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rsync(1)                                                                                 rsync(1)

       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages  with  just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copy-

       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool.   It  can  copy  locally,
       to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a
       large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous for its delta-transfer algo-
       rithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the  differ-
       ences between the source files and the existing files in the destination.  Rsync is widely
       used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a "quick check" algorithm (by default)
       that  looks  for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time.  Any changes in
       the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination  file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data does not need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for mirroring)

       Rsync  copies  files  either  to or from a remote host, or locally on the current host (it
       does not support copying files between two remote hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync to contact a remote system:  using  a  remote-shell
       program  as  the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or contacting an rsync daemon directly via
       TCP.  The remote-shell transport is used whenever the source or destination path  contains
       a  single  colon  (:)  separator  after  a host specification.  Contacting an rsync daemon
       directly happens when the source or destination path contains a double colon (::)  separa-
       tor  after a host specification, OR when an rsync:// URL is specified (see also the "USING
       RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this lat-
       ter rule).

       As  a  special  case, if a single source arg is specified without a destination, the files
       are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a  remote  host,  the  copy
       occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync refers to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as the "server".  Don't
       confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a daemon is always a server, but a server can  be
       either a daemon or a remote-shell spawned process.

       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed,  you  can use rsync to any machine that you can access via a remote shell
       (as well as some that you can access using the rsync daemon-mode  protocol).   For  remote
       transfers, a modern rsync uses ssh for its communications, but it may have been configured
       to use a different remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like,  either  by  using  the  -e  command  line
       option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note that rsync must be installed on both the source and destination machines.

       You  use  rsync  in the same way you use rcp. You must specify a source and a destination,
       one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current directory  to  the
       directory  src  on the machine foo. If any of the files already exist on the remote system
       then the rsync remote-update protocol is used to update the file by sending only the  dif-
       ferences  in the data.  Note that the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c) into
       a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and  not  by  rsync  itself
       (exactly the same as all other posix-style programs).

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This  would  recursively  transfer all files from the directory src/bar on the machine foo
       into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine. The files are transferred  in  "ar-
       chive"  mode,  which ensures that symbolic links, devices, attributes, permissions, owner-
       ships, etc. are preserved in the transfer.  Additionally,  compression  will  be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing  slash  on  the  source  changes this behavior to avoid creating an additional
       directory level at the destination.  You can think of a trailing / on a source as  meaning
       "copy  the  contents of this directory" as opposed to "copy the directory by name", but in
       both cases the attributes of the containing directory are transferred  to  the  containing
       directory  on  the destination.  In other words, each of the following commands copies the
       files in the same way, including their setting of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module references don't require a trailing slash to copy the  con-
       tents  of  the  default directory.  For example, both of these copy the remote directory's
       contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the  source  and  destination  don't
       have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

       Finally,  you can list all the (listable) modules available from a particular rsync daemon
       by leaving off the module name:


       See the following section for more details.

       The syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done  by  specifying  addi-
       tional remote-host args in the same style as the first, or with the hostname omitted.  For
       instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older versions of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest rsync, but is not  as  easy  to
       use as the first method.

       If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can either specify the
       --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape the whitespace  in  a  way  that  the
       remote shell will understand.  For instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

       It  is  also  possible to use rsync without a remote shell as the transport.  In this case
       you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon, typically using TCP port  873.   (This
       obviously requires the daemon to be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING
       AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it with a remote shell except that:

       o      you either use a double colon :: instead of a single colon to separate the hostname
              from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when you connect.

       o      if  you specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list of accessible paths
              on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the specified  files  on  the
              remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so, you will receive a
       password prompt when you connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password  you want to use or using the --pass-
       word-file option. This may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible to all users. On those  systems
       using --password-file is recommended.

       You  may  establish  the  connection  via  a web proxy by setting the environment variable
       RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to  your  web  proxy.   Note  that  your  web
       proxy's configuration must support proxy connections to port 873.

       You may also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy by setting the envi-
       ronment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the commands you wish to run in place of  making  a
       direct  socket  connection.  The string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the host-
       name specified in the rsync command (so use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your string).
       For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost, which forwards all
       data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targethost (%H).

       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such as named  modules)
       without  actually  allowing  any  new socket connections into a system (other than what is
       already required to allow remote-shell access).  Rsync supports connecting to a host using
       a  remote  shell  and  then spawning a single-use "daemon" server that expects to read its
       config file in the home dir of the remote user.  This can be useful if you want to encrypt
       a  daemon-style  transfer's  data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote
       user, you may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used  by  the
       daemon.   (For  another  way  to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider using ssh to tunnel a
       local port to a remote machine and configure a normal rsync daemon on that remote host  to
       only allow connections from "localhost".)

       From  the  user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell connection uses nearly
       the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-daemon transfer, with  the  only  exception
       being  that  you must explicitly set the remote shell program on the command-line with the
       --rsh=COMMAND option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment will  not  turn  on  this
       functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If  you  need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that the user@ prefix
       in front of the host is specifying the  rsync-user  value  (for  a  module  that  requires
       user-based  authentication).   This  means  that you must give the '-l user' option to ssh
       when specifying the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short  version  of  the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The  "ssh-user"  will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will be used to log-in to
       the "module".

       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have a  daemon  already
       running  (or it needs to have configured something like inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for
       incoming connections on a particular port).  For full information on how to start a daemon
       that will handling incoming socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page -- that is
       the config file for the daemon, and it contains the full details for how to run the daemon
       (including stand-alone and inetd configurations).

       If  you're  using one of the remote-shell transports for the transfer, there is no need to
       manually start an rsync daemon.

       Rsync always sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer list.  This  handles
       the  merging  together  of the contents of identically named directories, makes it easy to
       remove duplicate filenames, and may confuse someone when the files are  transferred  in  a
       different order than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you  need  a  particular  file to be transferred prior to another, either separate the
       files into different rsync calls, or consider using --delay-updates (which doesn't  affect
       the  sorted  transfer  order, but does make the final file-updating phase happen much more

       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists of large MS Word files and  mail  fold-
       ers, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile targets:

                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows me to sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the connection. I then do
       CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol
       isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the command:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

       Here  is  a  short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer to the detailed
       description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
            --db=CONFIG_FILE        specify a CONFIG_FILE for DB checksums
            --db-only=CONFIG_FILE   Behave like rsyncdb (see that manpage).
            --db-lax                Ignore ctime changes (use with CAUTION).
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +  letter)  options.
       The full list of the available options are described below.  If an option can be specified
       in more than one way, the choices are comma-separated.  Some  options  only  have  a  long
       variant, not a short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is only listed after
       the long variant, even though it must also be specified for the short.  When specifying  a
       parameter,  you can either use the form --option=param or replace the '=' with whitespace.
       The parameter may need to be quoted in some manner for it  to  survive  the  shell's  com-
       mand-line  parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename is substituted by
       your shell, so --option=~/foo will not change the tilde into your home  directory  (remove
       the '=' for that).

       --help Print  a  short  help page describing the options available in rsync and exit.  For
              backward-compatibility with older versions of rsync, the help will also  be  output
              if you use the -h option without any other args.

              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information you are given during the transfer.
              By default, rsync works silently. A single -v will give you information about  what
              files  are  being  transferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will
              give you information on what files are being skipped and slightly more  information
              at  the  end.  More  than  two  -v options should only be used if you are debugging

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of groups  of  --info
              and  --debug options.  You can choose to use these newer options in addition to, or
              in place of using --verbose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied set-
              tings  of  -v.   Both  --info and --debug have a way to ask for help that tells you
              exactly what flags are set for each increase in verbosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity"  setting  will  limit  how
              high  of  a  level the various individual flags can be set on the daemon side.  For
              instance, if the max is 2, then any info and/or debug flag that is set to a  higher
              value than what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level in the dae-
              mon's logging.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the information output you want
              to  see.  An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning
              to silence that output, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that flag (for those that support higher levels).  Use
              --info=help to see all the available flag names, what they output,  and  what  flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note  that  --info=name's  output  is  affected  by  the  --out-format  and --item-
              ize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more information on what is output
              and when.

              This  option  was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side might reject
              your attempts at fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to  be  send  to
              the  server and the server was too old to understand them).  See also the "max ver-
              bosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the debug output  you  want  to
              see.   An individual flag name may be followed by a level number, with 0 meaning to
              silence that output, 1 being the default output level, and higher numbers  increas-
              ing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for  those  that  support  higher  levels).  Use
              --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they output, and  what  flag
              names are added for each increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note  that some debug messages will only be output when --msgs2stderr is specified,
              especially those pertaining to I/O and buffer debugging.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server side  might  reject
              your  attempts  at  fine-grained control (if one or more flags needed to be send to
              the server and the server was too old to understand them).  See also the "max  ver-
              bosity" caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

              This  option changes rsync to send all its output directly to stderr rather than to
              send messages to the client side via the protocol (which normally outputs info mes-
              sages  via stdout).  This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid chang-
              ing the data sent via the protocol, since the extra protocol data can  change  what
              is  being  tested.   Keep  in  mind that a daemon connection does not have a stderr
              channel to send messages back to the client side, so if  you  are  doing  any  dae-
              mon-transfer  debugging  using  this  option,  you  should  start up a daemon using
              --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the daemon side.

              This option has the side-effect of making stderr output get line-buffered  so  that
              the merging of the output of 3 programs happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option decreases the amount of information you are given during the transfer,
              notably suppressing information messages from the remote  server.  This  option  is
              useful when invoking rsync from cron.

              This  option affects the information that is output by the client at the start of a
              daemon transfer.  This suppresses the message-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but  it  also
              affects the list of modules that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the rsync protocol), so omit  this  option  if  you
              want to request the list of modules from the daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already the same size and have the same
              modification timestamp.  This option turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing
              all files to be updated.

              This  modifies  rsync's  "quick  check" algorithm for finding files that need to be
              transferred, changing it from the default  of  transferring  files  with  either  a
              changed  size  or  a changed last-modified time to just looking for files that have
              changed in size.  This is useful when starting to use  rsync  after  using  another
              mirroring system which may not preserve timestamps exactly.

              When  comparing  two timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as being equal if they
              differ by no more than the modify-window value.  This is normally 0 (for  an  exact
              match),  but  you  may  find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situa-
              tions.  In particular, when transferring to or from an MS  Windows  FAT  filesystem
              (which  represents  times  with a 2-second resolution), --modify-window=1 is useful
              (allowing times to differ by up to 1 second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed and are in need of
              a  transfer.   Without  this  option,  rsync uses a "quick check" that (by default)
              checks if each file's size and time of last modification match between  the  sender
              and receiver.  This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for each file
              that has a matching size.  Generating the checksums  means  that  both  sides  will
              expend  a  lot  of  disk I/O reading all the data in the files in the transfer (and
              this is prior to any reading that will be done to transfer changed files), so  this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending  side  generates  its checksums while it is doing the file-system scan
              that builds the list of the available files.  The receiver generates its  checksums
              when it is scanning for changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same
              size as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a  changed  size  or  a
              changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note  that  rsync  always  verifies that each transferred file was correctly recon-
              structed on the receiving side by checking a whole-file checksum that is  generated
              as  the file is transferred, but that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
              nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does this  file  need  to  be
              updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30  and beyond (first supported in 3.0.0), the checksum used is MD5.
              For older protocols, the checksum used is MD4.

              This option specifies a CONFIG_FILE to read that holds  connection  details  for  a
              database  of  checksum information.  When combined with the --checksum (-c) option,
              rsync will try to use cached checksum information from the DB, and will  update  it
              if it is missing.

              The currently supported DB choices are MySQL and SQLite.  For example, a MySQL con-
              figuration might look like this:

                  dbtype: mysql
                  dbname: rsyncdb
                  dbuser: rsyncuser
                  dbpass: somepass
                  port: 3306
                  thishost: hostname

              And a SQLite configuration might look like this:

                  dbtype: SQLite
                  dbname: /var/cache/rsync/sum.db
                  transaction: 1

              Both the --db and --db-lax options only affect the side where the option  is  used.
              To  affect  the  remote  side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option
              (-M) option.  For example, to specify the same options on  both  sides,  you  could
              specify something like this:

                  rsync -avc {-M,}--db=/etc/rsyncdb.conf src/ host:dest/

              For  a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this option just for  the  destination  files,  specify
              -M--db=CONFIG  (the  same  for -M--db-lax.  If you wish a local copy to enable this
              option just for the source files, combine --db=CONFIG with -M--no-db (similarly use

              See  the  perl  script "rsyncdb" in the support directory of the source code (which
              may also be installed in /usr/bin) for a way to create  the  tables,  populate  the
              mounted-disk  information, check files against their checksums, and update both the
              MD4 and MD5 checksums for files at the same time (since an  rsync  copy  will  only
              update one or the other).

              You  can  use  a  single MySQL DB for all your hosts if you give each one their own
              "thishost" name and setup their device-mapping data.  Or feel free to use  separate
              databases, separate servers, etc.  See the rsync daemon's "db config" parameter for
              how to configure a daemon to use a DB (since a client cannot control this parameter
              on a daemon).

              This  option can be used to modify the inode-matching algorithm used by --db to one
              that ignores the ctime.  This can be very DANGEROUS unless your files are known  to
              ALWAYS be updated in a safe manner.  If unsure, don't use it.

              The  reason  you  might  want  to  use  it is that the ctime (inode change time) is
              changed by an added hard-link, or the file being moving around.  To use this option
              safely  you  must  be  CERTAIN  that either rsync w/--db is the only program adding
              files into the cached hierarchies, OR that all new files will have new modify times
              (never  a  historical  mtime  that might match an orphaned inode).  So, for certain
              applications, such as mirrors of new tar releases, this option can save  a  lot  of
              unneeded checksum re-computation due to ctime changes.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you want recursion and
              want to preserve almost everything (with -H being a notable  omission).   The  only
              exception to the above equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case
              -r is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multiply-linked files  is
              expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

              You  may  turn  off  one  or more implied options by prefixing the option name with
              "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a "no-": only options that are implied
              by  other  options  (e.g. --no-D, --no-perms) or have different defaults in various
              circumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io, --no-dirs).  You may specify
              either the short or the long option name after the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the
              same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o (--owner), instead
              of converting -a into -rlptgD, you could specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The  order  of  the  options is important:  if you specify --no-r -a, the -r option
              would end up being turned on, the opposite  of  -a  --no-r.   Note  also  that  the
              side-effects  of  the  --files-from  option  are  NOT positional, as it affects the
              default state of several options and slightly changes the meaning of  -a  (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy directories recursively.  See also --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is now an incremental scan
              that uses much less memory than before and begins the transfer after  the  scanning
              of  the  first  few  directories  have  been completed.  This incremental scan only
              affects our recursion algorithm, and does not change a non-recursive transfer.   It
              is also only possible when both ends of the transfer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so these options disable the
              incremental  recursion  mode.   These  include:  --delete-before,   --delete-after,
              --prune-empty-dirs,  and --delay-updates.  Because of this, the default delete mode
              when you specify --delete is now --delete-during when both ends of  the  connection
              are  at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during to request this improved deletion
              mode explicitly).  See also the --delete-delay option that is a better choice  than
              using --delete-after.

              Incremental  recursion  can  be disabled using the --no-inc-recursive option or its
              shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the full path names specified  on  the  command
              line  are sent to the server rather than just the last parts of the filenames. This
              is particularly useful when you want to send several different directories  at  the
              same time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ... this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote machine. If instead
              you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would be created on the remote  machine,  pre-
              serving  its full path.  These extra path elements are called "implied directories"
              (i.e. the "foo" and the "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, rsync always sends these implied  directories  as  real
              directories  in  the  file  list, even if a path element is really a symlink on the
              sending side.  This prevents some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full
              path  of  a file that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you want to
              duplicate a server-side symlink, include both the symlink via its path, and  refer-
              ent  directory  via  its  real  path.  If you're dealing with an older rsync on the
              sending side, you may need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that is sent as implied
              directories  for  each  path  you specify.  With a modern rsync on the sending side
              (beginning with 2.6.7), you can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote machine.  (Note that the dot must be
              followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not be abbreviated.)  For older  rsync  ver-
              sions,  you  would need to use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when
              pushing files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell, so that the "cd"  com-
              mand  doesn't  remain in effect for future commands.)  If you're pulling files from
              an older rsync, use this idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

              This option affects the default behavior of the  --relative  option.   When  it  is
              specified,  the attributes of the implied directories from the source names are not
              included in the transfer.  This means that the corresponding path elements  on  the
              destination system are left unchanged if they exist, and any missing implied direc-
              tories are created with default attributes.  This even allows  these  implied  path
              elements  to  have  big  differences, such as being a symlink to a directory on the
              receiving side.

              For instance, if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told  rsync  to  transfer
              the  file  "path/foo/file",  the directories "path" and "path/foo" are implied when
              --relative is used.  If "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,
              the receiving rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it as a directory,
              and receive the file into the new directory.  With --no-implied-dirs, the receiving
              rsync  updates  "path/foo/file"  using the existing path elements, which means that
              the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way to accomplish this  link
              preservation  is to use the --keep-dirlinks option (which will also affect symlinks
              to directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may need to use this  option
              if  the sending side has a symlink in the path you request and you wish the implied
              directories to be transferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is  trans-
              ferred  or  deleted.   You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any)
              suffix gets appended using the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note that if you don't specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times  option  will
              be  implied,  and  (2)  if  --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded),
              rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for the backup suffix to the end of all your
              existing  excludes  (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent previously backed-up files
              from being deleted.  Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you  may
              need  to  manually  insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a high enough priority to be effective  (e.g.,  if  your  rules
              specify  a  trailing inclusion/exclusion of '*', the auto-added rule would never be

              In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all  backups  in
              the  specified  directory  on the receiving side.  This can be used for incremental
              backups.  You can additionally specify a backup suffix using  the  --suffix  option
              (otherwise  the files backed up in the specified directory will keep their original

              Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative  to
              the  destination directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute path
              or a path that starts with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver,  the  backup
              dir cannot go outside the module's path hierarchy, so take extra care not to delete
              it or copy into it.

              This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup
              (-b)  option. The default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise
              it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the destination and have a modi-
              fied time that is newer than the source file.  (If an existing destination file has
              a modification time equal to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are

              Note  that  this  does  not  affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or other special
              files.  Also, a difference of file format between the sender and receiver is always
              considered  to  be  important  enough  for an update, no matter what date is on the
              objects.  In other words, if the source has a directory where the destination has a
              file, the transfer would occur regardless of the timestamps.

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This  option  changes how rsync transfers a file when its data needs to be updated:
              instead of the default method of creating a new copy of the file and moving it into
              place  when  it  is complete, rsync instead writes the updated data directly to the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard links are not broken.  This means the new data will be visible  through
                     other  hard  links to the destination file.  Moreover, attempts to copy dif-
                     fering source files onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in a
                     "tug of war" with the destination data changing back and forth.

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated (either the OS will prevent this from hap-
                     pening, or binaries that attempt to swap-in their  data  will  misbehave  or

              o      The  file's  data  will  be in an inconsistent state during the transfer and
                     will be left that way if the transfer is interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot write to cannot be updated. While a super user  can
                     update  any file, a normal user needs to be granted write permission for the
                     open of the file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be  reduced  if  some
                     data  in  the  destination  file is overwritten before it can be copied to a
                     position later in the file.  This does not apply if you use --backup,  since
                     rsync  is  smart  enough  to  use  the backup file as the basis file for the

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are being accessed  by
              others, so be careful when choosing to use this for a copy.

              This  option  is  useful  for  transferring large files with block-based changes or
              appended data, and also on systems that are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can
              also  help  keep a copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
              tents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer  does  not  delete  the
              file),  but conflicts with --partial-dir and --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4
              --inplace was also incompatible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This causes rsync to update a file by appending data onto  the  end  of  the  file,
              which presumes that the data that already exists on the receiving side is identical
              with the start of the file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be  transferred
              and its size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on the sender, the
              file is skipped.  This does not interfere with the updating of a file's non-content
              attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be
              transferred, nor does it affect the updating of  any  non-regular  files.   Implies
              --inplace,  but  does  not  conflict  with --sparse (since it is always extending a
              file's length).

              This works just like the --append option, but the existing data  on  the  receiving
              side  is  included  in the full-file checksum verification step, which will cause a
              file to be resent if the final  verification  step  fails  (rsync  uses  a  normal,
              non-appending --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior to rsync 3.0.0, the --append option worked like --append-verify, so if
              you are interacting with an older rsync (or the transfer is using a protocol  prior
              to 30), specifying either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell  the  sending  side  to  include any directories that are encountered.  Unlike
              --recursive, a directory's contents are not copied unless the directory name speci-
              fied is "." or ends with a trailing slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  With-
              out this option or the --recursive option,  rsync  will  skip  all  directories  it
              encounters (and output a message to that effect for each one).  If you specify both
              --dirs and --recursive, --recursive takes precedence.

              The --dirs option is implied by the --files-from option or the  --list-only  option
              (including  an  implied --list-only usage) if --recursive wasn't specified (so that
              directories are seen in the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to
              turn this off.

              There  is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs (or --old-d) that
              tells rsync to use a hack of "-r --exclude='/*/*'" to get an older rsync to list  a
              single directory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks  are  encountered,  the  item  that  they point to (the referent) is
              copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions of rsync, this option also  had
              the  side-effect of telling the receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks
              to directories.  In a modern rsync  such  as  this  one,  you'll  need  to  specify
              --keep-dirlinks  (-K) to get this extra behavior.  The only exception is when send-
              ing files to an rsync that is too old to understand -K --  in  that  case,  the  -L
              option will still have the side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  the referent of symbolic links that point outside the
              copied tree.  Absolute symlinks are also treated like ordinary files,  and  so  are
              any symlinks in the source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point outside the copied  tree.
              All  absolute  symlinks  are  also  ignored.  Using this option in conjunction with
              --relative may give unexpected results.

              This option tells rsync to (1) modify all symlinks on the receiving side in  a  way
              that makes them unusable but recoverable (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on
              the sending side that had been stored in a munged state.  This  is  useful  if  you
              don't quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a symlink to a unex-
              pected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one  with  the  string
              "/rsyncd-munged/".   This prevents the links from being used as long as that direc-
              tory does not exist.  When this option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that
              path is a directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The  option  only  affects  the  client  side of the transfer, so if you need it to
              affect the server, specify it via --remote-option.  (Note that in a local transfer,
              the client side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon configures whether it wants
              munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks" parameter.  See also the  "munge-symlinks"
              perl script in the support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option causes the sending side to treat a symlink to a directory as though it
              were a real directory.  This is useful if you don't want symlinks  to  non-directo-
              ries to be affected, as they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced a directory with a symlink to
              a directory, the receiving side will delete anything that is in the way of the  new
              symlink,  including  a  directory  hierarchy  (as long as --force or --delete is in

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiving side.

              --copy-dirlinks applies to all symlinks to directories in the source.  If you  want
              to  follow  only  a  few specified symlinks, a trick you can use is to pass them as
              additional source args with a trailing slash, using --relative to  make  the  paths
              match up right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works because rsync calls lstat(2) on the source arg as given, and the trail-
              ing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink, giving rise  to  a  directory  in  the
              file-list which overrides the symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This  option  causes the receiving side to treat a symlink to a directory as though
              it were a real directory, but only if it matches a real directory from the  sender.
              Without  this  option,  the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a
              real directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory "foo" that contains  a  file  "file",
              but   "foo"   is   a   symlink   to  directory  "bar"  on  the  receiver.   Without
              --keep-dirlinks, the receiver deletes symlink "foo", recreates it as  a  directory,
              and  receives  the file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust all  the  symlinks
              in  the  copy!  If it is possible for an untrusted user to create their own symlink
              to any directory, the user could then (on a subsequent copy)  replace  the  symlink
              with a real directory and affect the content of whatever directory the symlink ref-
              erences.  For backup copies, you are better off using something like a  bind  mount
              instead of a symlink to modify your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and link together the
              corresponding files on the destination.  Without this option, hard-linked files  in
              the source are treated as though they were separate files.

              This  option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard links on the des-
              tination exactly matches that on the source.  Cases in which  the  destination  may
              end up with extra hard links include the following:

              o      If the destination contains extraneous hard-links (more linking than what is
                     present in the source file list), the copying algorithm will not break  them
                     explicitly.   However, if one or more of the paths have content differences,
                     the normal file-update process will break those extra links (unless you  are
                     using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard links, the linking
                     of the destination files against the --link-dest files can cause some  paths
                     in the destination to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links between files that are inside the trans-
              fer  set.   If  rsync  updates a file that has extra hard-link connections to files
              outside the transfer, that linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to  use  the
              --inplace  option  to  avoid  this breakage, be very careful that you know how your
              files are being updated so that you are certain that no unintended  changes  happen
              due to lingering hard links (and see the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may transfer a missing
              hard-linked file before it finds that another link for that contents  exists  else-
              where  in  the  hierarchy.  This does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.
              which files are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying  the  data
              for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have been found later in the
              transfer in another member of the hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid this
              inefficiency  is  to  disable  incremental  recursion  using the --no-inc-recursive

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to set the destination permissions to be the
              same  as  the source permissions.  (See also the --chmod option for a way to modify
              what rsync considers to be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing files (including updated files) retain their existing  permissions,
                     though  the  --executability option might change just the execute permission
                     for the file.

              o      New files get their "normal" permission bits set to the source  file's  per-
                     missions  masked  with the receiving directory's default permissions (either
                     the receiving process's umask, or the permissions specified via the destina-
                     tion  directory's  default  ACL), and their special permission bits disabled
                     except in the case where a new directory inherits a setgid bit from its par-
                     ent directory.

              Thus,  when  --perms and --executability are both disabled, rsync's behavior is the
              same as that of other file-copy utilities, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both old and new)  the  source  permissions,
              use  --perms.  To give new files the destination-default permissions (while leaving
              existing files unchanged), make sure  that  the  --perms  option  is  off  and  use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX  (which  ensures  that  all non-masked bits get enabled).  If you'd
              care to make this latter behavior easier to type, you could define a popt alias for
              it,  such  as  putting  this line in the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z
              option, and includes --no-g to use the default group of the destination dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You could then use this new option in a command such as this one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a does not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will  re-enable  the  two
              "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation of the destination's setgid bit on newly-created directories when
              --perms is off was added in rsync 2.6.7.  Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  pre-
              served  the  three special permission bits for newly-created files when --perms was
              off, while overriding the destination's  setgid  bit  setting  on  a  newly-created
              directory.   Default  ACL observance was added to the ACL patch for rsync 2.6.7, so
              older (or non-ACL-enabled) rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs  are  present.
              (Keep  in  mind  that  it  is the version of the receiving rsync that affects these

       -E, --executability
              This option causes rsync to preserve the executability  (or  non-executability)  of
              regular files when --perms is not enabled.  A regular file is considered to be exe-
              cutable if at least one 'x' is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing des-
              tination  file's  executability differs from that of the corresponding source file,
              rsync modifies the destination file's permissions as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns off all its 'x' permissions.

              o      To make a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x'  permission  that  has  a
                     corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This  option  causes  rsync  to  update  the destination ACLs to be the same as the
              source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The source and destination systems must have compatible ACL entries for this option
              to work properly.  See the --fake-super option for a way to backup and restore ACLs
              that are not compatible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync to update the destination extended attributes  to  be  the
              same as the source ones.

              For  systems  that  support  extended-attribute  namespaces, a copy being done by a
              super-user copies all namespaces except system.*.  A normal user  only  copies  the
              user.* namespace.  To be able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal
              user, see the --fake-super option.

              Note that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values (e.g. those used by
              --fake-super) unless you repeat the option (e.g. -XX).  This "copy all xattrs" mode
              cannot be used with --fake-super.

              This option tells rsync to apply one or more comma-separated "chmod" modes  to  the
              permission  of the files in the transfer.  The resulting value is treated as though
              it were the permissions that the sending side supplied for the  file,  which  means
              that  this  option  can  seem to have no effect on existing files if --perms is not

              In addition to the normal parsing rules specified in the chmod(1) manpage, you  can
              specify  an  item that should only apply to a directory by prefixing it with a 'D',
              or specify an item that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
              For  example,  the  following  will ensure that all directories get marked set-gid,
              that no files are other-writable, that both are user-writable  and  group-writable,
              and that both have consistent executability across all bits:


              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:


              It  is also legal to specify multiple --chmod options, as each additional option is
              just appended to the list of changes to make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the resulting permission  value
              can be applied to the files in the transfer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the owner of the destination file to be the same as
              the source file, but only if the receiving rsync is being  run  as  the  super-user
              (see also the --super and --fake-super options).  Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of ownership will associate matching names  by  default,  but  may
              fall  back to using the ID number in some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids
              option for a full discussion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the group of the destination file to be the same as
              the  source file.  If the receiving program is not running as the super-user (or if
              --no-super was specified), only groups that the invoking user on the receiving side
              is  a  member  of  will be preserved.  Without this option, the group is set to the
              default group of the invoking user on the receiving side.

              The preservation of group information will associate matching names by default, but
              may  fall  back  to  using  the  ID  number  in  some  circumstances  (see also the
              --numeric-ids option for a full discussion).

              This option causes rsync to transfer character and block device files to the remote
              system to recreate these devices.  This option has no effect if the receiving rsync
              is not run as the super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync to transfer modification times along with  the  files  and  update
              them  on the remote system.  Note that if this option is not used, the optimization
              that excludes files that have not been  modified  cannot  be  effective;  in  other
              words,  a missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it used -I,
              causing all files to be updated (though rsync's delta-transfer algorithm will  make
              the update fairly efficient if the files haven't actually changed, you're much bet-
              ter off using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modification times  (see
              --times).   If  NFS  is sharing the directories on the receiving side, it is a good
              idea to use -O.  This option is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early creation of  directories  in
              incremental recursion copies.  The default --inc-recursive copying normally does an
              early-create pass of all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for  it
              to  be able to then set the modify time of the parent directory right away (without
              having to delay that until a  bunch  of  recursive  copying  has  finished).   This
              early-create  idiom  is  not necessary if directory modify times are not being pre-
              served, so it is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have accurate mode,
              mtime,  or  ownership,  the use of this option can help when someone wants to avoid
              these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is  preserving  modification  times  (see

              This  tells the receiving side to attempt super-user activities even if the receiv-
              ing rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These activities include: preserving users
              via  the --owner option, preserving all groups (not just the current user's groups)
              via the --groups option, and copying devices via the  --devices  option.   This  is
              useful  for  systems  that  allow such activities without being the super-user, and
              also for ensuring that you will get errors if the receiving side isn't being run as
              the  super-user.   To  turn  off  super-user  activities,  the  super-user  can use

              When this  option  is  enabled,  rsync  simulates  super-user  activities  by  sav-
              ing/restoring  the  privileged  attributes via special extended attributes that are
              attached to each file (as needed).  This includes the file's owner and group (if it
              is  not the default), the file's device info (device & special files are created as
              empty text files), and any permission bits that we won't allow to  be  set  on  the
              real file (e.g.  the real file gets u-s,g-s,o-t for safety) or that would limit the
              owner's access (since the real super-user can  always  access/change  a  file,  the
              files  we create can always be accessed/changed by the creating user).  This option
              also handles ACLs (if --acls was specified) and non-user  extended  attributes  (if
              --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a  good  way to backup data without using a super-user, and to store ACLs
              from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where the option is used.  To  affect
              the remote side of a remote-shell connection, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For  a local copy, this option affects both the source and the destination.  If you
              wish a local copy to enable this option just for  the  destination  files,  specify
              -M--fake-super.  If you wish a local copy to enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in the daemon's rsyncd.conf file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try to handle sparse files efficiently so they take up less space on  the  destina-
              tion.   Conflicts  with  --inplace because it's not possible to overwrite data in a
              sparse fashion.

              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination  file  to  its  eventual  size
              before  writing  data  to  the file.  Rsync will only use the real filesystem-level
              preallocation support provided by Linux's  fallocate(2)  system  call  or  Cygwin's
              posix_fallocate(3),  not the slow glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous on the filesystem,
              but  with  this option rsync will probably copy more slowly.  If the destination is
              not an extent-supporting filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS,  etc.),  this  option
              may have no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
              This  makes  rsync  perform a trial run that doesn't make any changes (and produces
              mostly the same output as a real run).  It is most  commonly  used  in  combination
              with  the  -v,  --verbose and/or -i, --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync
              command is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to be exactly the same on a dry run and
              a  subsequent  real run (barring intentional trickery and system call failures); if
              it isn't, that's a bug.  Other output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in
              some  areas.   Notably, a dry run does not send the actual data for file transfers,
              so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent", "bytes  received",  "literal  data",
              and  "matched data" statistics are too small, and the "speedup" value is equivalent
              to a run where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is not used and the whole file is
              sent  as-is  instead.   The  transfer may be faster if this option is used when the
              bandwidth between the source and destination machines is higher than the  bandwidth
              to  disk  (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked filesystem).  This is
              the default when both the source and destination are specified as local paths,  but
              only if no batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when recursing.  This does
              not limit the user's ability to specify items to copy  from  multiple  filesystems,
              just rsync's recursion through the hierarchy of each directory that the user speci-
              fied, and also the analogous recursion on the receiving side during deletion.  Also
              keep  in  mind  that rsync treats a "bind" mount to the same device as being on the
              same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directories from the  copy.
              Otherwise,  it includes an empty directory at each mount-point it encounters (using
              the attributes of the mounted directory because those of the underlying mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If   rsync   has   been   told   to   collapse   symlinks   (via   --copy-links  or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device is treated like  a
              mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This  tells  rsync to skip creating files (including directories) that do not exist
              yet on the destination.  If this option  is  combined  with  the  --ignore-existing
              option,  no  files  will  be  updated (which can be useful if all you want to do is
              delete extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This tells rsync to skip updating files that already exist on the destination (this
              does  not  ignore  existing  directories,  or  nothing  would  get done).  See also

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data  that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for those doing backups using the --link-dest option when
              they  need  to continue a backup run that got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run
              is copied into a new directory hierarchy (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled files don't get tweaked (which avoids
              a change in permissions on the hard-linked files).  This does mean that this option
              is only looking at the existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

              This  tells  rsync  to remove from the sending side the files (meaning non-directo-
              ries) that are a part of the transfer and have been successfully duplicated on  the
              receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that are quiescent.  If
              you are using this to move files that show up in a  particular  directory  over  to
              another  host, make sure that the finished files get renamed into the source direc-
              tory, not directly written into it, so that rsync can't possibly  transfer  a  file
              that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first write the files into a different
              directory, you should use a naming idiom that lets rsync avoid  transferring  files
              that  are not yet finished (e.g. name the file "" when it is written, rename
              it to "foo" when it is done, and then use  the  option  --exclude='*.new'  for  the
              rsync transfer).

              Starting  with 3.1.0, rsync will skip the sender-side removal (and output an error)
              if the file's size or modify time has not stayed unchanged.

              This tells rsync to delete extraneous files from  the  receiving  side  (ones  that
              aren't  on  the sending side), but only for the directories that are being synchro-
              nized.  You must have asked rsync to  send  the  whole  directory  (e.g.  "dir"  or
              "dir/")  without using a wildcard for the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*") since
              the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus gets  a  request  to  transfer
              individual  files,  not  the files' parent directory.  Files that are excluded from
              the  transfer  are  also  excluded  from  being  deleted   unless   you   use   the
              --delete-excluded  option  or  mark  the rules as only matching on the sending side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior to rsync 2.6.7, this option would  have  no  effect  unless  --recursive  was
              enabled.   Beginning  with  2.6.7,  deletions  will  also occur when --dirs (-d) is
              enabled, but only for directories whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a very good idea to  first
              try  a  run  using  the  --dry-run  option  (-n)  to see what files are going to be

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of any files  at  the
              destination will be automatically disabled. This is to prevent temporary filesystem
              failures (such as NFS errors) on the sending side from causing a  massive  deletion
              of  files  on  the  destination.   You  can  override this with the --ignore-errors

              The --delete option may be combined with one of the --delete-WHEN  options  without
              conflict,  as  well  as  --delete-excluded.   However, if none of the --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync will choose the --delete-during algorithm when talking
              to rsync 3.0.0 or newer, and the --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older
              rsync.  See also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done before  the  transfer
              starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer is helpful if the filesystem is tight for space and
              removing extraneous files would help to make the transfer  possible.   However,  it
              does introduce a delay before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause
              the transfer to timeout (if --timeout was specified).  It also forces rsync to  use
              the  old,  non-incremental  recursion algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the
              files in the transfer into memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be done incrementally as  the
              transfer  happens.   The per-directory delete scan is done right before each direc-
              tory is checked for updates, so it behaves like a more  efficient  --delete-before,
              including  doing  the  deletions  prior  to  any  per-directory  filter files being
              updated.  This option was first added in rsync version 2.6.4.  See --delete  (which
              is implied) for more details on file-deletion.

              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving side be computed during the trans-
              fer (like --delete-during), and then removed after the transfer completes.  This is
              useful  when  combined  with  --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than using --delete-after (but can behave differently,  since  --delete-after  com-
              putes  the deletions in a separate pass after all updates are done).  If the number
              of removed files overflows an internal buffer, a temporary file will be created  on
              the  receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so you shouldn't
              see it during the transfer).  If the creation of the temporary  file  fails,  rsync
              will try to fall back to using --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive is
              doing an incremental scan).  See --delete (which is implied) for  more  details  on

              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done after the transfer
              has completed.  This is useful if you are sending new per-directory merge files  as
              a  part of the transfer and you want their exclusions to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use the old,  non-incremen-
              tal  recursion  algorithm that requires rsync to scan all the files in the transfer
              into memory at once (see --recursive).  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more
              details on file-deletion.

              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are not on the sending
              side, this tells rsync to also delete any files on  the  receiving  side  that  are
              excluded  (see --exclude).  See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individ-
              ual exclusions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to protect files from
              --delete-excluded.   See --delete (which is implied) for more details on file-dele-

              When rsync is first processing the explicitly requested  source  files  (e.g.  com-
              mand-line  arguments  or --files-from entries), it is normally an error if the file
              cannot be found.  This option suppresses that error, and does not try  to  transfer
              the  file.  This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if a file was ini-
              tially found to be present and later is no longer there.

              This option takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-missing-args option a step
              farther:  each missing arg will become a deletion request of the corresponding des-
              tination file on the receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file  is
              a  non-empty directory, it will only be successfully deleted if --force or --delete
              are in effect.  Other than that, this option is independent of any  other  type  of
              delete processing.

              The missing source files are represented by special file-list entries which display
              as a "*missing" entry in the --list-only output.

              Tells --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are I/O errors.

              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when it is to  be  replaced
              by  a  non-directory.   This  is  only  relevant  if  deletions are not active (see
              --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions:  --force  used  to  still  be  required  when  using
              --delete-after,  and it used to be non-functional unless the --recursive option was
              also enabled.

              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files or directories.  If  that  limit
              is exceeded, all further deletions are skipped through the end of the transfer.  At
              the end, rsync outputs a warning (including a count of the skipped  deletions)  and
              exits  with  an  error  code of 25 (unless some more important error condition also

              Beginning with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to be warned about any
              extraneous  files  in  the destination without removing any of them.  Older clients
              interpreted this as "unlimited", so if you don't know what version the  client  is,
              you  can use the less obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible way to spec-
              ify that no deletions be allowed (though really old versions didn't warn  when  the
              limit was exceeded).

              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger than the specified
              SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a  size  multiplier,
              and may be a fractional value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This  option is a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't affect the data that
              goes into the file-lists, and thus it doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits the
              files that the receiver requests to be transferred.

              The suffixes are as follows: "K" (or "KiB") is a kibibyte (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is
              a mebibyte (1024*1024), and "G" (or "GiB") is a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If  you
              want  the  multiplier  to be 1000 instead of 1024, use "KB", "MB", or "GB".  (Note:
              lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if the suffix ends in either
              "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:  --max-size=1.5mb-1  is  1499999 bytes, and --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --max-size=0.

              This tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller than the  specified
              SIZE,  which  can  help  in not transferring small, junk files.  See the --max-size
              option for a description of SIZE and other information.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 3.1.0 did not allow --min-size=0.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This forces the block size used in rsync's  delta-transfer  algorithm  to  a  fixed
              value.   It is normally selected based on the size of each file being updated.  See
              the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose an alternative remote shell  program  to  use  for
              communication  between  the  local  and remote copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is
              configured to use ssh by default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If this option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the remote shell COMMAND
              will be used to run an rsync daemon on the remote host, and all data will be trans-
              mitted through that remote shell connection, rather than through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See the section "USING

              Command-line arguments are permitted in COMMAND provided that COMMAND is  presented
              to  rsync as a single argument.  You must use spaces (not tabs or other whitespace)
              to separate the command and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not backslashes).  Note that
              doubling a single-quote inside a single-quoted string  gives  you  a  single-quote;
              likewise  for  double-quotes (though you need to pay attention to which quotes your
              shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users can alternately customize  site-specific  connect  options  in
              their .ssh/config file.)

              You  can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH environment vari-
              able, which accepts the same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected by this option.

              Use this to specify what program is to be run on the  remote  machine  to  start-up
              rsync.   Often  used  when  rsync  is  not in the default remote-shell's path (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).  Note that PROGRAM is run with the  help  of  a
              shell,  so it can be any program, script, or command sequence you'd care to run, so
              long as it does not corrupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is  using  to

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on the remote machine
              for use with the --relative option.  For instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This option is used for more advanced situations where you want certain effects  to
              be  limited  to  one  side of the transfer only.  For instance, if you want to pass
              --log-file=FILE and --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local side of a transfer when it nor-
              mally affects both sides, send its negation to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to toggle an option that will cause rsync
              to have a different idea about what data to expect next over the socket,  and  that
              will make it fail in a cryptic fashion.

              Note  that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each option you want to
              pass.  This makes your useage compatible with the --protect-args option.   If  that
              option  is off, any spaces in your remote options will be split by the remote shell
              unless you take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender and  the  "remote"
              side is the receiver.

              Note  some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug in them that pre-
              vents you from using an adjacent arg with an equal in it next  to  a  short  option
              letter  (e.g. -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.  If this bug affects your version of popt, you
              can use the version of popt that is included with rsync.

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range  of  files  that  you  often
              don't  want  to  transfer  between  systems.  It uses a similar algorithm to CVS to
              determine if a file should be ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the following items (these initial items
              are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~
                     #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb  *.o  *.obj
                     *.so *.exe *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then, files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list and any files listed
              in the CVSIGNORE environment variable (all cvsignore names are delimited by  white-

              Finally,  any  file  is ignored if it is in the same directory as a .cvsignore file
              and matches one of the patterns  listed  therein.   Unlike  rsync's  filter/exclude
              files,  these  patterns  are  split  on whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you should note that these CVS
              excludes  are appended at the end of your own rules, regardless of where the -C was
              placed on the command-line.  This makes them a lower priority than  any  rules  you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control where these CVS excludes get inserted
              into your filter rules, you should omit the -C as a command-line option and  use  a
              combination  of  --filter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on your command-line or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a filter file with  your  other  rules).   The
              first option turns on the per-directory scanning for the .cvsignore file.  The sec-
              ond option does a one-time import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude certain files  from  the
              list  of  files to be transferred. This is most useful in combination with a recur-
              sive transfer.

              You may use as many --filter options on the command line as you like  to  build  up
              the  list of files to exclude.  If the filter contains whitespace, be sure to quote
              it so that the shell gives the rule to rsync as a single argument.  The text  below
              also  mentions that you can use an underscore to replace the space that separates a
              rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

       -F     The -F option is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to  your  command.   The
              first time it is used is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync  to  look  for  per-directory .rsync-filter files that have been
              sprinkled through the hierarchy and use their rules to  filter  the  files  in  the
              transfer.  If -F is repeated, it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter files themselves from the transfer.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on how these options work.

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an exclude
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies a FILE  that  con-
              tains  exclude patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting
              with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will  be  read  from  standard

              This option is a simplified form of the --filter option that defaults to an include
              rule and does not allow the full rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed information on this option.

              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies a FILE  that  con-
              tains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank lines in the file and lines starting
              with ';' or '#' are ignored.  If FILE is -, the list will  be  read  from  standard

              Using  this  option  allows  you to specify the exact list of files to transfer (as
              read from the specified FILE or - for standard input).  It also tweaks the  default
              behavior  of  rsync  to  make transferring just the specified files and directories

              o      The --relative (-R) option is implied, which preserves the path  information
                     that  is specified for each item in the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if
                     you want to turn that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option is implied, which will create  directories  specified
                     in  the  list  on  the  destination  rather  than noisily skipping them (use
                     --no-dirs or --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The --archive (-a) option's behavior does not  imply  --recursive  (-r),  so
                     specify it explicitly, if you want it.

              o      These side-effects change the default state of rsync, so the position of the
                     --files-from option on the command-line has no bearing on how other  options
                     are  parsed  (e.g.  -a  works the same before or after --files-from, as does
                     --no-R and all other options).

              The filenames that are read from the FILE are all relative to the source dir -- any
              leading  slashes  are  removed and no ".." references are allowed to go higher than
              the source dir.  For example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string "bin" (or even "/bin"), the /usr/bin directory will
              be  created  as  /backup/bin  on  the remote host.  If it contains "bin/" (note the
              trailing slash), the immediate contents of the directory would also be sent  (with-
              out needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began in version 2.6.4).
              In both cases, if the -r option was enabled, that dir's entire hierarchy would also
              be  transferred  (keep  in  mind  that  -r  needs  to  be specified explicitly with
              --files-from, since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of  the
              (enabled  by  default) --relative option is to duplicate only the path info that is
              read from the file -- it does not force the duplication  of  the  source-spec  path
              (/usr in this case).

              In  addition, the --files-from file can be read from the remote host instead of the
              local host if you specify a "host:" in front of the file (the host must  match  one
              end of the transfer).  As a short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean
              "use the remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This would copy all the files  specified  in  the  /path/file-list  file  that  was
              located on the remote "src" host.

              If  the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and the --files-from file-
              names are being sent from one host to another, the  filenames  will  be  translated
              from the sending host's charset to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE:  sorting  the  list of files in the --files-from input helps rsync to be more
              efficient, as it will avoid re-visiting the path elements that are  shared  between
              adjacent entries.  If the input is not sorted, some path elements (implied directo-
              ries) may end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will  eventually  undupli-
              cate them after they get turned into file-list elements.

       -0, --from0
              This  tells rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file are terminated by a
              null ('\0') character, not a  NL,  CR,  or  CR+LF.   This  affects  --exclude-from,
              --include-from,  --files-from,  and  any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It does not affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a .cvsignore  file  are
              split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to the remote rsync without allow-
              ing the remote shell to interpret them.  This means that spaces are  not  split  in
              names, and any non-wildcard special characters are not translated (such as ~, $, ;,
              &, etc.).  Wildcards are expanded on the remote host by rsync (instead of the shell
              doing it).

              If  you use this option with --iconv, the args related to the remote side will also
              be translated from the local to the remote character-set.  The translation  happens
              before wild-cards are expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You  may  also control this option via the RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS environment variable.
              If this variable has a non-zero value, this option will be enabled by default, oth-
              erwise  it  will  be disabled by default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified positive or negative  version  of  this  option  (note  that  --no-s  and
              --no-protect-args  are  the negative versions).  Since this option was first intro-
              duced in 3.0.0, you'll need to make sure it's disabled if you ever need to interact
              with a remote rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option enabled by default
              (with is overridden by both the environment and  the  command-line).   This  option
              will  eventually  become a new default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in
              the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory when creating  tempo-
              rary  copies  of the files transferred on the receiving side.  The default behavior
              is to create each temporary file in the same directory as the  associated  destina-
              tion  file.   Beginning  with rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside the specified
              DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though they will still  have  a  random
              suffix added).

              This  option  is  most  often  used when the receiving disk partition does not have
              enough free space to hold a copy of the largest file in the transfer.  In this case
              (i.e.  when the scratch directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will not
              be able to rename each received temporary file over the top of the associated  des-
              tination file, but instead must copy it into place.  Rsync does this by copying the
              file over the top of the destination file, which means that  the  destination  file
              will contain truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done this way (even
              if the destination file were first removed, the data locally copied to a  temporary
              file  in the destination directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possi-
              ble for the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it open), and
              thus  there might not be enough room to fit the new version on the disk at the same

              If you are using this option for reasons other than a shortage of disk  space,  you
              may  wish to combine it with the --delay-updates option, which will ensure that all
              copied files get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, awaiting the
              end  of  the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to duplicate all the arriving
              files on the destination partition, another way  to  tell  rsync  that  you  aren't
              overly  concerned  about disk space is to use the --partial-dir option with a rela-
              tive path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy of  a  single
              file  in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync will use the partial-dir as a
              staging area to bring over the copied file, and then  rename  it  into  place  from
              there.  (Specifying  a  --partial-dir  with  an  absolute  path  does not have this

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file  for  any  destination
              file  that  is  missing.   The current algorithm looks in the same directory as the
              destination file for either a file that has an identical size and modified-time, or
              a  similarly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file to try to speed
              up the transfer.

              If the option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in any matching  alter-
              nate destination directories that are specified via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or

              Note that the use of the --delete option might get rid of any potential fuzzy-match
              files, so either use --delete-after or specify some filename exclusions if you need
              to prevent this.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the destination machine as an  additional
              hierarchy  to  compare  destination files against doing transfers (if the files are
              missing in the destination directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the destination direc-
              tory.  This is useful for creating a sparse backup of just files that have  changed
              from  an  earlier  backup.  This option is typically used to copy into an empty (or
              newly created) directory.

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories  may  be  provided,
              which  will  cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an exact
              match.  If a match is found that differs only in attributes, a local copy  is  made
              and  the attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from one of the
              DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also
              --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE:  beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync will remove a file from a non-empty des-
              tination hierarchy if an exact match is found in one of  the  compare-dest  hierar-
              chies (making the end result more closely match a fresh copy).

              This  option  behaves like --compare-dest, but rsync will also copy unchanged files
              found in DIR to the destination directory using a local copy.  This is  useful  for
              doing  transfers to a new destination while leaving existing files intact, and then
              doing a flash-cutover when all files have been successfully transferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may be provided, which will cause rsync to  search
              the  list in the order specified for an unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a
              basis file from one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If DIR is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.   See  also
              --compare-dest and --link-dest.

              This  option behaves like --copy-dest, but unchanged files are hard linked from DIR
              to the destination directory.   The  files  must  be  identical  in  all  preserved
              attributes  (e.g.  permissions,  possibly  ownership)  in order for the files to be
              linked together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking,  double-check  their  attributes.   Also  check  if  some
              attributes  are getting forced outside of rsync's control, such a mount option that
              squishes root to a single user, or mounts a removable drive with generic  ownership
              (such as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may be provided, which
              will cause rsync to search the list in the order specified for an exact match.   If
              a  match  is  found  that  differs only in attributes, a local copy is made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one  of  the  DIRs
              will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              This  option works best when copying into an empty destination hierarchy, as exist-
              ing files may get their attributes tweaked, and that can affect alternate  destina-
              tion files via hard-links.  Also, itemizing of changes can get a bit muddled.  Note
              that prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory  exact  match  would  never  be
              found (nor linked into the destination) when a destination file already exists.

              Note  that  if you combine this option with --ignore-times, rsync will not link any
              files together because it only links identical files together as a  substitute  for
              transferring the file, never as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is a relative path, it is relative to the destination directory.  See also
              --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had a bug that  could  prevent  --link-dest
              from  working  properly  for  a non-super-user when -o was specified (or implied by
              -a).  You can work-around this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old

       -z, --compress
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent to the destination
              machine, which reduces the amount of data being transmitted --  something  that  is
              useful over a slow connection.

              Note  that  this  option  typically  achieves better compression ratios than can be
              achieved by using a compressing remote shell or a compressing transport because  it
              takes  advantage  of  the implicit information in the matching data blocks that are
              not explicitly sent over the connection.  This matching-data compression comes at a
              cost  of  CPU,  though, and can be disabled by repeating the -z option, but only if
              both sides are at least version 3.1.1.

              Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external zlib  (instead  of
              the  zlib  that  comes  packaged with rsync) then it will not support the old-style
              compression, only the new-style (repeated-option) compression.  In the future  this
              new-style compression will likely become the default.

              The  client  rsync  requests new-style compression on the server via the --new-com-
              press option, so if you see that option rejected it means that the  server  is  not
              new  enough  to  support  -zz.   Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a
              future time when new-style compression becomes the default.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suffixes that will  not
              be compressed.

              Explicitly  set the compression level to use (see --compress) instead of letting it
              default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --compress option is implied.

              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be compressed.  The LIST should be
              one or more file suffixes (without the dot) separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file should be skipped.

              Simple  character-class  matching is supported: each must consist of a list of let-
              ters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special classes, such as "[:alpha:]",  are
              supported, and '-' has no special meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have no special meaning.

              Here's an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of the 5 rules matches
              2 suffixes):


              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this (in  this  version
              of rsync):

              7z ace avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4 ogg png rar rpm rzip
              tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list in all but one situation: a
              copy  from  a  daemon  rsync will add your skipped suffixes to its list of non-com-
              pressing files (and its list may be configured to a different default).

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs rather  than  using
              user and group names and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the username and groupname to determine what ownership to
              give files. The special uid 0  and  the  special  group  0  are  never  mapped  via
              user/group names even if the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If  a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no match on the des-
              tination system, then the numeric ID from the source system is used  instead.   See
              also the comments on the "use chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for infor-
              mation on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up  the  names  of
              the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should be mapped to other
              values by the receiving side.  The STRING is one or more FROM:TO  pairs  of  values
              separated by commas.  Any matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO
              value from the receiver.  You may specify usernames or user IDs for the FROM and TO
              values,  and  the  FROM value may also be a wild-card string, which will be matched
              against the sender's names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID numbers, though  see
              below  for  why  a  '*' matches everything).  You may instead specify a range of ID
              numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For example:

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should specify  all  your
              user mappings using a single --usermap option, and/or all your group mappings using
              a single --groupmap option.

              Note that the sender's name for the 0 user and group are  not  transmitted  to  the
              receiver,  so  you  should either match these values using a 0, or use the names in
              effect on the receiving side (typically "root").  All other FROM names match  those
              in use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the receiving side.

              Any  IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are treated as having an empty
              name for the purpose of matching.  This allows them to be  matched  via  a  "*"  or
              using an empty name.  For instance:

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When  the  --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send any names, so all
              the IDs are treated as having an empty name.  This means  that  you  will  need  to
              specify numeric FROM values if you want to map these nameless IDs to different val-

              For the --usermap option to have any effect, the -o (--owner) option must  be  used
              (or  implied),  and  the receiver will need to be running as a super-user (see also
              the --fake-super option).  For the --groupmap option to have  any  effect,  the  -g
              (--groups)  option  must  be  used (or implied), and the receiver will need to have
              permissions to set that group.

              This option forces all files to be owned by USER with group GROUP.  This is a  sim-
              pler  interface than using --usermap and --groupmap directly, but it is implemented
              using those options internally, so you cannot mix them.   If  either  the  USER  or
              GROUP  is  empty,  no  mapping  for the omitted user/group will occur.  If GROUP is
              empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but if USER is  empty,  a  leading  colon
              must be supplied.

              If   you   specify  "--chown=foo:bar,  this  is  exactly  the  same  as  specifying
              "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout  in  seconds.  If  no  data  is
              transferred  for  the  specified time then rsync will exit. The default is 0, which
              means no timeout.

              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will wait for its  con-
              nection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the timeout is reached, rsync exits with
              an error.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connecting to an rsync dae-
              mon.   The  --address  option allows you to specify a specific IP address (or host-
              name) to bind to.  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to use rather than the default of  873.
              This  is  only needed if you are using the double-colon (::) syntax to connect with
              an rsync daemon (since the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as  a  part  of
              the URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

              This  option  can  provide endless fun for people who like to tune their systems to
              the utmost degree. You can set all sorts of socket options which may make transfers
              faster (or slower!). Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call for details
              on some of the options you may be able to set. By default no special socket options
              are  set.  This  only  affects  direct socket connections to a remote rsync daemon.
              This option also exists in the --daemon mode section.

              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O when launching a remote shell  transport.   If
              the remote shell is either rsh or remsh, rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, oth-
              erwise it defaults to using non-blocking I/O.  (Note that ssh prefers  non-blocking

              This  sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None (aka Unbuffered), Line,
              or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as little as a single letter  for  the  mode,
              and use upper or lower case.

              The  main  use  of  this  option is to change Full buffering to Line buffering when
              rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes that are being made  to  each  file,
              including  attribute  changes.   This  is exactly the same as specifying --out-for-
              mat='%i %n%L'.  If you repeat the option, unchanged files will also be output,  but
              only  if  the receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv with older
              versions of rsync, but that also turns on the output of other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is 11 letters long.  The  general  format
              is  like  the  string  YXcstpoguax, where Y is replaced by the type of update being
              done, X is replaced by the file-type, and the other  letters  represent  attributes
              that may be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the remote host (sent).

              o      A > means that a file is being transferred to the local host (received).

              o      A  c  means  that a local change/creation is occurring for the item (such as
                     the creation of a directory or the changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h  means  that  the  item  is  a  hard  link  to  another  item  (requires

              o      A  .  means  that  the  item  is  not  being  updated  (though it might have
                     attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area contains a message (e.g.

              The  file-types that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a directory, an L for
              a symlink, a D for a device, and a S for a special file  (e.g.  named  sockets  and

              The other letters in the string above are the actual letters that will be output if
              the associated attribute for the item is being updated or  a  "."  for  no  change.
              Three  exceptions to this are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with a
              "+", (2) an identical item replaces the  dots  with  spaces,  and  (3)  an  unknown
              attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can happen when talking to an older

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A c means either that a regular file  has  a  different  checksum  (requires
                     --checksum)  or that a symlink, device, or special file has a changed value.
                     Note that if you are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1,  this  change
                     flag will be present only for checksum-differing regular files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular file is different and will be updated by the
                     file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is  being  updated  to  the
                     sender's  value  (requires --times).  An alternate value of T means that the
                     modification time will be set to the transfer time,  which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a symlink is changed
                     and the receiver can't set its time.   (Note:  when  using  an  rsync  3.0.0
                     client,  you  might  see  the s flag combined with t instead of the proper T
                     flag for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A p means the permissions  are  different  and  are  being  updated  to  the
                     sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to the sender's value
                     (requires --owner and super-user privileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated to the sender's  value
                     (requires --group and the authority to set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x means that the extended attribute information changed.

              One other output is possible:  when deleting files, the "%i" will output the string
              "*deleting" for each item that is being removed (assuming that you are talking to a
              recent  enough rsync that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as a verbose

              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs to the user  on  a
              per-update basis.  The format is a text string containing embedded single-character
              escape sequences prefixed with a percent  (%)  character.    A  default  format  of
              "%n%L" is assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you just the
              name of the file and, if the item is a link, where it points).  For a full list  of
              the  possible  escape  characters,  see the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf

              Specifying the --out-format option implies the --info=name option, which will  men-
              tion  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets updated in a significant way (a transferred
              file, a recreated symlink/device, or a touched directory).   In  addition,  if  the
              itemize-changes  escape  (%i)  is  included  in  the  string  (e.g.  if the --item-
              ize-changes option was used), the logging of names increases to  mention  any  item
              that  is changed in any way (as long as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See
              the --itemize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's transfer  unless  one  of
              the  transfer-statistic  escapes is requested, in which case the logging is done at
              the end of the file's transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress
              is  also  specified,  rsync will also output the name of the file being transferred
              prior to its progress information (followed, of course, by the out-format output).

              This option causes rsync to log what it is doing to a file.  This is similar to the
              logging  that  a  daemon  does, but can be requested for the client side and/or the
              server side of a non-daemon transfer.  If specified as a  client  option,  transfer
              logging   will   be   enabled  with  a  default  format  of  "%i  %n%L".   See  the
              --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's a example command that requests the remote side to log what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug why a connection is closing unexpectedly.

              This allows you to specify exactly what per-update logging is  put  into  the  file
              specified by the --log-file option (which must also be specified for this option to
              have any effect).  If you specify an empty string, updated files will not  be  men-
              tioned in the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see the "log
              format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if --log-file is specified and this option is  not  is  '%i

              This  tells rsync to print a verbose set of statistics on the file transfer, allow-
              ing you to tell how effective rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is  for  your  data.
              This  option  is equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v options, or
              --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number of files is the count of all "files" (in the  generic  sense),  which
                     includes  directories, symlinks, etc.  The total count will be followed by a
                     list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For example:  "(reg:
                     5, dir: 3, link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)" lists the totals for regular files,
                     directories, symlinks, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0, it
                     is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number  of  created  files  is the count of how many "files" (generic sense)
                     were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
                     list of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number  of  deleted  files  is the count of how many "files" (generic sense)
                     were created (as opposed to updated).  The total count will be followed by a
                     list  of counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is only output if deletions are in effect, and only if protocol 31 is  being
                     used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number  of  regular files transferred is the count of normal files that were
                     updated via rsync's delta-transfer algorithm, which does not  include  dirs,
                     symlinks,  etc.   Note  that  rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in  the  transfer.   This
                     does  not  count any size for directories or special files, but does include
                     the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files sizes for just the
                     transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we had to send to the
                     receiver for it to recreate the updated files.

              o      Matched data is how much data the receiver got locally when  recreating  the
                     updated files.

              o      File  list size is how big the file-list data was when the sender sent it to
                     the receiver.  This is smaller than the in-memory size for the file list due
                     to some compressing of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation  time  is the number of seconds that the sender spent
                     creating the file list.  This requires a modern rsync on  the  sending  side
                     for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the sender spent send-
                     ing the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes  that  rsync  sent  from  the
                     client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count  of  all non-message bytes that rsync
                     received by the client side from the server side.  "Non-message" bytes means
                     that  we don't count the bytes for a verbose message that the server sent to
                     us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This tells rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in the  output  instead
              of  trying  to test them to see if they're valid in the current locale and escaping
              the invalid ones.  All control characters (but  never  tabs)  are  always  escaped,
              regardless of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal backslash (\) and a
              hash (#), followed by exactly 3 octal digits.  For example, a newline would  output
              as  "\#012".  A literal backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is
              followed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output numbers in a more human-readable format.  There are 3 possible levels:   (1)
              output  numbers  with a separator between each set of 3 digits (either a comma or a
              period, depending on if the decimal point is represented by a period or  a  comma);
              (2)  output  numbers  in units of 1000 (with a character suffix for larger units --
              see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases the level by  one.
              You  can  take  the level down to 0 (to output numbers as pure digits) by specifing
              the --no-human-readable (--no-h) option.

              The unit letters that are appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K  (kilo),  M  (mega),  G
              (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For example, a 1234567-byte file would output as 1.23M in
              level-2 (assuming that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync  prior  to  3.1.0  do  not  support
              human-readable  level  1, and they default to level 0.  Thus, specifying one or two
              -h options will behave in a comparable manner in old and new versions  as  long  as
              you  didn't  specify  a  --no-h  option  prior  to one or more -h options.  See the
              --list-only option for one difference.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file  if  the  transfer  is
              interrupted.  In  some  circumstances it is more desirable to keep partially trans-
              ferred files. Using the --partial option tells rsync to keep the partial file which
              should make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

              A  better  way  to keep partial files than the --partial option is to specify a DIR
              that will be used to hold the partial data (instead of writing it out to the desti-
              nation  file).   On  the  next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir as
              data to speed up the resumption of the transfer and then delete  it  after  it  has
              served its purpose.

              Note  that  if --whole-file is specified (or implied), any partial-dir file that is
              found for a file that is being updated will simply be removed (since rsync is send-
              ing files without using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync  will  create  the  DIR  if it is missing (just the last dir -- not the whole
              path).   This  makes  it  easy  to  use  a   relative   path   (such   as   "--par-
              tial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create the partial-directory in the desti-
              nation file's directory when needed, and then remove it again when the partial file
              is deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add an exclude rule at
              the end of all your existing excludes.  This will prevent the sending of  any  par-
              tial-dir  files  that  may  exist  on  the  sending side, and will also prevent the
              untimely deletion of partial-dir items on the  receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above --partial-dir option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p .rsync-partial/'" at
              the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your  own  exclude  rules,  you  may  need  to  add  your  own
              exclude/hide/protect  rule  for the partial-dir because (1) the auto-added rule may
              be ineffective at the end of your other rules, or (2)  you  may  wish  to  override
              rsync's  exclude  choice.   For  instance,  if  you want to make rsync clean-up any
              left-over partial-dirs that may be lying around, you should specify  --delete-after
              and  add  a  "risk"  filter  rule,  e.g.   -f  'R  .rsync-partial/'.   (Avoid using
              --delete-before or --delete-during unless you don't need rsync to use  any  of  the
              left-over partial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT: the --partial-dir should not be writable by other users or it is a secu-
              rity risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the partial-dir value the RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR environment  variable.
              Setting  this in the environment does not force --partial to be enabled, but rather
              it affects where partial files go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For  instance,
              instead  of  using  --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp  along  with --progress, you could set
              RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment and then just use the -P option to
              turn  on  the use of the .rsync-tmp dir for partial transfers.  The only times that
              the --partial option does  not  look  for  this  environment  value  are  (1)  when
              --inplace  was  specified  (since  --inplace conflicts with --partial-dir), and (2)
              when --delay-updates was specified (see below).

              For the purposes of the daemon-config's  "refuse  options"  setting,  --partial-dir
              does not imply --partial.  This is so that a refusal of the --partial option can be
              used to disallow the overwriting of destination  files  with  a  partial  transfer,
              while still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

              This option puts the temporary file from each updated file into a holding directory
              until the end of the transfer, at which time all the files are renamed  into  place
              in rapid succession.  This attempts to make the updating of the files a little more
              atomic.  By default the files are placed into a directory named  ".~tmp~"  in  each
              file's  destination  directory,  but  if you've specified the --partial-dir option,
              that directory will be used instead.  See the comments in the --partial-dir section
              for  a  discussion of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old ".~tmp~" dirs that might be  lying
              around.  Conflicts with --inplace and --append.

              This  option  uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit per file transferred)
              and also requires enough free disk space on the receiving side  to  hold  an  addi-
              tional  copy  of all the updated files.  Note also that you should not use an abso-
              lute path to --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the files in the
              transfer  having the same name (since all the updated files will be put into a sin-
              gle directory if the path is absolute) and (2) there are no  mount  points  in  the
              hierarchy  (since  the  delayed  updates  will  fail  if they can't be renamed into

              See also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir for an update algo-
              rithm  that  is  even  more atomic (it uses --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid  of  empty  directories  from  the
              file-list,  including nested directories that have no non-directory children.  This
              is useful for avoiding the creation of a bunch  of  useless  directories  when  the
              sending    rsync   is   recursively   scanning   a   hierarchy   of   files   using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer rules, such as the --min-size option, does not affect
              what  goes  into  the file list, and thus does not leave directories empty, even if
              none of the files in a directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being  pruned,  this  option  also  affects  what
              directories  get  deleted  when  a  delete  is  active.  However, keep in mind that
              excluded files and directories can prevent existing items from being deleted due to
              an exclude both hiding source files and protecting destination files.  See the per-
              ishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain empty  directories  from  the  file-list  by
              using  a  global "protect" filter.  For instance, this option would ensure that the
              directory "emptydir" was kept in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's an example that copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy, only creating the nec-
              essary  destination directories to hold the .pdf files, and ensures that any super-
              fluous files and directories in the destination are removed (note the  hide  filter
              of non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If  you  didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the more time-honored
              options of "--include='*/' --exclude='*'" would work fine in place of the hide-fil-
              ter (if that is more natural to you).

              This  option tells rsync to print information showing the progress of the transfer.
              This gives a bored user something to watch.  With a modern rsync this is  the  same
              as specifying --info=flist2,name,progress, but any user-supplied settings for those
              info flags takes precedence (e.g. "--info=flist0 --progress").

              While rsync is transferring a regular file, it updates a progress line  that  looks
              like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes or 63% of the sender's
              file, which is being reconstructed at a rate of 110.64 kilobytes  per  second,  and
              the  transfer  will finish in 4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the

              These statistics can be misleading if rsync's delta-transfer algorithm is  in  use.
              For example, if the sender's file consists of the basis file followed by additional
              data, the reported rate will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to
              the  literal  data,  and the transfer will probably take much longer to finish than
              the receiver estimated as it was finishing the matched part of the file.

              When the file transfer finishes, rsync replaces the progress line  with  a  summary
              line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In  this  example,  the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the average rate of
              transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes per second over the 8 seconds that
              it  took  to complete, it was the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current
              rsync session, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check  (to  see  if
              they are up-to-date or not) remaining out of the 396 total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync won't know the total number of files in the
              file-list until it reaches the ends of the scan, but since it  starts  to  transfer
              files during the scan, it will display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremen-
              tal recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until the point that  it  knows  the  full
              size  of  the  list, at which point it will switch to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing
              "ir-chk" lets you know that the total count of files in  the  file  list  is  still
              going  to  increase  (and each time it does, the count of files left to check  will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The -P option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its purpose  is  to  make  it
              much  easier  to  specify  these two options for a long transfer that may be inter-

              There is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics based on the  whole
              transfer,  rather  than individual files.  Use this flag without outputting a file-
              name (e.g. avoid -v or specify --info=name0 if you want to see how the transfer  is
              doing without scrolling the screen with a lot of names.  (You don't need to specify
              the --progress option in order to use --info=progress2.)

              This option allows you to provide a password for accessing an rsync  daemon  via  a
              file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The file should contain just the password
              on the first line (all other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error  if
              FILE is world readable or if a root-run rsync command finds a non-root-owned file.

              This  option does not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to
              learn how to do that, consult the remote shell's documentation.  When accessing  an
              rsync  daemon  using  a  remote shell as the transport, this option only comes into
              effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication (i.e. if  you  have  also
              specified a password in the daemon's config file).

              This  option will cause the source files to be listed instead of transferred.  This
              option is inferred if there is a single source arg and no destination specified, so
              its  main uses are: (1) to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to  specify  more  than  one  source  arg
              (note:  be  sure  to include the destination).  Caution: keep in mind that a source
              arg with a wild-card is expanded by the shell into multiple args, so  it  is  never
              safe to try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting  with  rsync  3.1.0,  the  sizes output by --list-only are affected by the
              --human-readable option.  By default they will contain digit separators, but higher
              levels of readability will output the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the
              column width for the size output has increased from 11 to  14  characters  for  all
              human-readable  levels.   Use  --no-h if you want just digits in the sizes, and the
              old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing of files from an  rsync  that
              is  version  2.6.3 or older, you may encounter an error if you ask for a non-recur-
              sive listing.  This is because  a  file  listing  implies  the  --dirs  option  w/o
              --recursive,  and  older  rsyncs  don't  have  that option.  To avoid this problem,
              either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need to expand a directory's con-
              tent),  or  turn  on  recursion  and  exclude  the  content  of  subdirectories: -r

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data sent  over
              the  socket,  specified in units per second.  The RATE value can be suffixed with a
              string to indicate  a  size  multiplier,  and  may  be  a  fractional  value  (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").   If  no suffix is specified, the value will be assumed to be in
              units of 1024 bytes (as if "K" or "KiB" had been  appended).   See  the  --max-size
              option  for  a description of all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies
              no limit.

              For backward-compatibility reasons, the rate limit will be rounded to  the  nearest
              KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024 bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync  writes  data over the socket in blocks, and this option both limits the size
              of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries to keep the average transfer rate at the
              requested  limit.   Some "burstiness" may be seen where rsync writes out a block of
              data and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may not be an accurate
              reflection on how fast the data is being sent.  This is because some files can show
              up as being rapidly sent when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing of the output buffer occurs.  This may be fixed in a
              future version.

              Record a file that can later be  applied  to  another  identical  destination  with
              --read-batch.   See   the   "BATCH   MODE"   section  for  details,  and  also  the
              --only-write-batch option.

              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the destination system
              when  creating  the  batch.  This lets you transport the changes to the destination
              system via some other means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to some portable media:  if
              this  media  fills  to  capacity before the end of the transfer, you can just apply
              that partial transfer to the destination and repeat the whole process  to  get  the
              rest of the changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated destination sys-
              tem while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing  changes  to  a  remote  system
              because  this allows the batched data to be diverted from the sender into the batch
              file without having to flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender
              is remote, and thus can't write the batch).

              Apply  all  of  the  changes  stored  in  FILE,  a  file  previously  generated  by
              --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data will be read from standard input.  See
              the "BATCH MODE" section for details.

              Force  an  older  protocol version to be used.  This is useful for creating a batch
              file that is compatible with an older version of rsync.   For  instance,  if  rsync
              2.6.4  is being used with the --write-batch option, but rsync 2.6.3 is what will be
              used to run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28"  when  creating
              the  batch  file  to  force the older protocol version to be used in the batch file
              (assuming you can't upgrade the rsync on the reading system).

              Rsync can convert filenames between character sets using this option.  Using a CON-
              VERT_SPEC  of  "."  tells rsync to look up the default character-set via the locale
              setting.  Alternately, you can fully specify what conversion  to  do  by  giving  a
              local  and a remote charset separated by a comma in the order --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE,
              e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.  This order ensures that the option will stay the same
              whether  you're  pushing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can  specify  either
              --no-iconv or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.  The  default  set-
              ting  of this option is site-specific, and can also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV
              environment variable.

              For a list of what charset names your local iconv library  supports,  you  can  run
              "iconv --list".

              If  you  specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will translate the filenames
              you specify on the command-line that are being sent to the remote host.   See  also
              the --files-from option.

              Note  that  rsync  does  not  do any conversion of names in filter files (including
              include/exclude files).  It is up to you to ensure that you're specifying  matching
              rules  that can match on both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify
              extra include/exclude rules if there are filename differences on the two sides that
              need to be accounted for.

              When  you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon that allows it, the daemon uses
              the charset specified in its "charset" configuration parameter  regardless  of  the
              remote  charset  you  actually  pass.   Thus, you may feel free to specify just the
              local charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating sockets.  This only  affects  sockets
              that  rsync has direct control over, such as the outgoing socket when directly con-
              tacting an rsync daemon.  See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If rsync was complied without support for IPv6, the  --ipv6  option  will  have  no
              effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

              Set the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum seed is included in
              each block and MD4 file checksum calculation (the more modern  MD5  file  checksums
              don't  use  a  seed).   By default the checksum seed is generated by the server and
              defaults to the current time() .  This option is used to set  a  specific  checksum
              seed,  which is useful for applications that want repeatable block checksums, or in
              the case where the user wants a more random checksum seed.  Setting NUM to 0 causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

              This  tells  rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you start running may
              be accessed using an rsync client using the  host::module  or  rsync://host/module/

              If  standard  input  is  a  socket  then rsync will assume that it is being run via
              inetd, otherwise it will detach from the current terminal and become  a  background
              daemon.  The daemon will read the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by
              a client and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man page  for
              more details.

              By  default  rsync  will bind to the wildcard address when run as a daemon with the
              --daemon option.  The --address option allows you to specify a specific IP  address
              (or  hostname) to bind to.  This makes virtual hosting possible in conjunction with
              the --config option.  See also the "address" global option in the rsyncd.conf  man-

              This option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for the data the daemon
              sends over the socket.  The client can still specify a smaller --bwlimit value, but
              no larger value will be allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for
              some extra details.

              This specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This  is  only  relevant
              when  --daemon  is specified.  The default is /etc/rsyncd.conf unless the daemon is
              running over a remote shell program and the remote user is not the  super-user;  in
              that case the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typically $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This  option can be used to set a daemon-config parameter when starting up rsync in
              daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding the parameter at the  end  of  the  global
              settings prior to the first module's definition.  The parameter names can be speci-
              fied without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/

              When running as a daemon, this option instructs rsync  to  not  detach  itself  and
              become  a background process.  This option is required when running as a service on
              Cygwin, and may also be useful when rsync is supervised by a program such  as  dae-
              montools or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recommended when
              rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no effect  if  rsync  is  run  from
              inetd or sshd.

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for the daemon to listen on rather than
              the default of 873.  See also the "port" global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              This option tells the rsync daemon to use the given log-file name instead of  using
              the "log file" setting in the config file.

              This  option tells the rsync daemon to use the given FORMAT string instead of using
              the "log format" setting in the config file.  It also  enables  "transfer  logging"
              unless the string is empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

              This  overrides the socket options setting in the rsyncd.conf file and has the same

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information the daemon logs during its  startup
              phase.   After the client connects, the daemon's verbosity level will be controlled
              by the options that the client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's
              config section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells  rsync  to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sockets that the rsync
              daemon will use to listen for connections.  One of these options may be required in
              older  versions  of  Linux  to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an
              "address already in use" error when nothing else is using the port, try  specifying
              --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support for IPv6, the --ipv6 option will have no
              effect.  The --version output will tell you if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a  short  help  page  describing  the  options
              available for starting an rsync daemon.

       The  filter  rules  allow  for flexible selection of which files to transfer (include) and
       which files to skip (exclude).  The rules either directly specify include/exclude patterns
       or  they  specify a way to acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a

       As the list of files/directories to transfer is built, rsync checks each name to be trans-
       ferred  against  the list of include/exclude patterns in turn, and the first matching pat-
       tern is acted on:  if it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped;  if  it  is  an
       include  pattern  then that filename is not skipped; if no matching pattern is found, then
       the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync builds an ordered list of filter rules as specified  on  the  command-line.   Filter
       rules have the following syntax:


       You have your choice of using either short or long RULE names, as described below.  If you
       use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the RULE from the MODIFIERS is  optional.   The
       PATTERN  or  FILENAME that follows (when present) must come after either a single space or
       an underscore (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files from deletion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are comment lines  that
       start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the full range of rule
       parsing as described above -- they only allow the specification  of  include/exclude  pat-
       terns  plus  a  "!" token to clear the list (and the normal comment parsing when rules are
       read from a file).  If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash, space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then the rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include option) or "- " (for
       an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A --filter option,  on  the  other  hand,
       must always contain either a short or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note  also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take one rule/pattern each.
       To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on the command-line, use  the  merge-file
       syntax of the --filter option, or the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

       You  can  include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+", "-", etc. filter
       rules (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).  The include/exclude  rules  each
       specify  a  pattern  that  is  matched against the names of the files that are going to be
       transferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to  a  particular  spot  in  the
              hierarchy  of files, otherwise it is matched against the end of the pathname.  This
              is similar to a leading ^ in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match  a  name
              of  "foo"  at  either  the  "root  of  the  transfer" (for a global rule) or in the
              merge-file's directory (for a per-directory  rule).   An  unqualified  "foo"  would
              match  a name of "foo" anywhere in the tree because the algorithm is applied recur-
              sively from the top down; it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
              the end of the filename.  Even the unanchored "sub/foo" would match at any point in
              the hierarchy where a "foo" was found within a directory named "sub".  See the sec-
              tion  on ANCHORING INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only match a  directory,  not  a  regular
              file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync chooses between doing a simple string match and wildcard matching by checking
              if the pattern contains one of these three wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a '[' introduces a character class, such as [a-z] or [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wildcard character,  but
              it is matched literally when no wildcards are present.  This means that there is an
              extra level of backslash removal when a pattern contains wildcard  characters  com-
              pared  to  a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to "foo\bar" (which
              matches the backslash) you would need to use "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming
              just "b".

       o      if  the  pattern  contains  a  /  (not counting a trailing /) or a "**", then it is
              matched against the full pathname, including any leading directories. If  the  pat-
              tern  doesn't contain a / or a "**", then it is matched only against the final com-
              ponent of the filename.  (Remember that the algorithm  is  applied  recursively  so
              "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from the starting directory
              on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory (as if "dir_name/" had been
              specified)  and  everything  in  the directory (as if "dir_name/**" had been speci-
              fied).  This behavior was added in version 2.6.7.

       Note that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by -a), every  subcom-
       ponent of every path is visited from the top down, so include/exclude patterns get applied
       recursively to each subcomponent's full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcompo-
       nents  "/foo"  and  "/foo/bar"  must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the files to send.  If a pat-
       tern  excludes a particular parent directory, it can render a deeper include pattern inef-
       fectual because rsync did not descend through that  excluded  section  of  the  hierarchy.
       This  is  particularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this won't

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This fails because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*' rule, so rsync never
       visits  any of the files in the "some" or "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask
       for all directories in the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule: "+ */" (put it
       somewhere  before the "- *" rule), and perhaps use the --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another
       solution is to add specific include rules for all the parent dirs that need to be visited.
       For instance, this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "-  /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named foo in the transfer-root direc-

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "- /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is  at  two  levels  below  a
              directory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar" would exclude any file named bar two or more levels below a direc-
              tory named foo in the transfer-root directory

       o      The combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all directories  and  C
              source files but nothing else (see also the --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+ foo/", "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would include only the foo
              directory and foo/bar.c (the foo directory must be explicitly included or it  would
              be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  / specifies that the include/exclude rule should be matched against the absolute
              pathname of the current item.  For example,  "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the
              passwd  file any time the transfer was sending files from the "/etc" directory, and
              "-/ subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named "subdir", even
              if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A  !  specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the pattern fails to
              match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the global CVS-exclude rules should be inserted as
              excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg should follow.

       o      An  s  is  used to indicate that the rule applies to the sending side.  When a rule
              affects the sending side, it prevents files from being transferred.  The default is
              for  a  rule  to affect both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which
              case default rules become sender-side only.  See also the hide  (H)  and  show  (S)
              rules, which are an alternate way to specify sending-side includes/excludes.

       o      An  r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the receiving side.  When a rule
              affects the receiving side, it prevents files from being deleted.  See the s  modi-
              fier  for  more  info.   See  also the protect (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an
              alternate way to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is perishable, meaning that it is ignored in  directories
              that  are  being deleted.  For instance, the -C option's default rules that exclude
              things like "CVS" and "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a direc-
              tory that was removed on the source from being deleted on the destination.

       You  can  merge  whole  files into your filter rules by specifying either a merge (.) or a
       dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in the FILTER RULES section above).

       There are two kinds of merged files -- single-instance ('.') and per-directory  (':').   A
       single-instance  merge file is read one time, and its rules are incorporated into the fil-
       ter list in the place of the "." rule.  For per-directory merge  files,  rsync  will  scan
       every  directory  that it traverses for the named file, merging its contents when the file
       exists into the current list of inherited rules.  These per-directory rule files  must  be
       created  on  the sending side because it is the sending side that is being scanned for the
       available files to transfer.  These rule files may also need  to  be  transferred  to  the
       receiving  side if you want them to affect what files don't get deleted (see PER-DIRECTORY
       RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude patterns, with no  other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  + specifies that the file should consist of only include patterns, with no other
              rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A C is a way to specify that the file should be read in  a  CVS-compatible  manner.
              This  turns on 'n', 'w', and '-', but also allows the list-clearing token (!) to be
              specified.  If no filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name from the transfer; e.g.  "dir-merge,e  .rules"
              is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An n specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirectories.

       o      A  w  specifies  that  the rules are word-split on whitespace instead of the normal
              line-splitting.  This also turns off comments.  Note: the space that separates  the
              prefix  from the rule is treated specially, so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for the "+" or "-" rules (above) in order
              to  have  the  rules that are read in from the file default to having that modifier
              set (except for the  !  modifier,  which  would  not  be  useful).   For  instance,
              "merge,-/ .excl" would treat the contents of .excl as absolute-path excludes, while
              "dir-merge,s .filt" and ":sC" would each make all their per-directory  rules  apply
              only  on  the sending side.  If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s
              or r modifier or both), then the rules in the file must not specify  sides  (via  a
              modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are  inherited  in  all  subdirectories  of  the directory where the
       merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier was used.  Each subdirectory's rules are pre-
       fixed  to the inherited per-directory rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules
       a higher priority than the inherited rules.  The entire set of dir-merge rules are grouped
       together  in  the  spot  where the merge-file was specified, so it is possible to override
       dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified earlier in the list of global  rules.   When
       the  list-clearing rule ("!") is read from a per-directory file, it only clears the inher-
       ited rules for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being  inherited  is  to
       anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a per-directory merge-file are relative
       to the merge-file's directory, so a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in  the
       directory where the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter file which you'd specify via --filter=". file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will  merge  the  contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at the start of the
       list and also turns the ".rules" filename into a per-directory  filter  file.   All  rules
       read in prior to the start of the directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a
       leading slash matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent directory  of  the
       first  transfer directory, rsync will scan all the parent dirs from that starting point to
       the transfer directory for the indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is a com-
       mon filter (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all directories from the root
       down through the parent directory of the transfer prior to the start of the normal  direc-
       tory  scan of the file in the directories that are sent as a part of the transfer.  (Note:
       for an rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The first two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and  "/src"  before  the
       normal  scan  begins looking for the file in "/src/path" and its subdirectories.  The last
       command avoids the parent-dir scan and only looks for the ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns, you should use the
       rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the .cvsignore file, but parsed in a  CVS-compati-
       ble manner.  You can use this to affect where the --cvs-exclude (-C) option's inclusion of
       the per-directory .cvsignore file gets placed into your rules by putting the ":C" wherever
       you  like  in your filter rules.  Without this, rsync would add the dir-merge rule for the
       .cvsignore file at the end of all your other rules (giving it a lower priority  than  your
       command-line rules).  For example:

              cat <<EOT | rsync -avC --filter='. -' a/ b
              + foo.o
              - *.old
              rsync -avC --include=foo.o -f :C --exclude='*.old' a/ b

       Both of the above rsync commands are identical.  Each one will merge all the per-directory
       .cvsignore rules in the middle of the list rather than at  the  end.   This  allows  their
       dir-specific  rules to supersede the rules that follow the :C instead of being subservient
       to all your rules.  To affect the other CVS exclude rules (i.e. the default list of exclu-
       sions,  the contents of $HOME/.cvsignore, and the value of $CVSIGNORE) you should omit the
       -C command-line option and instead insert a "-C" rule into your filter rules; e.g. "--fil-

       You can clear the current include/exclude list by using the "!" filter rule (as introduced
       in the FILTER RULES section above).  The "current" list is either the global list of rules
       (if  the  rule  is encountered while parsing the filter options) or a set of per-directory
       rules (which are inherited in their own sub-list, so a subdirectory can use this to  clear
       out the parent's rules).

       As  mentioned  earlier,  global  include/exclude patterns are anchored at the "root of the
       transfer" (as opposed to per-directory patterns, which are anchored  at  the  merge-file's
       directory).   If  you think of the transfer as a subtree of names that are being sent from
       sender to receiver, the transfer-root is where the tree starts to  be  duplicated  in  the
       destination directory.  This root governs where patterns that start with a / match.

       Because  the  matching  is relative to the transfer-root, changing the trailing slash on a
       source path or changing your use of the --relative option affects the path you need to use
       in  your  matching (in addition to changing how much of the file tree is duplicated on the
       destination host).  The following examples demonstrate this.

       Let's say that we  want  to  match  two  source  files,  one  with  an  absolute  path  of
       "/home/me/foo/bar",  and  one with a path of "/home/you/bar/baz".  Here is how the various
       command choices differ for a 2-source transfer:

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a /home/me/ /home/you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /foo/bar               (note missing "me")
              +/- pattern: /bar/baz               (note missing "you")
              Target file: /dest/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/bar/baz

              Example cmd: rsync -a --relative /home/me/ /home/you /dest
              +/- pattern: /home/me/foo/bar       (note full path)
              +/- pattern: /home/you/bar/baz      (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/home/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/home/you/bar/baz

              Example cmd: cd /home; rsync -a --relative me/foo you/ /dest
              +/- pattern: /me/foo/bar      (starts at specified path)
              +/- pattern: /you/bar/baz     (ditto)
              Target file: /dest/me/foo/bar
              Target file: /dest/you/bar/baz

       The easiest way to see what name you should filter is to just  look  at  the  output  when
       using  --verbose  and put a / in front of the name (use the --dry-run option if you're not
       yet ready to copy any files).

       Without a delete option, per-directory rules are only relevant on the sending side, so you
       can  feel  free  to exclude the merge files themselves without affecting the transfer.  To
       make this easy, the 'e' modifier adds this exclude for you, as seen in these  two  equiva-
       lent commands:

              rsync -av --filter=': .excl' --exclude=.excl host:src/dir /dest
              rsync -av --filter=':e .excl' host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if  you  want to do a delete on the receiving side AND you want some files to be
       excluded from being deleted, you'll need to be sure that the  receiving  side  knows  what
       files  to  exclude.   The  easiest  way is to include the per-directory merge files in the
       transfer and use --delete-after, because this ensures that the receiving side gets all the
       same exclude rules as the sending side before it tries to delete anything:

              rsync -avF --delete-after host:src/dir /dest

       However,  if the merge files are not a part of the transfer, you'll need to either specify
       some global exclude rules (i.e. specified on the command line), or you'll need to maintain
       your own per-directory merge files on the receiving side.  An example of the first is this
       (assume that the remote .rules files exclude themselves):

       rsync -av --filter=': .rules' --filter='. /my/extra.rules'
          --delete host:src/dir /dest

       In the above example the extra.rules file can affect both sides of the transfer,  but  (on
       the  sending  side)  the  rules  are subservient to the rules merged from the .rules files
       because they were specified after the per-directory merge rule.

       In one final example, the remote side is excluding the .rsync-filter files from the trans-
       fer,  but  we  want to use our own .rsync-filter files to control what gets deleted on the
       receiving side.  To do this we must specifically exclude the per-directory merge files (so
       that  they don't get deleted) and then put rules into the local files to control what else
       should not get deleted.  Like one of these commands:

           rsync -av --filter=':e /.rsync-filter' --delete \
               host:src/dir /dest
           rsync -avFF --delete host:src/dir /dest

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to many identical systems. Suppose
       one  has  a  tree which is replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes have
       been made to this source tree and those changes need to be propagated to the other  hosts.
       In  order  to  do this using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option to apply
       the changes made to the source tree to one of  the  destination  trees.   The  write-batch
       option  causes  the  rsync client to store in a "batch file" all the information needed to
       repeat this operation against other, identical destination trees.

       Generating the batch file once saves having to perform the file status, checksum, and data
       block generation more than once when updating multiple destination trees. Multicast trans-
       port protocols can be used to transfer the batch update files in parallel to many hosts at
       once, instead of sending the same data to every host individually.

       To  apply  the recorded changes to another destination tree, run rsync with the read-batch
       option, specifying the name of the same batch  file,  and  the  destination  tree.   Rsync
       updates the destination tree using the information stored in the batch file.

       For  your  convenience, a script file is also created when the write-batch option is used:
       it will be named the same as the batch file with ".sh" appended.  This  script  file  con-
       tains  a  command-line suitable for updating a destination tree using the associated batch
       file. It can be executed using a Bourne (or Bourne-like) shell, optionally passing  in  an
       alternate destination tree pathname which is then used instead of the original destination
       path.  This is useful when the destination tree path on the current host differs from  the
       one used to create the batch file.


              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a host:/source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ scp foo* remote:
              $ ssh remote ./ /bdest/dir/

              $ rsync --write-batch=foo -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
              $ ssh remote rsync --read-batch=- -a /bdest/dir/ <foo

       In  these examples, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ from /source/dir/ and the informa-
       tion to repeat this operation is stored in "foo" and "".  The host "remote" is  then
       updated  with  the  batched  data  going  into  the directory /bdest/dir.  The differences
       between the two examples reveals some of the flexibility you have in  how  you  deal  with

       o      The  first  example shows that the initial copy doesn't have to be local -- you can
              push or pull data to/from a remote host using either  the  remote-shell  syntax  or
              rsync daemon syntax, as desired.

       o      The  first  example  uses  the created "" file to get the right rsync options
              when running the read-batch command on the remote host.

       o      The second example reads the batch data via standard input so that the  batch  file
              doesn't  need  to  be  copied to the remote machine first.  This example avoids the
     script because it needed to use a  modified  --read-batch  option,  but  you
              could  edit  the  script file if you wished to make use of it (just be sure that no
              other option is trying to  use  standard  input,  such  as  the  "--exclude-from=-"


       The  read-batch option expects the destination tree that it is updating to be identical to
       the destination tree that was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a  difference
       between  the destination trees is encountered the update might be discarded with a warning
       (if the file appears to be up-to-date already) or the file-update  may  be  attempted  and
       then, if the file fails to verify, the update discarded with an error.  This means that it
       should be safe to re-run a read-batch operation if the command got  interrupted.   If  you
       wish  to force the batched-update to always be attempted regardless of the file's size and
       date, use the -I option (when reading the batch).  If an  error  occurs,  the  destination
       tree will probably be in a partially updated state. In that case, rsync can be used in its
       regular (non-batch) mode of operation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations must be at least as new as the one used to gen-
       erate  the  batch file.  Rsync will die with an error if the protocol version in the batch
       file is too new for the batch-reading rsync to handle.  See also the --protocol option for
       a way to have the creating rsync generate a batch file that an older rsync can understand.
       (Note that batch files changed format in version 2.6.3, so mixing versions older than that
       with newer versions will not work.)

       When reading a batch file, rsync will force the value of certain options to match the data
       in the batch file if you didn't set them to the same as the batch-writing command.   Other
       options  can (and should) be changed.  For instance --write-batch changes to --read-batch,
       --files-from is dropped, and  the  --filter/--include/--exclude  options  are  not  needed
       unless one of the --delete options is specified.

       The code that creates the file transforms any filter/include/exclude options into
       a single list that is appended as a "here" document to the shell script file.  An advanced
       user  can use this to modify the exclude list if a change in what gets deleted by --delete
       is desired.  A normal user can ignore this detail and just use the shell script as an easy
       way to run the appropriate --read-batch command for the batched data.

       The  original batch mode in rsync was based on "rsync+", but the latest version uses a new

       Three basic behaviors are possible when rsync encounters a symbolic  link  in  the  source

       By  default,  symbolic links are not transferred at all.  A message "skipping non-regular"
       file is emitted for any symlinks that exist.

       If --links is specified, then symlinks are recreated with the same target on the  destina-
       tion.  Note that --archive implies --links.

       If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then symlinks are "collapsed" by copying their referent,
       rather than the symlink.

       Rsync can also distinguish "safe" and "unsafe" symbolic  links.   An  example  where  this
       might  be  used  is  a web site mirror that wishes to ensure that the rsync module that is
       copied does not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd in the public section of  the  site.
       Using  --copy-unsafe-links  will cause any links to be copied as the file they point to on
       the destination.  Using --safe-links will cause unsafe links  to  be  omitted  altogether.
       (Note that you must specify --links for --safe-links to have any effect.)

       Symbolic  links are considered unsafe if they are absolute symlinks (start with /), empty,
       or if they contain enough ".." components to ascend from the directory being copied.

       Here's a summary of how the symlink options are interpreted.  The  list  is  in  order  of
       precedence,  so if your combination of options isn't mentioned, use the first line that is
       a complete subset of your options:

              Turn all symlinks into normal files (leaving no symlinks for any other  options  to

       --links --copy-unsafe-links
              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files and duplicate all safe symlinks.

              Turn all unsafe symlinks into files, noisily skip all safe symlinks.

       --links --safe-links
              Duplicate safe symlinks and skip unsafe ones.

              Duplicate all symlinks.

       rsync  occasionally  produces  error messages that may seem a little cryptic. The one that
       seems to cause the most confusion is "protocol version mismatch -- is your shell clean?".

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts or remote shell facility  producing
       unwanted  garbage on the stream that rsync is using for its transport. The way to diagnose
       this problem is to run your remote shell like this:

              ssh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly then out.dat  should  be  a  zero
       length  file.  If  you  are getting the above error from rsync then you will probably find
       that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the contents and try to work out what  is
       producing  it. The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup scripts (such
       as .cshrc or .profile) that contain output statements for non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try specifying the  -vv  option.
       At  this  level  of  verbosity  rsync  will  show  why each individual file is included or

       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made to manipulate 64-bit files on a
              platform  that cannot support them; or an option was specified that is supported by
              the client and not by the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

              The CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any ignore  patterns  in  .cvsignore
              files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more details.

              Specify a default --iconv setting using this environment variable. (First supported
              in 3.0.0.)

              Specify a non-zero numeric value if  you  want  the  --protect-args  option  to  be
              enabled  by  default,  or a zero value to make sure that it is disabled by default.
              (First supported in 3.1.0.)

              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you to override the default shell used as
              the  transport  for  rsync.   Command  line options are permitted after the command
              name, just as in the -e option.

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your  rsync  client  to
              use  a web proxy when connecting to a rsync daemon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a
              hostname:port pair.

              Setting RSYNC_PASSWORD to the required password allows  you  to  run  authenticated
              rsync connections to an rsync daemon without user intervention. Note that this does
              not supply a password to a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how  to  do
              that, consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The  USER  or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine the default user-
              name sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is  set,  the  username  defaults  to

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default .cvsignore file.

       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf


       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to FAT filesystems rsync may re-sync unmodified files.  See the comments
       on the --modify-window option.

       file permissions, devices, etc. are transferred as native numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at

       This man page is current for version 3.1.1 of rsync.

       The options --server and --sender are used internally by rsync, and should never be  typed
       by  a  user  under normal circumstances.  Some awareness of these options may be needed in
       certain scenarios, such as when setting up a login that can only  run  an  rsync  command.
       For  instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an example script named
       rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a restricted ssh login.

       rsync is distributed under the GNU General Public  License.   See  the  file  COPYING  for

       A  WEB  site  is  available  at  The site includes an FAQ-O-Matic
       which may cover questions unanswered by this manual page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if you like this program.  Please contact the mail-
       ing-list at rsync AT

       This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library written by Jean-loup Gailly and
       Mark Adler.

       Special thanks go out to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W. Terpstra,  David  Dyk-
       stra, Jos Backus, Sebastian Krahmer, Martin Pool, and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre,
       J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Rothwell and David Bell.
       I've probably missed some people, my apologies if I have.

       rsync  was  originally  written  by  Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.  Many people have
       later contributed to it.  It is currently maintained by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

                                           22 Jun 2014                                   rsync(1)

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