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STANDARDS(7)               Linux Programmer's Manual              STANDARDS(7)

       standards - C and UNIX Standards

       The  CONFORMING  TO  section  that  appears in many manual pages identifies various
       standards to which the documented interface conforms.  The following  list  briefly
       describes these standards.

       V7     Version 7, the ancestral UNIX from Bell Labs.

       4.2BSD This  is an implementation standard defined by the 4.2 release of the Berke-
              ley Software Distribution, released  by  the  University  of  California  at
              Berkeley.  This was the first Berkeley release that contained a TCP/IP stack
              and the sockets API.  4.2BSD was released in 1983.

              Earlier major BSD releases included 3BSD (1980),  4BSD  (1980),  and  4.1BSD

       4.3BSD The successor to 4.2BSD, released in 1986.

       4.4BSD The successor to 4.3BSD, released in 1993.  This was the last major Berkeley

       System V
              This is an implementation standard defined by AT&T's milestone 1983  release
              of  its commercial System V (five) release.  The previous major AT&T release
              was System III, released in 1981.

       System V release 2 (SVr2)
              This was the next System V release, made in 1985.   The  SVr2  was  formally
              described  in the System V Interface Definition version 1 (SVID 1) published
              in 1985.

       System V release 3 (SVr3)
              This was the successor to SVr2, released in 1986.  This release was formally
              described in the System V Interface Definition version 2 (SVID 2).

       System V release 4 (SVr4)
              This  was the successor to SVr3, released in 1989.  This version of System V
              is described in the "Programmer's Reference  Manual:  Operating  System  API
              (Intel  processors)"  (Prentice-Hall  1992, ISBN 0-13-951294-2) This release
              was formally described in the System V Interface Definition version 3  (SVID
              3), and is considered the definitive System V release.

       SVID 4 System  V  Interface Definition version 4, issued in 1995.  Available online
              at .

       C89    This was the first C language standard, ratified by ANSI (American  National
              Standards Institute) in 1989 (X3.159-1989).  Sometimes this is known as ANSI
              C, but since C99 is also an ANSI standard, this  term  is  ambiguous.   This
              standard  was also ratified by ISO (International Standards Organization) in
              1990 (ISO/IEC 9899:1990), and is thus occasionally referred to as ISO C90.

       C99    This revision of the C  language  standard  was  ratified  by  ISO  in  1999
              (ISO/IEC     9899:1999).      Available     online    at

              "Portable Operating System  Interface  for  Computing  Environments".   IEEE
              1003.1-1990 part 1, ratified by ISO in 1990 (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990).  The term
              "POSIX" was coined by Richard Stallman.

              IEEE Std 1003.2-1992, describing commands and utilities, ratified by ISO  in
              1993 (ISO/IEC 9945-2:1993).

       POSIX.1b (formerly known as POSIX.4)
              IEEE Std 1003.1b-1993 describing real-time facilities for portable operating
              systems, ratified by ISO in 1996 (ISO/IEC 9945-1:1996).

              IEEE Std 1003.1c-1995 describing the POSIX threads interfaces.

              IEEE Std 1003.1c-1999 describing additional real-time extensions.

              IEEE Std 1003.1g-2000 describing networking APIs (including sockets).

              IEEE Std 1003.1j-2000 describing advanced real-time extensions.

              A 1996 revision of POSIX.1 which incorporated POSIX.1b and POSIX.1c.

       XPG3   Released in 1989, this was the  first  significant  release  of  the  X/Open
              Portability  Guide,  produced  by the X/Open Company, a multi-vendor consor-
              tium.  This multi-volume guide was based on the POSIX standards.

       XPG4   A revision of the X/Open Portability Guide, released in 1992.

       XPG4v2 A 1994 revision of XPG4.  This is also referred to as Spec 1170, where  1170
              referred to the number of interfaces defined by this standard.

       SUS (SUSv1)
              Single  UNIX  Specification.   This  was  a  repackaging of XPG4v2 and other
              X/Open standards (X/Open Curses Issue 4 version 2, X/Open Networking Service
              (XNS) Issue 4).  Systems conforming to this standard can be branded UNIX 95.

       SUSv2  Single UNIX Specification version 2.  Sometimes also referred  to  as  XPG5.
              This  standard appeared in 1997.  Systems conforming to this standard can be
              branded UNIX 98.  See also .)

       POSIX.1-2001, SUSv3
              This was a 2001 revision and consolidation of the POSIX.1, POSIX.2, and  SUS
              standards into a single document, conducted under the auspices of the Austin
              group ( .)  The standard is available online
              at  ,  and  the  interfaces  that  it
              describes are also available in the Linux manual pages  package  under  sec-
              tions 1p and 3p (e.g., "man 3p open").

              The  standard defines two levels of conformance: POSIX conformance, which is
              a baseline set of interfaces required of a conforming system; and  XSI  Con-
              formance,  which  additionally mandates a set of interfaces (the "XSI exten-
              sion") which are only optional for POSIX conformance.   XSI-conformant  sys-
              tems  can  be branded UNIX 03.  (XSI conformance constitutes the Single UNIX
              Specification version 3 (SUSv3).)

              The POSIX.1-2001 document is broken into four parts:

              XBD: Definitions, terms and concepts, header file specifications.

              XSH: Specifications of functions (i.e., system calls and  library  functions
              in actual implementations).

              XCU:  Specifications  of  commands  and  utilities  (i.e., the area formerly
              described by POSIX.2).

              XRAT: Informative text on the other parts of the standard.

              POSIX.1-2001 is aligned with C99, so that all of the library functions stan-
              dardized in C99 are also standardized in POSIX.1-2001.

              Two Technical Corrigenda (minor fixes and improvements) of the original 2001
              standard have occurred: TC1 in 2003 (referred to as POSIX.1-2003),  and  TC2
              in 2004 (referred to as POSIX.1-2004).

       POSIX.1-2008, SUSv4
              Work on the next revision of POSIX.1/SUS was completed and ratified in 2008.

              The changes in this revision are not as large as  those  that  occurred  for
              POSIX.1-2001/SUSv3,  but  a  number  of new interfaces are added and various
              details of existing specifications are modified.   Many  of  the  interfaces
              that  were optional in POSIX.1-2001 become mandatory in the 2008 revision of
              the standard.  A few interfaces that are present in POSIX.1-2001 are  marked
              as obsolete in POSIX.1-2008, or removed from the standard altogether.

              The revised standard is broken into the same four parts as POSIX.1-2001, and
              again there are two levels of conformance: the baseline  POSIX  Conformance,
              and  XSI  Conformance, which mandates an additional set of interfaces beyond
              those in the base specification.

              In general,  where  the  CONFORMING  TO  section  of  a  manual  page  lists
              POSIX.1-2001,  it  can  be  assumed  that  the  interface  also  conforms to
              POSIX.1-2008, unless otherwise noted.

              Further  information  can  be  found  on  the   Austin   group   web   site,

       feature_test_macros(7), libc(7), posixoptions(7)

       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://www.ker-

Linux                             2009-06-01                      STANDARDS(7)

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