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STRACE(1)                                                            STRACE(1)

       strace - trace system calls and signals

       strace  [-CdffhiqrtttTvVxxy]  [-In]  [-bexecve]  [-eexpr]...   [-acolumn]  [-ofile]
       [-sstrsize] [-Ppath]...  -ppid...  /  [-D]  [-Evar[=val]]...  [-uusername]  command

       strace -c[df] [-In] [-bexecve] [-eexpr]...  [-Ooverhead] [-Ssortby] -ppid... / [-D]
       [-Evar[=val]]... [-uusername] command [args]

       In the simplest case strace runs the specified command until it exits.   It  inter-
       cepts  and  records  the system calls which are called by a process and the signals
       which are received by a process.  The name of each system call, its  arguments  and
       its return value are printed on standard error or to the file specified with the -o

       strace is a useful diagnostic, instructional, and debugging tool.  System  adminis-
       trators,  diagnosticians  and  trouble-shooters will find it invaluable for solving
       problems with programs for which the source is not readily available since they  do
       not  need  to  be  recompiled  in  order  to trace them.  Students, hackers and the
       overly-curious will find that a great deal can be learned about a  system  and  its
       system  calls  by  tracing  even ordinary programs.  And programmers will find that
       since system calls and signals are events that happen at the user/kernel interface,
       a  close  examination  of  this  boundary  is very useful for bug isolation, sanity
       checking and attempting to capture race conditions.

       Each line in the trace contains the system call name, followed by its arguments  in
       parentheses  and  its  return  value.   An  example from stracing the command ''cat
       /dev/null'' is:

       open("/dev/null", O_RDONLY) = 3

       Errors (typically a return value of -1) have the  errno  symbol  and  error  string

       open("/foo/bar", O_RDONLY) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

       Signals are printed as a signal symbol and a signal string.  An excerpt from strac-
       ing and interrupting the command ''sleep 666'' is:

       sigsuspend([] <unfinished ...>
       --- SIGINT (Interrupt) ---
       +++ killed by SIGINT +++

       If a system call is being executed and meanwhile another one is being called from a
       different thread/process then strace will try to preserve the order of those events
       and mark the ongoing call as being unfinished.  When the call returns  it  will  be
       marked as resumed.

       [pid 28772] select(4, [3], NULL, NULL, NULL <unfinished ...>
       [pid 28779] clock_gettime(CLOCK_REALTIME, {1130322148, 939977000}) = 0
       [pid 28772] <... select resumed> )      = 1 (in [3])

       Interruption  of a (restartable) system call by a signal delivery is processed dif-
       ferently as kernel terminates the system call and also arranges its immediate reex-
       ecution after the signal handler completes.

       read(0, 0x7ffff72cf5cf, 1)              = ? ERESTARTSYS (To be restarted)
       --- SIGALRM (Alarm clock) @ 0 (0) ---
       rt_sigreturn(0xe)                       = 0
       read(0, ""..., 1)                       = 0

       Arguments  are  printed  in  symbolic  form with a passion.  This example shows the
       shell performing ''>>xyzzy'' output redirection:

       open("xyzzy", O_WRONLY|O_APPEND|O_CREAT, 0666) = 3

       Here the third argument of open is decoded by breaking down the flag argument  into
       its  three  bitwise-OR  constituents and printing the mode value in octal by tradi-
       tion.  Where traditional or native usage differs from ANSI  or  POSIX,  the  latter
       forms  are  preferred.  In some cases, strace output has proven to be more readable
       than the source.

       Structure pointers are dereferenced and the members are displayed  as  appropriate.
       In  all  cases  arguments  are  formatted in the most C-like fashion possible.  For
       example, the essence of the command ''ls -l /dev/null'' is captured as:

       lstat("/dev/null", {st_mode=S_IFCHR|0666, st_rdev=makedev(1, 3), ...}) = 0

       Notice how the 'struct stat' argument is dereferenced and how each member  is  dis-
       played  symbolically.   In  particular, observe how the st_mode member is carefully
       decoded into a bitwise-OR of symbolic and numeric  values.   Also  notice  in  this
       example  that  the  first  argument to lstat is an input to the system call and the
       second argument is an output.  Since output arguments are not modified if the  sys-
       tem  call  fails,  arguments may not always be dereferenced.  For example, retrying
       the ''ls -l'' example with a non-existent file produces the following line:

       lstat("/foo/bar", 0xb004) = -1 ENOENT (No such file or directory)

       In this case the porch light is on but nobody is home.

       Character pointers are dereferenced and printed as C strings.  Non-printing charac-
       ters  in  strings  are  normally  represented by ordinary C escape codes.  Only the
       first strsize (32 by default) bytes of strings are printed; longer strings have  an
       ellipsis appended following the closing quote.  Here is a line from ''ls -l'' where
       the getpwuid library routine is reading the password file:

       read(3, "root::0:0:System Administrator:/"..., 1024) = 422

       While structures are annotated using curly braces, simple pointers and  arrays  are
       printed  using square brackets with commas separating elements.  Here is an example
       from the command ''id'' on a system with supplementary group ids:

       getgroups(32, [100, 0]) = 2

       On the other hand, bit-sets are also shown using square brackets but  set  elements
       are  separated only by a space.  Here is the shell preparing to execute an external

       sigprocmask(SIG_BLOCK, [CHLD TTOU], []) = 0

       Here the second argument is a bit-set of two signals, SIGCHLD and SIGTTOU.  In some
       cases the bit-set is so full that printing out the unset elements is more valuable.
       In that case, the bit-set is prefixed by a tilde like this:

       sigprocmask(SIG_UNBLOCK, ~[], NULL) = 0

       Here the second argument represents the full set of all signals.

       -c          Count time, calls, and errors for each system call and report  a
                   summary on program exit.  On Linux, this attempts to show system
                   time (CPU time spent running in the kernel) independent of  wall
                   clock time.  If -c is used with -f or -F (below), only aggregate
                   totals for all traced processes are kept.

       -C          Like -c but also print regular output while processes  are  run-

       -D          Run  tracer  process  as a detached grandchild, not as parent of
                   the tracee.  This reduces the visible effect of strace by  keep-
                   ing the tracee a direct child of the calling process.

       -d          Show  some  debugging  output  of  strace itself on the standard

       -f          Trace child processes as they are created  by  currently  traced
                   processes as a result of the fork(2), vfork(2) and clone(2) sys-
                   tem calls. Note that -p PID -f will attach all threads  of  pro-
                   cess PID if it is multi-threaded, not only thread with thread_id
                   = PID.

       -ff         If the -o filename option is in effect, each processes trace  is
                   written  to where pid is the numeric process id of
                   each process.  This is incompatible with -c, since  no  per-pro-
                   cess counts are kept.

       -F          This option is now obsolete and it has the same functionality as

       -h          Print the help summary.

       -i          Print the instruction pointer at the time of the system call.

       -q          Suppress messages about attaching, detaching etc.  This  happens
                   automatically  when  output is redirected to a file and the com-
                   mand is run directly instead of attaching.

       -qq         If given twice, suppress messages about process exit status.

       -r          Print a relative timestamp upon entry to each system call.  This
                   records  the time difference between the beginning of successive
                   system calls.

       -t          Prefix each line of the trace with the time of day.

       -tt         If given twice, the time printed will include the  microseconds.

       -ttt        If  given thrice, the time printed will include the microseconds
                   and the leading portion will be printed as the number of seconds
                   since the epoch.

       -T          Show  the time spent in system calls. This records the time dif-
                   ference between the beginning and the end of each system call.

       -v          Print unabbreviated versions of environment, stat, termios, etc.
                   calls.   These  structures  are  very common in calls and so the
                   default behavior displays a reasonable subset of structure  mem-
                   bers.  Use this option to get all of the gory details.

       -V          Print the version number of strace.

       -x          Print all non-ASCII strings in hexadecimal string format.

       -xx         Print all strings in hexadecimal string format.

       -y          Print paths associated with file descriptor arguments.

       -a column   Align return values in a specific column (default column 40).

       -b syscall  If  specified  syscall  is  reached, detach from traced process.
                   Currently, only execve syscall  is  supported.  This  option  is
                   useful if you want to trace multi-threaded process and therefore
                   require -f, but don't want to trace its (potentially  very  com-
                   plex) children.

       -e expr     A  qualifying expression which modifies which events to trace or
                   how to trace them.  The format of the expression is:


                   where qualifier is one of trace, abbrev, verbose,  raw,  signal,
                   read, or write and value is a qualifier-dependent symbol or num-
                   ber.  The default qualifier is trace.  Using an exclamation mark
                   negates the set of values.  For example, -e open means literally
                   -e trace=open which in turn means trace  only  the  open  system
                   call.   By  contrast, -e trace=!open means to trace every system
                   call except open.  In addition, the special values all and  none
                   have the obvious meanings.

                   Note  that  some  shells  use  the exclamation point for history
                   expansion even inside quoted arguments.  If so, you must  escape
                   the exclamation point with a backslash.

       -e trace=set
                   Trace  only the specified set of system calls.  The -c option is
                   useful for determining which system calls  might  be  useful  to
                   trace.   For  example, trace=open,close,read,write means to only
                   trace those four system calls.  Be careful  when  making  infer-
                   ences  about the user/kernel boundary if only a subset of system
                   calls are being monitored.  The default is trace=all.

       -e trace=file
                   Trace all system calls which take a file name  as  an  argument.
                   You    can    think    of    this   as   an   abbreviation   for
                   -e trace=open,stat,chmod,unlink,...  which is useful  to  seeing
                   what  files  the process is referencing.  Furthermore, using the
                   abbreviation will ensure that you don't accidentally  forget  to
                   include  a  call  like lstat in the list.  Betchya woulda forgot
                   that one.

       -e trace=process
                   Trace all system calls which involve process  management.   This
                   is  useful for watching the fork, wait, and exec steps of a pro-

       -e trace=network
                   Trace all the network related system calls.

       -e trace=signal
                   Trace all signal related system calls.

       -e trace=ipc
                   Trace all IPC related system calls.

       -e trace=desc
                   Trace all file descriptor related system calls.

       -e trace=memory
                   Trace all memory mapping related system calls.

       -e abbrev=set
                   Abbreviate the output from printing each member of large  struc-
                   tures.  The default is abbrev=all.  The -v option has the effect
                   of abbrev=none.

       -e verbose=set
                   Dereference structures for the specified set  of  system  calls.
                   The default is verbose=all.

       -e raw=set  Print  raw,  undecoded arguments for the specified set of system
                   calls.  This option has the effect of causing all  arguments  to
                   be  printed  in hexadecimal.  This is mostly useful if you don't
                   trust the decoding or you need to know the actual numeric  value
                   of an argument.

       -e signal=set
                   Trace only the specified subset of signals.  The default is sig-
                   nal=all.  For example, signal =! SIGIO  (or  signal=!io)  causes
                   SIGIO signals not to be traced.

       -e read=set Perform  a  full hexadecimal and ASCII dump of all the data read
                   from file descriptors listed in the specified set.  For example,
                   to  see  all  input  activity  on  file  descriptors 3 and 5 use
                   -e read=3,5.  Note that this  is  independent  from  the  normal
                   tracing  of  the  read(2) system call which is controlled by the
                   option -e trace=read.

       -e write=set
                   Perform a full hexadecimal and ASCII dump of all the data  writ-
                   ten  to file descriptors listed in the specified set.  For exam-
                   ple, to see all output activity on file descriptors 3 and 5  use
                   -e write=3,5.   Note  that  this  is independent from the normal
                   tracing of the write(2) system call which is controlled  by  the
                   option -e trace=write.

       -I interruptible
                   When strace can be interrupted by signals (such as pressing ^C).
                   1: no signals are blocked; 2: fatal signals  are  blocked  while
                   decoding  syscall (default); 3: fatal signals are always blocked
                   (default if '-o FILE PROG'); 4: fatal signals and  SIGTSTP  (^Z)
                   are  always blocked (useful to make strace -o FILE PROG not stop
                   on ^Z).

       -o filename Write the trace output to  the  file  filename  rather  than  to
                   stderr.   Use  if  -ff  is  used.  If the argument
                   begins with '|' or with '!' then the rest  of  the  argument  is
                   treated  as  a  command  and all output is piped to it.  This is
                   convenient for piping the debugging output to a program  without
                   affecting the redirections of executed programs.

       -O overhead Set  the overhead for tracing system calls to overhead microsec-
                   onds.  This is useful for overriding the default  heuristic  for
                   guessing  how  much  time is spent in mere measuring when timing
                   system calls using the -c option.  The accuracy of the heuristic
                   can  be  gauged  by  timing  a given program run without tracing
                   (using time(1)) and comparing the accumulated system  call  time
                   to the total produced using -c.

       -p pid      Attach to the process with the process ID pid and begin tracing.
                   The trace may be terminated at any time by a keyboard  interrupt
                   signal  (CTRL-C).   strace will respond by detaching itself from
                   the traced process(es) leaving it (them)  to  continue  running.
                   Multiple -p options can be used to attach to many processes.  -p
                   "'pidof PROG'" syntax is supported.

       -P path     Trace only system calls accessing path.  Multiple -P options can
                   be used to specify several paths.

       -s strsize  Specify  the  maximum  string size to print (the default is 32).
                   Note that filenames are not considered strings  and  are  always
                   printed in full.

       -S sortby   Sort the output of the histogram printed by the -c option by the
                   specified criterion.  Legal values are time,  calls,  name,  and
                   nothing (default is time).

       -u username Run command with the user ID, group ID, and supplementary groups
                   of username.  This option is only useful when  running  as  root
                   and  enables the correct execution of setuid and/or setgid bina-
                   ries.  Unless this option is used setuid and setgid programs are
                   executed without effective privileges.

       -E var=val  Run command with var=val in its list of environment variables.

       -E var      Remove  var  from  the  inherited  list of environment variables
                   before passing it on to the command.

       When command exits, strace exits with the same exit status.  If  command  is
       terminated  by  a  signal, strace terminates itself with the same signal, so
       that strace can be used as a wrapper process  transparent  to  the  invoking
       parent process.

       When  using  -p, the exit status of strace is zero unless there was an unex-
       pected error in doing the tracing.

       If strace is installed setuid to root then the invoking user will be able to
       attach  to  and  trace  processes owned by any user.  In addition setuid and
       setgid programs will be executed and traced with the correct effective priv-
       ileges.   Since  only  users  trusted  with  full  root privileges should be
       allowed to do these things, it only makes sense to install strace as  setuid
       to  root when the users who can execute it are restricted to those users who
       have this trust.  For example, it makes sense to install a  special  version
       of strace with mode 'rwsr-xr--', user root and group trace, where members of
       the trace group are trusted users.  If  you  do  use  this  feature,  please
       remember  to  install  a non-setuid version of strace for ordinary lusers to

       ltrace(1), time(1), ptrace(2), proc(5)

       It is a pity that so much tracing clutter is produced by  systems  employing
       shared libraries.

       It is instructive to think about system call inputs and outputs as data-flow
       across the user/kernel boundary.  Because user-space  and  kernel-space  are
       separate  and  address-protected, it is sometimes possible to make deductive
       inferences about process behavior using inputs and outputs as  propositions.

       In  some  cases,  a  system call will differ from the documented behavior or
       have a different name.  For example, on System V-derived  systems  the  true
       time(2)  system  call  does  not  take  an argument and the stat function is
       called xstat and takes an extra leading argument.  These  discrepancies  are
       normal  but  idiosyncratic  characteristics of the system call interface and
       are accounted for by C library wrapper functions.

       On some platforms a process that has a system call trace applied to it  with
       the  -p  option  will receive a SIGSTOP.  This signal may interrupt a system
       call that is not restartable.  This may have an unpredictable effect on  the
       process if the process takes no action to restart the system call.

       Programs  that  use  the setuid bit do not have effective user ID privileges
       while being traced.

       A traced process runs slowly.

       Traced processes which are descended from command may be left running  after
       an interrupt signal (CTRL-C).

       The -i option is weakly supported.

       strace  The original strace was written by Paul Kranenburg for SunOS and was
       inspired by its trace utility.  The SunOS version of strace  was  ported  to
       Linux and enhanced by Branko Lankester, who also wrote the Linux kernel sup-
       port.  Even though Paul released strace 2.5 in 1992, Branko's work was based
       on Paul's strace 1.5 release from 1991.  In 1993, Rick Sladkey merged strace
       2.5 for SunOS and the second release of strace for Linux, added many of  the
       features  of  truss(1) from SVR4, and produced an strace that worked on both
       platforms.  In 1994 Rick ported strace to SVR4 and  Solaris  and  wrote  the
       automatic configuration support.  In 1995 he ported strace to Irix and tired
       of writing about himself in the third person.

       Problems with strace should be  reported  to  the  strace  mailing  list  at
       <strace-devel AT>.

                                  2010-03-30                         STRACE(1)

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