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SED(1)                           User Commands                          SED(1)



NAME
       sed - stream editor for filtering and transforming text

SYNOPSIS
       sed [OPTION]... {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-file]...

DESCRIPTION
       Sed  is a stream editor.  A stream editor is used to perform basic text transforma-
       tions on an input stream (a file or input from a pipeline).   While  in  some  ways
       similar to an editor which permits scripted edits (such as ed), sed works by making
       only one pass over the input(s), and is consequently more  efficient.   But  it  is
       sed's ability to filter text in a pipeline which particularly distinguishes it from
       other types of editors.

       -n, --quiet, --silent

              suppress automatic printing of pattern space

       -e script, --expression=script

              add the script to the commands to be executed

       -f script-file, --file=script-file

              add the contents of script-file to the commands to be executed

       --follow-symlinks

              follow symlinks when processing in place; hard links will still be broken.

       -i[SUFFIX], --in-place[=SUFFIX]

              edit files in place (makes backup if extension supplied).  The default oper-
              ation  mode  is  to break symbolic and hard links.  This can be changed with
              --follow-symlinks and --copy.

       -c, --copy

              use copy instead of rename when shuffling files in -i mode.  While this will
              avoid  breaking links (symbolic or hard), the resulting editing operation is
              not atomic.  This is rarely the desired mode; --follow-symlinks  is  usually
              enough, and it is both faster and more secure.

       -l N, --line-length=N

              specify the desired line-wrap length for the 'l' command

       --posix

              disable all GNU extensions.

       -r, --regexp-extended

              use extended regular expressions in the script.

       -s, --separate

              consider files as separate rather than as a single continuous long stream.

       -u, --unbuffered

              load  minimal  amounts  of  data  from  the input files and flush the output
              buffers more often

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       If no -e, --expression, -f, or --file option is given, then  the  first  non-option
       argument  is  taken  as  the  sed script to interpret.  All remaining arguments are
       names of input files; if no input files are specified, then the standard  input  is
       read.

       GNU  sed  home  page:  <http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/>.   General help using GNU
       software:  <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>.   E-mail  bug   reports   to:   <bug-gnu-
       utils AT gnu.org>.   Be sure to include the word ''sed'' somewhere in the ''Subject:''
       field.

COMMAND SYNOPSIS
       This is just a brief synopsis of sed commands to serve as a reminder to  those  who
       already  know  sed; other documentation (such as the texinfo document) must be con-
       sulted for fuller descriptions.

   Zero-address ''commands''
       : label
              Label for b and t commands.

       #comment
              The comment extends until the next newline (or the end of a -e script  frag-
              ment).

       }      The closing bracket of a { } block.

   Zero- or One- address commands
       =      Print the current line number.

       a \

       text   Append text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       i \

       text   Insert text, which has each embedded newline preceded by a backslash.

       q [exit-code]
              Immediately  quit  the  sed script without processing any more input, except
              that if auto-print is  not  disabled  the  current  pattern  space  will  be
              printed.  The exit code argument is a GNU extension.

       Q [exit-code]
              Immediately  quit the sed script without processing any more input.  This is
              a GNU extension.

       r filename
              Append text read from filename.

       R filename
              Append a line read from filename.  Each invocation of the  command  reads  a
              line from the file.  This is a GNU extension.

   Commands which accept address ranges
       {      Begin a block of commands (end with a }).

       b label
              Branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to end of script.

       t label
              If  a  s/// has done a successful substitution since the last input line was
              read and since the last t or T command, then branch to label;  if  label  is
              omitted, branch to end of script.

       T label
              If  no s/// has done a successful substitution since the last input line was
              read and since the last t or T command, then branch to label;  if  label  is
              omitted, branch to end of script.  This is a GNU extension.

       c \

       text   Replace  the  selected lines with text, which has each embedded newline pre-
              ceded by a backslash.

       d      Delete pattern space.  Start next cycle.

       D      Delete up to the first embedded newline in the pattern  space.   Start  next
              cycle, but skip reading from the input if there is still data in the pattern
              space.

       h H    Copy/append pattern space to hold space.

       g G    Copy/append hold space to pattern space.

       x      Exchange the contents of the hold and pattern spaces.

       l      List out the current line in a ''visually unambiguous'' form.

       l width
              List out the current line in a ''visually unambiguous'' form, breaking it at
              width characters.  This is a GNU extension.

       n N    Read/append the next line of input into the pattern space.

       p      Print the current pattern space.

       P      Print up to the first embedded newline of the current pattern space.

       s/regexp/replacement/
              Attempt  to  match regexp against the pattern space.  If successful, replace
              that portion matched with replacement.  The replacement may contain the spe-
              cial  character  &  to  refer  to  that  portion  of the pattern space which
              matched, and the special escapes \1 through \9 to refer to the corresponding
              matching sub-expressions in the regexp.

       w filename
              Write the current pattern space to filename.

       W filename
              Write  the  first  line of the current pattern space to filename.  This is a
              GNU extension.

       y/source/dest/
              Transliterate the characters in the pattern space which appear in source  to
              the corresponding character in dest.

Addresses
       Sed commands can be given with no addresses, in which case the command will be exe-
       cuted for all input lines; with one address, in which case the command will only be
       executed  for input lines which match that address; or with two addresses, in which
       case the command will be executed for all input lines  which  match  the  inclusive
       range  of  lines  starting  from  the  first  address  and continuing to the second
       address.  Three things to note about address  ranges:  the  syntax  is  addr1,addr2
       (i.e.,  the  addresses are separated by a comma); the line which addr1 matched will
       always be accepted, even if addr2 selects an earlier line; and if addr2 is  a  reg-
       exp, it will not be tested against the line that addr1 matched.

       After the address (or address-range), and before the command, a !  may be inserted,
       which specifies that the command shall only be executed if the address (or address-
       range) does not match.

       The following address types are supported:

       number Match only the specified line number.

       first~step
              Match  every  step'th  line starting with line first.  For example, ''sed -n
              1~2p'' will print all the odd-numbered lines in the input  stream,  and  the
              address  2~5  will  match every fifth line, starting with the second.  first
              can be zero; in this case, sed operates as if it were equal to step.   (This
              is an extension.)

       $      Match the last line.

       /regexp/
              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.

       \cregexpc
              Match  lines matching the regular expression regexp.  The c may be any char-
              acter.

       GNU sed also supports some special 2-address forms:

       0,addr2
              Start out in "matched first address" state, until addr2 is found.   This  is
              similar  to  1,addr2,  except  that  if addr2 matches the very first line of
              input the 0,addr2 form will be at the end of its range, whereas the  1,addr2
              form  will  still  be  at  the beginning of its range.  This works only when
              addr2 is a regular expression.

       addr1,+N
              Will match addr1 and the N lines following addr1.

       addr1,~N
              Will match addr1 and the lines following addr1 until  the  next  line  whose
              input line number is a multiple of N.

REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
       POSIX.2 BREs should be supported, but they aren't completely because of performance
       problems.  The \n sequence in a regular expression matches the  newline  character,
       and similarly for \a, \t, and other sequences.

BUGS
       E-mail  bug  reports to bonzini AT gnu.org.  Be sure to include the word ''sed'' some-
       where in the ''Subject:'' field.  Also, please include the output of  ''sed  --ver-
       sion'' in the body of your report if at all possible.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This  is  free  software;  see the source for copying conditions.  There is NO war-
       ranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A  PARTICULAR  PURPOSE,  to  the
       extent permitted by law.

       GNU  sed  home  page:  <http://www.gnu.org/software/sed/>.   General help using GNU
       software:  <http://www.gnu.org/gethelp/>.   E-mail  bug   reports   to:   <bug-gnu-
       utils AT gnu.org>.   Be sure to include the word ''sed'' somewhere in the ''Subject:''
       field.

SEE ALSO
       awk(1), ed(1), grep(1), tr(1), perlre(1), sed.info, any of various books on sed,
       the sed FAQ (http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/tutorials/sedfaq.txt),
       http://sed.sf.net/grabbag/.

       The full documentation for sed is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info and
       sed programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info sed

       should give you access to the complete manual.



sed version 4.2.1                  June 2012                            SED(1)

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