  used  in
combination  with  the -v, --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to
see what an rsync command is going to do before one actually runs it.

The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a  dry
run  and a subsequent real run (barring intentional trickery and system call
failures); if it isn't,  that's  a  bug.   Other  output  should  be  mostly
unchanged,  but  may differ in some areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send
the actual data for file transfers, so --progress has no effect, the  "bytes
sent",  "bytes  received", "literal data", and "matched data" statistics are
too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent to  a  run  where  no  file
transfers were needed.

-W, --whole-file
With  this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used and the whole
file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be faster if  this  option  is
used  when  the  bandwidth  between  the  source and destination machines is
higher than the bandwidth to disk (especially when the "disk" is actually  a
networked  filesystem).  This is the default when both the source and desti-
nation are specified as local paths, but only if no batch-writing option  is
in effect.

-x, --one-file-system
This  tells  rsync  to  avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.
This does not limit the user's ability to specify items to copy from  multi-
ple filesystems, just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each direc-
tory that the user specified,  and  also  the  analogous  recursion  on  the
receiving  side  during  deletion.   Also  keep  in mind that rsync treats a
"bind" mount to the same device as being on the same filesystem.

If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the
copy.   Otherwise,  it  includes  an  empty directory at each mount-point it
encounters (using the attributes of the mounted directory because  those  of
the underlying mount-point directory are inaccessible).

like  a  mount-point.   Symlinks  to  non-directories are unaffected by this
option.

--existing, --ignore-non-existing
This tells rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do  not
exist  yet  on  the  destination.   If  this  option  is  combined  with the
--ignore-existing option, no files will be updated (which can be  useful  if
all you want to do is delete extraneous files).

This  option  is  a  transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it  doesn't  affect  deletions.
It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

--ignore-existing
This  tells  rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destina-
tion (this does not ignore existing directories, or nothing would get done).

This  option  is  a  transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it  doesn't  affect  deletions.
It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

This  option  can  be  useful  for those doing backups using the --link-dest
option when they need to continue a backup run that got interrupted.   Since
a  --link-dest run is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used
properly), using --ignore existing  will  ensure  that  the  already-handled
files  don't  get  tweaked  (which  avoids  a  change  in permissions on the
hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

--remove-source-files
This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the  sending  side  the files (meaning
non-directories) that are a part of the transfer and have been  successfully
duplicated on the receiving side.

Note  that  you  should only use this option on source files that are quies-
cent.  If you are using this to move files that  show  up  in  a  particular
directory  over  to  another  host,  make  sure  that the finished files get
renamed into the source directory, not directly written  into  it,  so  that
rsync  can't possibly transfer a file that is not yet fully written.  If you
can't first write the files into a different directory,  you  should  use  a
naming  idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not yet fin-
ished (e.g. name the file "foo.new" when it is written, rename it  to  "foo"
when  it  is  done,  and then use the option --exclude='*.new' for the rsync
transfer).

Starting with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output  an
error) if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

--delete
This  tells  rsync  to delete extraneous files from the receiving side (ones
that aren't on the sending side), but only  for  the  directories  that  are
being  synchronized.   You must have asked rsync to send the whole directory
(e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without using a wildcard for the directory's contents
(e.g.  "dir/*")  since  the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus
gets a request to transfer individual files, not the  files'  parent  direc-
tory.   Files  that  are  excluded  from the transfer are also excluded from
being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded option or mark the  rules
as  only  matching on the sending side (see the include/exclude modifiers in
the FILTER RULES section).

Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would have no  effect  unless  --recursive
was  enabled.   Beginning  with 2.6.7, deletions will also occur when --dirs
(-d) is enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to
first  try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to see what files are going
to be deleted.

If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of  any  files
at the destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent tempo-
rary filesystem failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from caus-
ing  a  massive deletion of files on the destination.  You can override this
with the --ignore-errors option.

The --delete option may be combined with one of  the  --delete-WHEN  options
without  conflict,  as  well  as --delete-excluded.  However, if none of the
--delete-WHEN options are specified, rsync will choose  the  --delete-during
algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before
algorithm when talking to an  older  rsync.   See  also  --delete-delay  and
--delete-after.

--delete-before
Request  that  the  file-deletions  on the receiving side be done before the
transfer starts.  See --delete  (which  is  implied)  for  more  details  on
file-deletion.

Deleting before the transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space
and removing extraneous files would help  to  make  the  transfer  possible.
However,  it  does  introduce  a delay before the start of the transfer, and
this delay might cause the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).
It  also  forces  rsync  to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
that requires rsync to scan all the files in the  transfer  into  memory  at
once (see --recursive).

--delete-during, --del
Request  that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally
as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete scan is done right before
each  directory  is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more efficient
--delete-before, including doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory
filter  files  being  updated.  This option was first added in rsync version
2.6.4.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-delay
Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the
transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and then removed after the transfer com-
pletes.  This is useful when combined with --delay-updates  and/or  --fuzzy,
and is more efficient than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,
since --delete-after computes the deletions in a  separate  pass  after  all
updates  are  done).   If  the number of removed files overflows an internal
buffer, a temporary file will be created on the receiving side to  hold  the
names  (it  is removed while open, so you shouldn't see it during the trans-
fer).  If the creation of the temporary file fails, rsync will try  to  fall
back  to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive is doing an
incremental scan).  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
file-deletion.

--delete-after
Request  that  the  file-deletions  on  the receiving side be done after the
transfer has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory
merge  files as a part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take
effect for the delete phase of the current transfer.  It also  forces  rsync
to  use  the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
scan all the files in the transfer into memory at  once  (see  --recursive).
See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--delete-excluded
In  addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the
sending side, this tells rsync to also delete any  files  on  the  receiving
side  that are excluded (see --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES section for a
way to make individual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a
way  to  protect  files  from  --delete-excluded.   See  --delete  (which is
implied) for more details on file-deletion.

--ignore-missing-args
When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested source  files  (e.g.
command-line  arguments or --files-from entries), it is normally an error if
the file cannot be found.  This option suppresses that error, and  does  not
try  to  transfer  the  file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file
errors if a file was initially found to be present and later  is  no  longer
there.

--delete-missing-args
This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option
a step farther:  each missing arg will become a deletion request of the cor-
responding destination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the
destination file is a non-empty directory,  it  will  only  be  successfully
deleted  if --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
is independent of any other type of delete processing.

The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries  which
display as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

--ignore-errors
Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

--force
This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it  is  to  be
replaced  by  a  non-directory.   This is only relevant if deletions are not
active (see --delete for details).

Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required when  using
--delete-after,  and  it  used  to  be non-functional unless the --recursive
option was also enabled.

--max-delete=NUM
This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that
limit  is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the
transfer.  At the end, rsync outputs a warning (including  a  count  of  the
skipped  deletions)  and  exits  with  an error code of 25 (unless some more
important error condition also occurred).

Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0  to  be  warned
about  any extraneous files in the destination without removing any of them.
Older clients interpreted this as "unlimited", so if  you  don't  know  what
version  the  client  is,  you can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a
backward-compatible way to specify that  no  deletions  be  allowed  (though
really old versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

--max-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync  to  avoid  transferring any file that is larger than the
specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to  indicate  a
size multiplier, and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

This  option  is  a  transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the
data that goes into the file-lists, and thus it  doesn't  affect  deletions.
It just limits the files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

The  suffixes  are  as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or
"MiB") is  a  mebibyte  (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or  "GiB")  is  a  gibibyte
(1024*1024*1024).   If  you  want the multiplier to be 1000 instead of 1024,
use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note: lower-case is also accepted  for  all  val-
ues.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be
offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999  bytes,  and  --max-size=2g+1  is
2147483649 bytes.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

--min-size=SIZE
This  tells  rsync  to  avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the
specified SIZE, which can help in not transferring small, junk  files.   See
the --max-size option for a description of SIZE and other information.

Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

-B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
This  forces  the  block  size used in rsync's delta-transfer algorithm to a
fixed value.  It is normally selected based on the size of each  file  being
updated.  See the technical report for details.

-e, --rsh=COMMAND
This  option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell program to use
for communication between the local and remote copies of  rsync.  Typically,
rsync  is configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on
a local network.

If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote  shell
COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data
will be transmitted  through  that  remote  shell  connection,  rather  than
through  a  direct socket connection to a running rsync daemon on the remote
host.  See the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL  CON-
NECTION" above.

Command-line  arguments  are  permitted  in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is
presented to rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not  tabs  or
other  whitespace) to separate the command and args from each other, and you
can use single- and/or double-quotes to preserve spaces in an argument  (but
not  backslashes).  Note that doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted
string gives you a single-quote; likewise for double-quotes (though you need
to  pay  attention  to  which  quotes your shell is parsing and which quotes
rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

-e 'ssh -p 2234'
-e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

(Note that ssh users can alternately customize site-specific connect options
in their .ssh/config file.)

You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment
variable, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

--rsync-path=PROGRAM
Use this to specify what program is to be  run  on  the  remote  machine  to
start-up  rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the default remote-shell's
path (e.g. --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note  that  PROGRAM  is  run
with  the  help  of  a  shell,  so it can be any program, script, or command
sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not corrupt the standard-in &
standard-out that rsync is using to communicate.

One  tricky  example  is  to set a different default directory on the remote
machine for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

-M, --remote-option=OPTION
This option is used for more advanced  situations  where  you  want  certain
effects  to  be  limited to one side of the transfer only.  For instance, if
you want to pass --log-file=FILE and  --fake-super  to  the  remote  system,
specify it like this:

rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

If  you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when
it normally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.   Like
this:

rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

Be  cautious  using  this,  as  it is possible to toggle an option that will
cause rsync to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the
socket, and that will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

Note  that  it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you
want to pass.  This makes your useage  compatible  with  the  --protect-args
option.   If  that  option is off, any spaces in your remote options will be
split by the remote shell unless you take steps to protect them.

When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is  the  sender  and  the

Note  some  versions  of  the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them
that prevents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next  to  a
short  option  letter (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this bug affects your
version of popt, you can use the version  of  popt  that  is  included  with
rsync.

-C, --cvs-exclude
This  is  a  useful  shorthand for excluding a broad range of files that you
often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a similar algorithm to
CVS to determine if a file should be ignored.

The  exclude  list is initialized to exclude the following items (these ini-
tial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm  RCSLOG  cvslog.*   tags   TAGS   .make.state
.nse_depinfo  *~  #*  .#*  ,*  _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej
.del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/
.hg/ .bzr/

then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delim- ited by whitespace). Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed therein. Unlike rsync's fil- ter/exclude files, these patterns are split on whitespace. See the cvs(1) manual for more information. If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was placed on the command-line. This makes them a lower prior- ity than any rules you specified explicitly. If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of --filter=:C and --fil- ter=-C (either on your command-line or by putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with your other rules). The first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file. The second option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above. -f, --filter=RULE This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files from the list of files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recursive transfer. You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like to build up the list of files to exclude. If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument. The text below also mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a rule from its arg. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. -F The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to your command. The first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter' This tells rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to filter the files in the transfer. If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule: --filter='exclude .rsync-filter' This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work. --exclude=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal fil- ter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --exclude-from=FILE This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE that contains exclude patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --include=PATTERN This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal fil- ter rules. See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option. --include-from=FILE This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE that contains include patterns (one per line). Blank lines in the file and lines starting with ';' or '#' are ignored. If FILE is -, the list will be read from standard input. --files-from=FILE Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard input). It also tweaks the default behavior of rsync to make transferring just the specified files and directories easier: o The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path information that is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn that off). o The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create directories specified in the list on the destination rather than noisily skipping them (use --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off). o The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not imply --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if you want it. o These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other options are parsed (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from, as does --no-R and all other options). The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than the source dir. For example, take this command: rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin direc- tory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote host. If it contains "bin/" (note the trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent (without needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4). In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred (keep in mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from, since it is not implied by -a). Also note that the effect of the (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is read from the file -- it does not force the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case). In addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer). As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the remote end of the transfer". For example: rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy This would copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list file that was located on the remote "src" host. If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from filenames are being sent from one host to another, the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset. NOTE: sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are shared between adjacent entries. If the input is not sorted, some path ele- ments (implied directories) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventually unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list elements. -0, --from0 This tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are termi- nated by a null ('\0') character, not a NL, CR, or CR+LF. This affects --exclude-from, --include-from, --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule. It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore file are split on whitespace). -s, --protect-args This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them. This means that spaces are not split in names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~,$, ;, &, etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by
rsync (instead of the shell doing it).

If you use this option with --iconv, the args related  to  the  remote  side
will  also  be  translated  from the local to the remote character-set.  The
translation  happens  before  wild-cards  are  expanded.    See   also   the
--files-from option.

You  may  also  control  this  option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment
variable.  If this variable has  a  non-zero  value,  this  option  will  be
enabled  by default, otherwise it will be disabled by default.  Either state
is overridden by a manually specified positive or negative version  of  this
option  (note  that --no-s and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).
Since this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make  sure
it's disabled if you ever need to interact with a remote rsync that is older
than that.

Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled  by
default  (with  is overridden by both the environment and the command-line).
This  option  will  eventually  become  a  new  default  setting   at   some
as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

-T, --temp-dir=DIR
This  option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating
temporary copies of the  files  transferred  on  the  receiving  side.   The
default  behavior  is to create each temporary file in the same directory as
the associated destination file.  Beginning with rsync 3.1.1, the  temp-file
names  inside  the  specified  DIR  will  not  be prefixed with an extra dot
(though they will still have a random suffix added).

This option is most often used when the receiving disk  partition  does  not
have  enough  free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.
In this case (i.e. when the scratch directory is on a different disk  parti-
tion),  rsync  will  not be able to rename each received temporary file over
the top of the associated destination file, but instead must  copy  it  into
place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the destination
file, which means that the destination file will contain truncated data dur-
ing this copy.  If this were not done this way (even if the destination file
were first removed, the data locally copied to a temporary file in the  des-
tination  directory,  and  then renamed into place) it would be possible for
the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open),  and
thus  there  might  not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at
the same time.

If you are using this option for reasons  other  than  a  shortage  of  disk
space,  you  may  wish  to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which
will ensure that all copied files get put into subdirectories in the  desti-
nation  hierarchy,  awaiting  the  end  of  the transfer.  If you don't have
enough room to duplicate all the arriving files on  the  destination  parti-
tion,  another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about disk
space is to use the --partial-dir option with a relative path; because  this
tells  rsync  that it is OK to stash off a copy of a single file in a subdir
in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir  as  a  staging
area  to  bring  over  the  copied  file, and then rename it into place from
there. (Specifying a --partial-dir with an absolute path does not have  this
side-effect.)

-y, --fuzzy
This  option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for any desti-
nation file that is missing.  The current algorithm looks in the same direc-
tory  as  the  destination file for either a file that has an identical size
and modified-time, or a similarly-named file.   If  found,  rsync  uses  the
fuzzy basis file to try to speed up the transfer.

If  the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching
alternate destination directories that  are  specified  via  --compare-dest,

Note  that  the  use  of  the --delete option might get rid of any potential
fuzzy-match files, so either use --delete-after  or  specify  some  filename
exclusions if you need to prevent this.

--compare-dest=DIR
This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use DIR on the destination machine as an
additional hierarchy to compare destination files  against  doing  transfers
(if the files are missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found
in DIR that is identical to the sender's file, the file will NOT  be  trans-
ferred  to  the destination directory.  This is useful for creating a sparse
backup of just files that have changed from an earlier backup.  This  option
is typically used to copy into an empty (or newly created) directory.

Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories may be pro-
vided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified  for
an  exact  match.   If  a  match is found that differs only in attributes, a
local copy is made and the attributes updated.  If a match is not  found,  a
basis  file  from  one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the
transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See

NOTE:  beginning  with  version  3.1.0,  rsync  will  remove  a  file from a
non-empty destination hierarchy if an exact match is found  in  one  of  the
compare-dest  hierarchies  (making the end result more closely match a fresh
copy).

--copy-dest=DIR
This option behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy  unchanged
files found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is
useful for doing transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files
intact, and then doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully
transferred.

Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync  to
search the list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is
not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will  be  selected  to  try  to
speed up the transfer.

If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See

This option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files  are  hard  linked
from  DIR  to the destination directory.  The files must be identical in all
preserved attributes (e.g. permissions, possibly ownership) in order for the
files to be linked together.  An example:

rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/ If file's aren't linking, double-check their attributes. Also check if some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option). Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be pro- vided, which will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match. If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the attributes updated. If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer. This option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as existing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alter- nate destination files via hard-links. Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled. Note that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina- tion file already exists. Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any files together because it only links identical files together as a substitute for transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated. If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory. See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest. Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that could prevent --link-dest from working properly for a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by -a). You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync. -z, --compress With this option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the desti- nation machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted -- some- thing that is useful over a slow connection. Note that this option typically achieves better compression ratios than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because it takes advantage of the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are not explicitly sent over the connection. This matching-data compression comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option, but only if both sides are at least version 3.1.1. Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with rsync) then it will not sup- port the old-style compression, only the new-style (repeated-option) com- pression. In the future this new-style compression will likely become the default. The client rsync requests new-style compression on the server via the --new-compress option, so if you see that option rejected it means that the server is not new enough to support -zz. Rsync also accepts the --old-com- press option for a future time when new-style compression becomes the default. See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. --compress-level=NUM Explicitly set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of let- ting it default. If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied. --skip-compress=LIST Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed. The LIST should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/). You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped. Simple character-class matching is supported: each must consist of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no special meaning). The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning. Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes): --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2 The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in this version of rsync): 7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situ- ation: a copy from a daemon rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default). --numeric-ids With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather than using user and group names and mapping them at both ends. By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what own- ership to give files. The special uid 0 and the special group 0 are never mapped via user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not speci- fied. If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the destination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used instead. See also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the names of the users and groups and what you can do about it. --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING These options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other values by the receiving side. The STRING is one or more FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas. Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO value from the receiver. You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO values, and the FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched against the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though see below for why a '*' matches everything). You may instead specify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH. For example: --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr The first match in the list is the one that is used. You should specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option. Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are not transmitted to the receiver, so you should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in effect on the receiving side (typically "root"). All other FROM names match those in use on the sending side. All TO names match those in use on the receiving side. Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty name for the purpose of matching. This allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name. For instance: --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody When the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an empty name. This means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different values. For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also the --fake-super option). For the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups) option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have permissions to set that group. --chown=USER:GROUP This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP. This is a simpler interface than using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented using those options internally, so you cannot mix them. If either the USER or GROUP is empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur. If GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is empty, a leading colon must be supplied. If you specify "--chown=foo:bar, this is exactly the same as specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier. --timeout=TIMEOUT This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in seconds. If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout. --contimeout This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed. If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync daemon. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --port=PORT This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of 873. This is only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a part of the URL). See also this option in the --daemon mode section. --sockopts This option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune their sys- tems to the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options are set. This only affects direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon. This option also exists in the --dae- mon mode section. --blocking-io This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell trans- port. If the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O. (Note that ssh prefers non-blocking I/O.) --outbuf=MODE This sets the output buffering mode. The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full). You may specify as little as a single letter for the mode, and use upper or lower case. The main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe. -i, --itemize-changes Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made to each file, including attribute changes. This is exactly the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'. If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages). The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long. The general format is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other letters represent attributes that may be output if they are being modified. The update types that replace the Y are as follows: o A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent). o A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received). o A c means that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.). o A h means that the item is a hard link to another item (requires --hard-links). o A . means that the item is not being updated (though it might have attributes that are being modified). o A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a mes- sage (e.g. "deleting"). The file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos). The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if the associated attribute for the item is being updated or a "." for no change. Three exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a "+", (2) an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older rsync). The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows: o A c means either that a regular file has a different checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value. Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change flag will be present only for check- sum-differing regular files. o A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the file transfer. o A t means the modification time is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --times). An alternate value of T means that the modification time will be set to the transfer time, which happens when a file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed and the receiver can't set its time. (Note: when using an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T flag for this time-setting failure.) o A p means the permissions are different and are being updated to the sender's value (requires --perms). o An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user privileges). o A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to set the group). o The u slot is reserved for future use. o The a means that the ACL information changed. o The x means that the extended attribute information changed. One other output is possible: when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of out- putting them as a verbose message). --out-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user on a per-update basis. The format is a text string containing embedded sin- gle-character escape sequences prefixed with a percent (%) character. A default format of "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points). For a full list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will mention each file, dir, etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory). In addition, if the itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string (e.g. if the --itemize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to mention any item that is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4). See the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i". Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer unless one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested, in which case the log- ging is done at the end of the file's transfer. When this late logging is in effect and --progress is also specified, rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output). --log-file=FILE This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file. This is similar to the logging that a daemon does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the server side of a non-daemon transfer. If specified as a client option, transfer logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L". See the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this. Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is hap- pening: rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/ This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unex- pectedly. --log-file-format=FORMAT This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to have any effect). If you specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned in the log file. For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage. The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is not is '%i %n%L'. --stats This tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is for your data. This option is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options. The current statistics are as follows: o Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the generic sense), which includes directories, symlinks, etc. The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). For example: "(reg: 5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files, directories, symlinks, devices, and special files. If any of value is 0, it is completely omitted from the list. o Number of created files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). o Number of deleted files is the count of how many "files" (generic sense) were created (as opposed to updated). The total count will be followed by a list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero). Note that this line is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x). o Number of regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not include dirs, symlinks, etc. Note that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this heading. o Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the transfer. This does not count any size for directories or special files, but does include the size of symlinks. o Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the transferred files. o Literal data is how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the receiver for it to recreate the updated files. o Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when recreat- ing the updated files. o File list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to the receiver. This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list. o File list generation time is the number of seconds that the sender spent creating the file list. This requires a modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present. o File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent sending the file list to the receiver. o Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync sent from the client side to the server side. o Total bytes received is the count of all non-message bytes that rsync received by the client side from the server side. "Non-message" bytes means that we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent. -8, --8-bit-output This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the output instead of trying to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones. All control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped, regardless of this option's setting. The escape idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits. For example, a newline would output as "\#012". A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9). -h, --human-readable Output numbers in a more human-readable format. There are 3 possible lev- els: (1) output numbers with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on if the decimal point is repre- sented by a period or a comma); (2) output numbers in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024. The default is human-readable level 1. Each -h option increases the level by one. You can take the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option. The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K (kilo), M (mega), G (giga), or T (tera). For example, a 1234567-byte file would out- put as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point). Backward compatibility note: versions of rsync prior to 3.1.0 do not sup- port human-readable level 1, and they default to level 0. Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new ver- sions as long as you didn't specify a --no-h option prior to one or more -h options. See the --list-only option for one difference. --partial By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially transferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the par- tial file which should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster. --partial-dir=DIR A better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the destination file). On the next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete it after it has served its purpose. Note that if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is sending files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm). Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole path). This makes it easy to use a relative path (such as "--par- tial-dir=.rsync-partial") to have rsync create the partial-directory in the destination file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file is deleted. If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes. This will prevent the send- ing of any partial-dir files that may exist on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the receiving side. An example: the above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules. If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add your own exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2) you may wish to override rsync's exclude choice. For instance, if you want to make rsync clean-up any left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g. -f 'R .rsync-par- tial/'. (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over partial-dir data during the current run.) IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a security risk. E.g. AVOID "/tmp". You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment variable. Setting this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where partial files go when --partial is specified. For instance, instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress, you could set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environ- ment and then just use the -P option to turn on the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers. The only times that the --partial option does not look for this environment value are (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified (see below). For the purposes of the daemon-config's "refuse options" setting, --par- tial-dir does not imply --partial. This is so that a refusal of the --par- tial option can be used to disallow the overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer, while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir. --delay-updates This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed into place in rapid succession. This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic. By default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~" in each file's destination directory, but if you've specified the --partial-dir option, that directory will be used instead. See the comments in the --partial-dir section for a discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be lying around. Con- flicts with --inplace and --append. This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file trans- ferred) and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated files. Note also that you should not use an absolute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the transfer having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a single directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since the delayed updates will fail if they can't be renamed into place). See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algorithm that is even more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a paral- lel hierarchy of files). -m, --prune-empty-dirs This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty directories from the file-list, including nested directories that have no non-directory chil- dren. This is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch of useless direc- tories when the sending rsync is recursively scanning a hierarchy of files using include/exclude/filter rules. Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect what goes into the file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule. Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also affects what directories get deleted when a delete is active. However, keep in mind that excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destina- tion files. See the perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this. You can prevent the pruning of certain empty directories from the file-list by using a global "protect" filter. For instance, this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list: --filter 'protect emptydir/' Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the necessary destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the hide filter of non-directories being used instead of an exclude): rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest If you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-filter (if that is more natural to you). --progress This option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer. This gives a bored user something to watch. With a modern rsync this is the same as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress"). While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line that looks like this: 782448 63% 110.64kB/s 0:00:04 In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end. These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is in use. For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver gets to the literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file. When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line with a summary line that looks like this: 1,238,099 100% 146.38kB/s 0:00:08 (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396) In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to see if they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list. In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that it knows the full size of the list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk". Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in the file list is still going to increase (and each time it does, the count of files left to check will increase by the number of the files added to the list). -P The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress. Its purpose is to make it much easier to specify these two options for a long transfer that may be interrupted. There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files. Use this flag without out- putting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0 if you want to see how the transfer is doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names. (You don't need to specify the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.) --password-file=FILE This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -. The file should contain just the password on the first line (all other lines are ignored). Rsync will exit with an error if FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file. This option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation. When accessing an rsync daemon using a remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into effect after the remote shell finishes its authenti- cation (i.e. if you have also specified a password in the daemon's config file). --list-only This option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred. This option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so its main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify more than one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination). Cau- tion: keep in mind that a source arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to try to list such an arg without using this option. For example: rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/ Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by --list-only are affected by the --human-readable option. By default they will contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes. Note also that the column width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters for all human-readable levels. Use --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters. Compatibility note: when requesting a remote listing of files from an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recursive listing. This is because a file listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recursive, and older rsyncs don't have that option. To avoid this problem, either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's content), or turn on recursion and exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent over the socket, specified in units per second. The RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size multiplier, and may be a frac- tional value (e.g. "--bwlimit=1.5m"). If no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been appended). See the --max-size option for a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit. For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to the nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible. Rsync writes data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit. Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance. Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate reflection on how fast the data is being sent. This is because some files can show up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up as very slow when the flushing of the out- put buffer occurs. This may be fixed in a future version. --write-batch=FILE Record a file that can later be applied to another identical destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details, and also the --only-write-batch option. --only-write-batch=FILE Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system when creating the batch. This lets you transport the changes to the destination system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch. Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media: if this media fills to capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a par- tially updated destination system while the multi-update cycle is happen- ing). Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a remote sys- tem because this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender is remote, and thus can't write the batch). --read-batch=FILE Apply all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously generated by --write-batch. If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input. See the "BATCH MODE" section for details. --protocol=NUM Force an older protocol version to be used. This is useful for creating a batch file that is compatible with an older version of rsync. For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--pro- tocol=28" when creating the batch file to force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system). --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option. Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale setting. Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g. --iconv=utf8,iso88591. This order ensures that the option will stay the same whether you're pushing or pulling files. Finally, you can specify either --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion. The default setting of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable. For a list of what charset names your local iconv library supports, you can run "iconv --list". If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host. See also the --files-from option. Note that rsync does not do any conversion of names in filter files (includ- ing include/exclude files). It is up to you to ensure that you're specify- ing matching rules that can match on both sides of the transfer. For instance, you can specify extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that need to be accounted for. When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the dae- mon uses the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you actually pass. Thus, you may feel free to specify just the local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8). -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6 Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets. This only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly contacting an rsync daemon. See also these options in the --daemon mode section. If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no effect. The --version output will tell you if this is the case. --checksum-seed=NUM Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM. This 4 byte checksum seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern MD5 file checksums don't use a seed). By default the checksum seed is gen- erated by the server and defaults to the current time() . This option is used to set a specific checksum seed, which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed. Setting NUM to 0 causes rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed. DAEMON OPTIONS The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows: --daemon This tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon. The daemon you start run- ning may be accessed using an rsync client using the host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax. If standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become a background daemon. The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client and respond to requests accordingly. See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details. --address By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the --daemon option. The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to bind to. This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with the --config option. See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage. --bwlimit=RATE This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon sends over the socket. The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be allowed. See the client ver- sion of this option (above) for some extra details. --config=FILE This specifies an alternate config file than the default. This is only rel- evant when --daemon is specified. The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically$HOME).

-M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
This option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter  when  starting  up
rsync  in  daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the end
of the global settings prior to the first module's definition.  The  parame-
ter names can be specified without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

--no-detach
When  running  as a daemon, this option instructs rsync to not detach itself
and become a background process.  This option is required when running as  a
service on Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a pro-
gram such as daemontools or AIX's System Resource  Controller.   --no-detach
is  also recommended when rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

--port=PORT
This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to  listen  on
rather  than  the  default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the
rsyncd.conf manpage.

--log-file=FILE
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of
using the "log file" setting in the config file.

--log-file-format=FORMAT
This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of
using the "log format" setting in the config file.  It also enables  "trans-
fer  logging"  unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is
turned off.

--sockopts
This overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf  file  and  has
the same syntax.

-v, --verbose
This  option  increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its
startup phase.  After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will
be  controlled  by  the options that the client used and the "max verbosity"
setting in the module's config section.

-4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that  the
rsync  daemon  will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may
be required in older versions of Linux to work around an  IPv6  bug  in  the
kernel  (if  you  see an "address already in use" error when nothing else is
using the port, try specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will  have
no effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

-h, --help
When  specified  after  --daemon,  print  a  short  help page describing the
options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
The filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to transfer  (include)
and   which   files   to   skip  (exclude).   The  rules  either  directly  specify
include/exclude patterns or they specify a way to acquire more include/exclude pat-
terns (e.g. to read them from a file).

As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be
transferred against the list of include/exclude patterns in  turn,  and  the  first
matching  pattern  is  acted  on:   if  it is an exclude pattern, then that file is
skipped; if it is an include pattern then that  filename  is  not  skipped;  if  no
matching pattern is found, then the filename is not skipped.

Rsync  builds  an  ordered  list  of filter rules as specified on the command-line.
Filter rules have the following syntax:

RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described  below.
If  you  use  a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is
optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that follows  (when  present)  must  come  after
either a single space or an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
include, + specifies an include pattern.
merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

When  rules  are  being  read  from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment

Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full  range
of  rule  parsing  as  described  above  --  they  only  allow the specification of
include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment
parsing  when  rules  are read from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- "
(dash, space) or "+ " (plus, space), then the rule will be interpreted as if  "+  "
(for  an  include  option)  or  "-  "  (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the
string.  A --filter option, on the other hand, must always contain either  a  short
or long rule name at the start of the rule.

Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern
each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use the
merge-file  syntax  of  the  --filter  option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from
options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES
You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",  "-",  etc.
filter   rules   (as   introduced   in   the  FILTER  RULES  section  above).   The
include/exclude rules each specify a pattern that is matched against the  names  of
the files that are going to be transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particular  spot  in
the hierarchy of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the path-
name.  This is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions.   Thus  "/foo"
would  match  a  name  of  "foo" at either the "root of the transfer" (for a
global rule) or in the merge-file's directory (for  a  per-directory  rule).
An  unqualified  "foo"  would  match  a  name  of "foo" anywhere in the tree
because the algorithm is applied recursively from the top down;  it  behaves
as  if  each  path  component  gets a turn at being the end of the filename.
Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at  any  point  in  the  hierarchy
where  a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See the section on
ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify a
pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a directory, not a reg-

o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard  matching  by
checking  if  the  pattern  contains one of these three wildcard characters:
'*', '?', and '[' .

o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard  charac-
ter,  but it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.  This means
that there is an extra level of backslash removal when  a  pattern  contains
wildcard  characters compared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a
wildcard to "foo\bar" (which matches the backslash) you would  need  to  use
"foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

o      if  the  pattern contains a / (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it
is matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories.  If
the  pattern  doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against
the final component of  the  filename.   (Remember  that  the  algorithm  is
applied recursively so "full filename" can actually be any portion of a path
from the starting directory on down.)

o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as  if  "dir_name/"
had been specified) and everything in the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had
been specified).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by  -a),  every
subcomponent  of  every  path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude pat-
terns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's full  name  (e.g.  to  include
"/foo/bar/baz"  the subcomponents "/foo" and "/foo/bar" must not be excluded).  The
exclude patterns actually short-circuit the directory traversal  stage  when  rsync
finds  the  files to send.  If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it
can render a deeper include pattern  ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not  descend
through  that  excluded  section  of the hierarchy.  This is particularly important
when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't work:

+ /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
+ /file-is-included
- *

This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded  by  the  '*'  rule,  so
rsync  never visits any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One
solution is to ask for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by  using  a
single  rule:  "+ */" (put it somewhere before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the
--prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include  rules  for
all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance, this set of rules works
fine:

+ /some/
+ /some/path/
+ /some/path/this-file-is-found
+ /file-also-included
- *

Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the  transfer-root
directory

o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two levels below
a directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

o      "- /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below  a
directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories
and C source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

o      The combination of "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the
foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be  explicitly  included
or it would be excluded by the "*")

The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the
absolute pathname of the current item.  For example, "-/ /etc/passwd"  would
exclude  the  passwd  file  any time the transfer was sending files from the
"/etc" directory, and "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it  is
in  a dir named "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current trans-
fer.

o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take  effect  if  the  pattern
fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

o      A  C  is  used  to  indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be
inserted as excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When  a
rule  affects  the  sending  side, it prevents files from being transferred.
The default is for a rule to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded  was
the hide (H) and show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
ing-side includes/excludes.

o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When
a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents  files  from  being  deleted.
rules,   which   are   an   alternate   way   to    specify    receiver-side
includes/excludes.

o      A  p  indicates  that  a  rule  is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in
directories that are being deleted.  For instance, the -C  option's  default
rules that exclude things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and
will not prevent a directory that was  removed  on  the  source  from  being
deleted on the destination.

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
You  can  merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.)
or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

There are two kinds of merged files  --  single-instance  ('.')  and  per-directory
(':').   A  single-instance merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorpo-
rated into the filter list in the place of the "." rule.  For  per-directory  merge
files,  rsync will scan every directory that it traverses for the named file, merg-
ing its contents when the file exists into the current  list  of  inherited  rules.
These  per-directory  rule  files must be created on the sending side because it is
the sending side that is being scanned for the available files to transfer.   These
rule  files  may also need to be transferred to the receiving side if you want them
to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE  below).

Some examples:

merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
dir-merge .per-dir-filter
dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
:n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no
other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no
other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

o      A  C  is  a  way to specify that the file should be read in a CVS-compatible
manner.  This turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the  list-clearing
token  (!)  to  be  specified.   If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is
assumed.

o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer;  e.g.   "dir-merge,e
.rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the
normal line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space  that
separates the prefix from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is
parsed as two rules (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-"  rules  (above)
in  order to have the rules that are read in from the file default to having
that modifier set (except for the ! modifier, which would  not  be  useful).
For  instance,  "merge,-/  .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as abso-
lute-path excludes, while "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make  all
their per-directory rules apply only on the sending side.  If the merge rule
specifies sides to affect (via the s or r modifier or both), then the  rules
in  the file must not specify sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as
hide).

Per-directory rules are inherited in all subdirectories of the directory where  the
merge-file  was  found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules
are prefixed to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the
newest  rules  a  higher  priority  than  the  inherited  rules.  The entire set of
dir-merge rules are grouped together in the spot where the  merge-file  was  speci-
fied,  so  it is possible to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing  rule  ("!")  is  read
from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules for the current merge
file.

Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file from being inherited  is
to  anchor  it  with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file
are relative to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo"  would  only  match
the file "foo" in the directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

merge /home/user/.global-filter
- *.gz
dir-merge .rules
+ *.[ch]
- *.o

This  will merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of
the list and also turns the ".rules" filename into  a  per-directory  filter  file.
All  rules  read  in  prior  to  the  start of the directory scan follow the global
anchoring rules (i.e. a leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a  parent  directory
of  the  first  transfer  directory,  rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that
starting point to the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.  For
instance, here is a common filter (see -F):

--filter=': /.rsync-filter'

That  rule  tells  rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from
the root down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to  the  start  of
the normal directory scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of
the transfer.  (Note: for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the  mod-
ule's "path".)

Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and "/src" before
the normal scan begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its  subdirectories.
The  last command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"
files in each directory that is a part of the transfer.

If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you  should
use  the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in
a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to affect where the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)
option's inclusion of the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules
by putting the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.   Without  this,  rsync
would  add  the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all your other
rules (giving it a lower priority than your command-line rules).  For example:

cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
+ foo.o
:C
- *.old
EOT
rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

Both of the above rsync commands are  identical.   Each  one  will  merge  all  the
per-directory  .cvsignore  rules  in the middle of the list rather than at the end.
This allows their dir-specific rules to supersede the  rules  that  follow  the  :C
instead  of  being  subservient to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude
rules (i.e. the default list of exclusions, the contents of  $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of$CVSIGNORE)  you should omit the -C command-line option and instead
insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--filter=-C".

LIST-CLEARING FILTER RULE
You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the  "!"  filter  rule  (as
introduced  in  the  FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the
global list of rules (if the rule is encountered while parsing the filter  options)
or  a  set  of per-directory rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a
subdirectory can use this to clear out the parent's rules).

ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS
As mentioned earlier, global include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root  of
the  transfer"  (as  opposed  to  per-directory patterns, which are anchored at the
merge-file's directory).  If you think of the transfer as a subtree of  names  that
are  being sent from sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts
to be duplicated in the destination directory.  This root  governs  where  patterns

Because  the matching is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash
on a source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you
need  to use in your matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is
duplicated on the destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

Let's say that we want to match two source files, one  with  an  absolute  path  of
"/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one  with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the
various command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
+/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
Target file: /dest/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/bar/baz

Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
+/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
+/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
+/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
+/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just look  at  the  output
when  using --verbose and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if
you're not yet ready to copy any files).

PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE
Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side,
so  you  can  feel free to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the
transfer.  To make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you,  as  seen
in these two equivalent commands:

rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

However,  if  you want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files
to be excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the  receiving  side
knows what files to exclude.  The easiest way is to include the per-directory merge
files in the transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiv-
ing  side  gets  all  the same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to
delete anything:

rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

However, if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need  to  either
specify  some  global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll
need to maintain your own per-directory merge files  on  the  receiving  side.   An
example  of  the  first  is this (assume that the remote .rules files exclude them-
selves):

rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
--delete host:src/dir /dest

In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides  of  the  transfer,
but  (on  the  sending side) the rules are subservient to the rules merged from the
.rules files because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the
transfer,  but  we  want  to  use  our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets
deleted on the receiving side.   To  do  this  we  must  specifically  exclude  the
per-directory  merge files (so that they don't get deleted) and then put rules into
the local files to control what else should not get deleted.   Like  one  of  these
commands:

rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
host:src/dir /dest
rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

BATCH MODE
Batch  mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems.
Suppose one has a tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose  some
changes  have been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated
to the other hosts. In order to do this using batch mode, rsync  is  run  with  the
write-batch  option to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the des-
tination trees.  The write-batch option causes the  rsync  client  to  store  in  a
"batch  file"  all  the  information needed to repeat this operation against other,
identical destination trees.

Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file  status,  checksum,
and  data block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees.
Multicast transport protocols can be used to transfer the  batch  update  files  in
parallel  to  many  hosts  at  once, instead of sending the same data to every host
individually.

To apply the recorded changes to another  destination  tree,  run  rsync  with  the
read-batch  option, specifying the name of the same batch file, and the destination
tree.  Rsync updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch
file.

For  your convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is
used:  it will be named the same as the  batch  file  with  ".sh"  appended.   This
script  file contains a command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using
the associated batch file. It can be  executed  using  a  Bourne  (or  Bourne-like)
shell,  optionally  passing in an alternate destination tree pathname which is then
used instead of the original destination path.  This is useful when the destination
tree path on the current host differs from the one used to create the batch file.

Examples:

$rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/$ scp foo* remote:
$ssh remote ./foo.sh /bdest/dir/$ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
\$ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

In  these  examples,  rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the
information to repeat this operation is stored in "foo"  and  "foo.sh".   The  host
"remote" is then updated with the batched data going into the directory /bdest/dir.
The differences between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility  you  have
in how you deal with batches:

o      The  first  example  shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local --
you  can  push  or  pull  data  to/from  a  remote  host  using  either  the
remote-shell syntax or rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

o      The  first  example  uses  the  created "foo.sh" file to get the right rsync
options when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the batch
file  doesn't  need  to be copied to the remote machine first.  This example
avoids the foo.sh script because it needed to use  a  modified  --read-batch
option,  but  you could edit the script file if you wished to make use of it
(just be sure that no other option is trying to use standard input, such  as
the "--exclude-from=-" option).

Caveats:

The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be iden-
tical to the destination tree that was used to create  the  batch  update  fileset.
When  a difference between the destination trees is encountered the update might be
discarded with a warning (if the file appears to  be  up-to-date  already)  or  the
file-update may be attempted and then, if the file fails to verify, the update dis-
carded with an error.  This means that it should be safe  to  re-run  a  read-batch
operation  if the command got interrupted.  If you wish to force the batched-update
to always be attempted regardless of the file's size and date, use  the  -I  option
(when  reading  the batch).  If an error occurs, the destination tree will probably
be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be  used  in  its  regular
(non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

The  rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used
to generate the batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the  protocol  version
--protocol option for a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch  file  that
an  older  rsync  can understand.  (Note that batch files changed format in version
2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that with newer versions will not work.)

When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options  to  match
the  data in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing
command.  Other options can (and should) be changed.   For  instance  --write-batch
changes    to    --read-batch,    --files-from   is   dropped,   and   the   --fil-
ter/--include/--exclude options are not needed unless one of the  --delete  options
is specified.

The  code  that  creates  the  BATCH.sh  file transforms any filter/include/exclude
options into a single list that is appended as  a  "here"  document  to  the  shell
script  file.  An advanced user can use this to modify the exclude list if a change
in what gets deleted by --delete is desired.  A normal user can ignore this  detail
and  just  use  the shell script as an easy way to run the appropriate --read-batch
command for the batched data.

The original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses
a new implementation.

Three  basic  behaviors  are  possible when rsync encounters a symbolic link in the
source directory.

By default, symbolic links  are  not  transferred  at  all.   A  message  "skipping
non-regular" file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

If  --links  is  specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the
destination.  Note that --archive implies --links.

If --copy-links is specified, then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their refer-

Rsync  can  also  distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic links.  An example where
this might be used is a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module
that is copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section
of the site.  Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause any links to be  copied  as  the
file  they point to on the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links
to be omitted altogether.  (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links  to
have any effect.)

empty, or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being
copied.

Here's  a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The list is in order
of precedence, so if your combination of options isn't  mentioned,  use  the  first
line that is a complete subset of your options:

Turn  all  symlinks  into  normal  files  (leaving no symlinks for any other
options to affect).

Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

DIAGNOSTICS
rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The  one
that  seems  to  cause  the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your
shell clean?".

This message is usually caused by your startup scripts  or  remote  shell  facility
producing unwanted garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The
way to diagnose this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat should  be  a
zero length file. If you are getting the above error from rsync then you will prob-
ably find that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try  to
work  out  what  is  producing  it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured
shell startup scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that contain  output  statements

If  you  are  having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the -vv
option.  At this level of verbosity rsync will show why  each  individual  file  is
included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
0      Success

1      Syntax or usage error

2      Protocol incompatibility

3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

4      Requested  action  not  supported:  an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit
files on a platform that cannot support them; or  an  option  was  specified
that is supported by the client and not by the server.

5      Error starting client-server protocol

6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

10     Error in socket I/O

11     Error in file I/O

12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

13     Errors with program diagnostics

14     Error in IPC code

21     Some error returned by waitpid()

22     Error allocating core memory buffers

23     Partial transfer due to error

24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CVSIGNORE
The  CVSIGNORE  environment  variable  supplements  any  ignore  patterns in
.cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

RSYNC_ICONV
Specify a default --iconv setting using this  environment  variable.  (First
supported in 3.0.0.)

RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the --protect-args option to be
enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure  that  it  is  disabled  by
default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

RSYNC_RSH
The  RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell
used as the transport for rsync.  Command line options are  permitted  after
the command name, just as in the -e option.

RSYNC_PROXY
The  RSYNC_PROXY  environment  variable  allows  you  to redirect your rsync
client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should  set
RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

cated rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user  intervention.  Note
that  this  does  not  supply a password to a remote shell transport such as
ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

USER or LOGNAME
The USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the  default
username  sent to an rsync daemon.  If neither is set, the username defaults
to "nobody".

HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default  .cvsignore
file.

FILES
/etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
times are transferred as *nix time_t values

When  transferring  to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the

file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
This man page is current for version 3.1.1 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be
typed by a user under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be
needed in certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only  run  an
rsync  command.   For instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has
an example script named rrsync (for restricted rsync)  that  can  be  used  with  a

CREDITS
rsync  is  distributed  under the GNU General Public License.  See the file COPYING
for details.

A  WEB  site  is  available  at  http://rsync.samba.org/.   The  site  includes  an
FAQ-O-Matic which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

the mailing-list at rsync AT lists.org.

This program uses the excellent  zlib  compression  library  written  by  Jean-loup

THANKS
Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra, David
Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten

Thanks  also  to  Richard  Brent,  Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and
David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

AUTHOR
rsync was originally written by Andrew Tridgell and Paul  Mackerras.   Many  people
have later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

Mailing lists for support and development are available at http://lists.samba.org

22 Jun 2014                         rsync(1)