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STRPTIME(3)                Linux Programmer's Manual               STRPTIME(3)



NAME
       strptime - convert a string representation of time to a time tm structure

SYNOPSIS
       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE /* glibc2 needs this */
       #include <time.h>

       char *strptime(const char *s, const char *format, struct tm *tm);

DESCRIPTION
       The  strptime()  function  is the converse function to strftime(3) and converts the
       character string pointed to by s to values which are stored  in  the  tm  structure
       pointed to by tm, using the format specified by format.  Here format is a character
       string that consists of field  descriptors  and  text  characters,  reminiscent  of
       scanf(3).   Each  field  descriptor  consists  of a % character followed by another
       character that specifies the replacement for the field descriptor.  All other char-
       acters  in  the  format  string must have a matching character in the input string,
       except for whitespace, which matches zero or  more  whitespace  characters  in  the
       input  string.  There should be whitespace or other alphanumeric characters between
       any two field descriptors.

       The strptime() function processes the input string from left to right.  Each of the
       three  possible  input  elements  (whitespace,  literal, or format) are handled one
       after the other.  If the input cannot be matched to the format string the  function
       stops.  The remainder of the format and input strings are not processed.

       The  supported  input  field  descriptors  are listed below.  In case a text string
       (such as a weekday or month name) is to be matched, the comparison is case insensi-
       tive.   In  case  a  number  is  to be matched, leading zeros are permitted but not
       required.

       %%     The % character.

       %a or %A
              The weekday name according to the current locale, in abbreviated form or the
              full name.

       %b or %B or %h
              The  month  name according to the current locale, in abbreviated form or the
              full name.

       %c     The date and time representation for the current locale.

       %C     The century number (0-99).

       %d or %e
              The day of month (1-31).

       %D     Equivalent to %m/%d/%y.  (This is the American style date, very confusing to
              non-Americans,  especially since %d/%m/%y is widely used in Europe.  The ISO
              8601 standard format is %Y-%m-%d.)

       %H     The hour (0-23).

       %I     The hour on a 12-hour clock (1-12).

       %j     The day number in the year (1-366).

       %m     The month number (1-12).

       %M     The minute (0-59).

       %n     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %p     The locale's equivalent of AM or PM.  (Note: there may be none.)

       %r     The 12-hour clock time (using the locale's AM or PM).  In the  POSIX  locale
              equivalent  to  %I:%M:%S  %p.  If t_fmt_ampm is empty in the LC_TIME part of
              the current locale then the behavior is undefined.

       %R     Equivalent to %H:%M.

       %S     The second (0-60; 60 may  occur  for  leap  seconds;  earlier  also  61  was
              allowed).

       %t     Arbitrary whitespace.

       %T     Equivalent to %H:%M:%S.

       %U     The  week  number  with  Sunday the first day of the week (0-53).  The first
              Sunday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %w     The weekday number (0-6) with Sunday = 0.

       %W     The week number with Monday the first day of the  week  (0-53).   The  first
              Monday of January is the first day of week 1.

       %x     The date, using the locale's date format.

       %X     The time, using the locale's time format.

       %y     The  year within century (0-99).  When a century is not otherwise specified,
              values  in  the  range  69-99  refer  to  years  in  the  twentieth  century
              (1969-1999);  values  in  the range 00-68 refer to years in the twenty-first
              century (2000-2068).

       %Y     The year, including century (for example, 1991).

       Some field descriptors can be modified by the E or O modifier characters  to  indi-
       cate  that  an alternative format or specification should be used.  If the alterna-
       tive format or specification does not exist in the current locale,  the  unmodified
       field descriptor is used.

       The  E  modifier  specifies  that  the input string may contain alternative locale-
       dependent versions of the date and time representation:

       %Ec    The locale's alternative date and time representation.

       %EC    The name of the base year (period) in the locale's  alternative  representa-
              tion.

       %Ex    The locale's alternative date representation.

       %EX    The locale's alternative time representation.

       %Ey    The  offset from %EC (year only) in the locale's alternative representation.

       %EY    The full alternative year representation.

       The O modifier specifies that the numerical input may be in an alternative  locale-
       dependent format:

       %Od or %Oe
              The day of the month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols; leading
              zeros are permitted but not required.

       %OH    The hour (24-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OI    The hour (12-hour clock) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Om    The month using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OM    The minutes using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OS    The seconds using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %OU    The week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) using  the
              locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Ow    The  number of the weekday (Sunday=0) using the locale's alternative numeric
              symbols.

       %OW    The week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) using  the
              locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       %Oy    The year (offset from %C) using the locale's alternative numeric symbols.

       The broken-down time structure tm is defined in <time.h> as follows:

           struct tm {
               int tm_sec;        /* seconds */
               int tm_min;        /* minutes */
               int tm_hour;       /* hours */
               int tm_mday;       /* day of the month */
               int tm_mon;        /* month */
               int tm_year;       /* year */
               int tm_wday;       /* day of the week */
               int tm_yday;       /* day in the year */
               int tm_isdst;      /* daylight saving time */
           };

RETURN VALUE
       The  return value of the function is a pointer to the first character not processed
       in this function call.  In case the input  string  contains  more  characters  than
       required by the format string the return value points right after the last consumed
       input character.  In case the whole input  string  is  consumed  the  return  value
       points to the null byte at the end of the string.  If strptime() fails to match all
       of the format string and therefore an error occurred the function returns NULL.

CONFORMING TO
       SUSv2, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       In principle, this function does not initialize tm but only stores the values spec-
       ified.  This means that tm should be initialized before the call.  Details differ a
       bit between different Unix systems.  The glibc implementation does not touch  those
       fields  which  are  not explicitly specified, except that it recomputes the tm_wday
       and tm_yday field if any of the year, month, or day elements changed.

       This function is available since libc 4.6.8.  Linux libc4 and libc5 includes define
       the  prototype  unconditionally;  glibc2  includes  provide  a  prototype only when
       _XOPEN_SOURCE or _GNU_SOURCE are defined.

       Before libc 5.4.13 whitespace (and the 'n' and 't' specifications) was not handled,
       no  'E' and 'O' locale modifier characters were accepted, and the 'C' specification
       was a synonym for the 'c' specification.

       The 'y' (year in century) specification is taken to specify a year in the 20th cen-
       tury  by libc4 and libc5.  It is taken to be a year in the range 1950-2049 by glibc
       2.0.  It is taken to be a year in 1969-2068 since glibc 2.1.

   Glibc Notes
       For reasons of symmetry, glibc tries to support  for  strptime()  the  same  format
       characters as for strftime(3).  (In most cases the corresponding fields are parsed,
       but no field in tm is changed.)  This leads to

       %F     Equivalent to %Y-%m-%d, the ISO 8601 date format.

       %g     The year corresponding to the ISO  week  number,  but  without  the  century
              (0-99).

       %G     The year corresponding to the ISO week number.  (For example, 1991.)

       %u     The day of the week as a decimal number (1-7, where Monday = 1).

       %V     The  ISO  8601:1988  week  number  as  a decimal number (1-53).  If the week
              (starting on Monday) containing 1 January has four or more days in  the  new
              year,  then  it is considered week 1.  Otherwise, it is the last week of the
              previous year, and the next week is week 1.

       %z     An RFC-822/ISO 8601 standard timezone specification.

       %Z     The timezone name.

       Similarly, because of GNU extensions to strftime(3), %k is accepted  as  a  synonym
       for %H, and %l should be accepted as a synonym for %I, and %P is accepted as a syn-
       onym for %p.  Finally

       %s     The number of seconds since the Epoch, that is,  since  1970-01-01  00:00:00
              UTC.   Leap seconds are not counted unless leap second support is available.

       The glibc implementation does not require whitespace between two field descriptors.

EXAMPLE
       The following example demonstrates the use of strptime() and strftime(3).

       #define _XOPEN_SOURCE
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <time.h>

       int
       main(void)
       {
           struct tm tm;
           char buf[255];

           strptime("2001-11-12 18:31:01", "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S", &tm);
           strftime(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d %b %Y %H:%M", &tm);
           puts(buf);
           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       time(2), getdate(3), scanf(3), setlocale(3), strftime(3), feature_test_macros(7)

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of
       the project, and information about reporting bugs, can be found at  http://www.ker-
       nel.org/doc/man-pages/.



GNU                               2001-11-12                       STRPTIME(3)

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