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TOP(1)                                    User Commands                                    TOP(1)



NAME
       top - display Linux processes


SYNOPSIS
       top -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]


       The traditional switches `-' and whitespace are optional.


DESCRIPTION
       The  top  program  provides  a dynamic real-time view of a running system.  It can display
       system summary information as well as a list of processes or threads currently being  man-
       aged  by  the  Linux kernel.  The types of system summary information shown and the types,
       order and size of information displayed for processes are all user configurable  and  that
       configuration can be made persistent across restarts.

       The program provides a limited interactive interface for process manipulation as well as a
       much more extensive interface for personal configuration  --  encompassing every aspect of
       its  operation.   And  while  top is referred to throughout this document, you are free to
       name the program anything you wish.  That new  name,  possibly  an  alias,  will  then  be
       reflected on top's display and used when reading and writing a configuration file.


OVERVIEW
   Documentation
       The remaining Table of Contents

           1. COMMAND-LINE Options
           2. SUMMARY Display
              a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
              b. TASK and CPU States
              c. MEMORY Usage
           3. FIELDS / Columns Display
              a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
              b. MANAGING Fields
           4. INTERACTIVE Commands
              a. GLOBAL Commands
              b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
              c. TASK AREA Commands
                 1. Appearance
                 2. Content
                 3. Size
                 4. Sorting
              d. COLOR Mapping
           5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
              a. WINDOWS Overview
              b. COMMANDS for Windows
              c. SCROLLING a Window
              d. SEARCHING in a Window
              e. FILTERING in a Window
           6. FILES
              a. SYSTEM Configuration File
              b. PERSONAL Configuration File
              c. ADDING INSPECT Entries
           7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
              a. Kernel Magic
              b. Bouncing Windows
              c. The Big Bird Window
              d. The Ol' Switcheroo
           8. BUGS, 9. HISTORY Former top, 10. AUTHOR, 11. SEE Also


   Operation
       When  operating top, the two most important keys are the help (h or ?)  key and quit ('q')
       key.  Alternatively, you could simply use the traditional interrupt key (^C)  when  you're
       done.

       When  started  for  the first time, you'll be presented with these traditional elements on
       the main top screen: 1) Summary Area; 2) Fields/Columns Header; 3)  Task  Area.   Each  of
       these  will  be explored in the sections that follow.  There is also an Input/Message line
       between the Summary Area and Columns Header which needs no further explanation.

       The main top screen is generally quite adaptive to changes in terminal dimensions under X-
       Windows.   Other  top screens may be less so, especially those with static text.  It ulti-
       mately depends, however, on your particular window manager and terminal  emulator.   There
       may  be occasions when their view of terminal size and current contents differs from top's
       view, which is always based on operating system calls.

       Following any re-size operation, if a top screen is corrupted, appears incomplete or  dis-
       ordered,  simply  typing something innocuous like a punctuation character or cursor motion
       key will usually restore it.  In extreme cases, the following  sequence  almost  certainly
       will:
              key/cmd  objective
              ^Z       suspend top
              fg       resume top
              <Left>   force a screen redraw (if necessary)

       But  if the display is still corrupted, there is one more step you could try.  Insert this
       command after top has been suspended but before resuming it.
              key/cmd  objective
              reset    restore your terminal settings

       Note: the width of top's display will be limited to 512 positions.  Displaying all  fields
       requires approximately 250 characters.  Remaining screen width is usually allocated to any
       variable width columns currently visible.  The variable width columns,  such  as  COMMAND,
       are noted in topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields.  Actual output width may also be influenced
       by the -w switch, which is discussed in topic 1. COMMAND-LINE Options.

       Lastly, some of top's screens or functions require the use of cursor motion keys like  the
       standard  arrow keys plus the Home, End, PgUp and PgDn keys.  If your terminal or emulator
       does not provide those keys, the following combinations are accepted as alternatives:
              key      equivalent-key-combinations
              Up       alt + \      or  alt + k
              Down     alt + /      or  alt + j
              Left     alt + <      or  alt + h
              Right    alt + >      or  alt + l (lower case L)
              PgUp     alt + Up     or  alt + ctrl + k
              PgDn     alt + Down   or  alt + ctrl + j
              Home     alt + Left   or  alt + ctrl + h
              End      alt + Right  or  alt + ctrl + l

       The Up and Down arrow keys have special significance when prompted for line  input  termi-
       nated  with the <Enter> key.  Those keys, or their aliases, can be used to retrieve previ-
       ous input lines which can then be edited and re-input.  And there are four additional keys
       available with line oriented input.
              key      special-significance
              Up       recall older strings for re-editing
              Down     recall newer strings or erase entire line
              Insert   toggle between insert and overtype modes
              Delete   character removed at cursor, moving others left
              Home     jump to beginning of input line
              End      jump to end of input line


   Startup Defaults
       The  following startup defaults assume no configuration file, thus no user customizations.
       Even so, items shown with an asterisk (`*') could be overridden through the  command-line.
       All are explained in detail in the sections that follow.

           Global-defaults
              A - Alt display      Off (full-screen)
            * d - Delay time       1.5 seconds
            * H - Threads mode     Off (summarize as tasks)
              I - Irix mode        On  (no, `solaris' smp)
            * p - PID monitoring   Off (show all processes)
            * s - Secure mode      Off (unsecured)
              B - Bold enable      On  (yes, bold globally)
           Summary-Area-defaults
              l - Load Avg/Uptime  On  (thus program name)
              t - Task/Cpu states  On  (1+1 lines, see `1')
              m - Mem/Swap usage   On  (2 lines worth)
              1 - Single Cpu       Off (thus multiple cpus)
           Task-Area-defaults
              b - Bold hilite      Off (use `reverse')
            * c - Command line     Off (name, not cmdline)
            * i - Idle tasks       On  (show all tasks)
              J - Num align right  On  (not left justify)
              j - Str align right  Off (not right justify)
              R - Reverse sort     On  (pids high-to-low)
            * S - Cumulative time  Off (no, dead children)
            * u - User filter      Off (show euid only)
            * U - User filter      Off (show any uid)
              V - Forest view      On  (show as branches)
              x - Column hilite    Off (no, sort field)
              y - Row hilite       On  (yes, running tasks)
              z - color/mono       On  (show colors)


1. COMMAND-LINE Options
       The command-line syntax for top consists of:

         -hv|-bcHiOSs -d secs -n max -u|U user -p pid -o fld -w [cols]

       The typically mandatory switch ('-') and even whitespace are completely optional.


       -h | -v  :Help/Version
            Show library version and the usage prompt, then quit.


       -b  :Batch-mode operation
            Starts  top in Batch mode, which could be useful for sending output from top to other
            programs or to a file.  In this mode, top will not accept input and  runs  until  the
            iterations limit you've set with the `-n' command-line option or until killed.


       -c  :Command-line/Program-name toggle
            Starts  top with the last remembered `c' state reversed.  Thus, if top was displaying
            command lines, now that field will show program names, and visa versa.  See  the  `c'
            interactive command for additional information.


       -d  :Delay-time interval as:  -d ss.t (secs.tenths)
            Specifies  the delay between screen updates, and overrides the corresponding value in
            one's personal configuration file or the startup default.  Later this can be  changed
            with the `d' or `s' interactive commands.

            Fractional  seconds are honored, but a negative number is not allowed.  In all cases,
            however, such changes are prohibited if top is running in  Secure  mode,  except  for
            root  (unless  the  `s' command-line option was used).  For additional information on
            Secure mode see topic 6a. SYSTEM Configuration File.


       -H  :Threads-mode operation
            Instructs top to display individual threads.  Without this command-line option a sum-
            mation  of  all threads in each process is shown.  Later this can be changed with the
            `H' interactive command.


       -i  :Idle-process toggle
            Starts top with the last remembered `i' state reversed.  When  this  toggle  is  Off,
            tasks  that  have  not used any CPU since the last update will not be displayed.  For
            additional information regarding this toggle see topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands, SIZE.


       -n  :Number-of-iterations limit as:  -n number
            Specifies the maximum number of iterations, or frames, top should produce before end-
            ing.


       -o  :Override-sort-field as:  -o fieldname
            Specifies the name of the field on which tasks will be sorted, independent of what is
            reflected in the configuration file.  You can prepend a `+' or `-' to the field  name
            to  also  override the sort direction.  A leading `+' will force sorting high to low,
            whereas a `-' will ensure a low to high ordering.

            This option exists primarily to support automated/scripted batch mode operation.


       -O  :Output-field-names
            This option acts as a form of help for the above -o option.  It  will  cause  top  to
            print  each  of  the available field names on a separate line, then quit.  Such names
            are subject to nls translation.


       -p  :Monitor-PIDs mode as:  -pN1 -pN2 ...  or  -pN1,N2,N3 ...
            Monitor only processes with specified process IDs.  This option can be given up to 20
            times,  or  you  can  provide a comma delimited list with up to 20 pids.  Co-mingling
            both approaches is permitted.

            A pid value of zero will be treated as the process id of the top program itself  once
            it is running.

            This is a command-line option only and should you wish to return to normal operation,
            it is not necessary to quit and restart top  --  just issue any of these  interactive
            commands: `=', `u' or `U'.

            The `p', `u' and `U' command-line options are mutually exclusive.


       -s  :Secure-mode operation
            Starts  top  with  secure  mode  forced, even for root.  This mode is far better con-
            trolled through the system configuration file (see topic 6. FILES).


       -S  :Cumulative-time toggle
            Starts top with the last remembered `S' state reversed.  When Cumulative time mode is
            On, each process is listed with the cpu time that it and its dead children have used.
            See the `S' interactive command for additional information regarding this mode.


       -u | -U  :User-filter-mode as:  -u | -U number or name
            Display only processes with a user id or user name matching  that  given.   The  `-u'
            option  matches on  effective user whereas the `-U' option matches on any user (real,
            effective, saved, or filesystem).

            Prepending an exclamation point ('!') to the user id or name instructs top to display
            only processes with users not matching the one provided.

            The `p', `u' and `U' command-line options are mutually exclusive.


       -w  :Output-width-override as:  -w [ number ]
            In  Batch  mode,  when used without an argument top will format output using the COL-
            UMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set.  Otherwise, width will  be  fixed  at
            the  maximum  512  columns.   With  an  argument,  output  width  can be decreased or
            increased (up to 512) but the number of rows is considered unlimited.

            In normal display mode, when used without an argument top will attempt to format out-
            put  using  the COLUMNS= and LINES= environment variables, if set.  With an argument,
            output width can only be decreased, not increased.  Whether using  environment  vari-
            ables  or  an argument with -w, when not in Batch mode actual terminal dimensions can
            never be exceeded.

            Note: Without the use of this command-line option, output width is  always  based  on
            the terminal at which top was invoked whether or not in Batch mode.


2. SUMMARY Display
       Each of the following three areas are individually controlled through one or more interac-
       tive commands.  See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands for additional  information  regarding
       these provisions.


   2a. UPTIME and LOAD Averages
       This portion consists of a single line containing:
           program or window name, depending on display mode
           current time and length of time since last boot
           total number of users
           system load avg over the last 1, 5 and 15 minutes


   2b. TASK and CPU States
       This  portion consists of a minimum of two lines.  In an SMP environment, additional lines
       can reflect individual CPU state percentages.

       Line 1 shows total tasks or threads, depending on the state of  the  Threads-mode  toggle.
       That total is further classified as:
           running; sleeping; stopped; zombie

       Line 2 shows CPU state percentages based on the interval since the last refresh.

       As a default, percentages for these individual categories are displayed.  Where two labels
       are shown below, those for more recent kernel versions are shown first.
           us, user    : time running un-niced user processes
           sy, system  : time running kernel processes
           ni, nice    : time running niced user processes
           id, idle    : time spent in the kernel idle handler
           wa, IO-wait : time waiting for I/O completion
           hi : time spent servicing hardware interrupts
           si : time spent servicing software interrupts
           st : time stolen from this vm by the hypervisor

       In the alternate cpu states display modes, beyond the first tasks/threads line, an  abbre-
       viated summary is shown consisting of these elements:
                      a    b     c    d
           %Cpu(s):  75.0/25.0  100[ ...


       Where:  a) is the combined us and ni percentage; b) is the sy percentage; c) is the total;
       and d) is one of two visual graphs of those representations.  See topic 4b.  SUMMARY  AREA
       Commands and the `t' command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle.


   2c. MEMORY Usage
       This  portion  consists  of  two lines which may express values in kibibytes (KiB) through
       exbibytes (EiB) depending on the scaling factor enforced with the `E' interactive command.

       As a default, Line 1 reflects physical memory, classified as:
           total, free, used and buff/cache

       Line 2 reflects mostly virtual memory, classified as:
           total, free, used and avail (which is physical memory)

       The avail number on line 2 is an estimation of physical memory available for starting  new
       applications, without swapping.  Unlike the free field, it attempts to account for readily
       reclaimable page cache and memory slabs.  It is available on  kernels  3.14,  emulated  on
       kernels 2.6.27+, otherwise the same as free.

       In  the alternate memory display modes, two abbreviated summary lines are shown consisting
       of these elements:
                      a    b          c
           GiB Mem : 18.7/15.738   [ ...
           GiB Swap:  0.0/7.999    [ ...

       Where: a) is the percentage used; b) is the total available; and c) is one of  two  visual
       graphs of those representations.

       In  the  case  of physical memory, the percentage represents the total minus the estimated
       avail noted above.  The `Mem' graph itself is divided between used and any remaining  mem-
       ory not otherwise accounted for by avail.  See topic 4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands and the `m'
       command for additional information on that special 4-way toggle.

       This table may help in interpreting the scaled values displayed:
           KiB = kibibyte = 1024 bytes
           MiB = mebibyte = 1024 KiB = 1,048,576 bytes
           GiB = gibibyte = 1024 MiB = 1,073,741,824 bytes
           TiB = tebibyte = 1024 GiB = 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
           PiB = pebibyte = 1024 TiB = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes
           EiB = exbibyte = 1024 PiB = 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes


3. FIELDS / Columns
   3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields
       Listed below are top's available process fields (columns).  They are shown in strict ascii
       alphabetical  order.   You  may  customize their position and whether or not they are dis-
       playable with the `f' or `F' (Fields Management) interactive commands.

       Any field is selectable as the sort field, and you control whether they are  sorted  high-
       to-low  or  low-to-high.  For additional information on sort provisions see topic 4c. TASK
       AREA Commands, SORTING.

       The fields related to physical memory or virtual memory reference  `(KiB)'  which  is  the
       unsuffixed  display mode.  Such fields may, however, be scaled from KiB through PiB.  That
       scaling is influenced via the `e' interactive command or established for startup through a
       build option.


        1. %CPU  --  CPU Usage
           The  task's share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen update, expressed as a
           percentage of total CPU time.

           In a true SMP environment, if a process is multi-threaded and top is not operating  in
           Threads mode, amounts greater than 100% may be reported.  You toggle Threads mode with
           the `H' interactive command.

           Also for multi-processor environments, if Irix  mode  is  Off,  top  will  operate  in
           Solaris  mode  where  a  task's cpu usage will be divided by the total number of CPUs.
           You toggle Irix/Solaris modes with the `I' interactive command.


        2. %MEM  --  Memory Usage (RES)
           A task's currently used share of available physical memory.


        3. CGROUPS  --  Control Groups
           The names of the control group(s) to which a process belongs, or `-' if not applicable
           for that process.

           Control Groups provide for allocating resources (cpu, memory, network bandwidth, etc.)
           among installation-defined groups of processes.  They enable fine-grained control over
           allocating, denying, prioritizing, managing and monitoring those resources.

           Many  different  hierarchies  of cgroups can exist simultaneously on a system and each
           hierarchy is attached to one or more subsystems.   A  subsystem  represents  a  single
           resource.

           Note:  The CGROUPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width.  When displayed, it
           plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up
           to  the maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields could still suf-
           fer truncation.  See topic 5c.  SCROLLING  a  Window  for  additional  information  on
           accessing any truncated data.


        4. CODE  --  Code Size (KiB)
           The amount of physical memory devoted to executable code, also known as the Text Resi-
           dent Set size or TRS.


        5. COMMAND  --  Command Name or Command Line
           Display the command line used to start a task or the name of the  associated  program.
           You toggle between command line and name with `c', which is both a command-line option
           and an interactive command.

           When you've chosen to display command lines, processes without a  command  line  (like
           kernel threads) will be shown with only the program name in brackets, as in this exam-
           ple:
               [kthreadd]

           This field may also be impacted by the forest view display mode.  See the `V' interac-
           tive command for additional information regarding that mode.

           Note:  The COMMAND field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width.  When displayed, it
           plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up
           to  the maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields could still suf-
           fer truncation.  This is especially true for this field when command lines  are  being
           displayed  (the  `c' interactive command.)  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for addi-
           tional information on accessing any truncated data.


        6. DATA  --  Data + Stack Size (KiB)
           The amount of physical memory devoted to other than executable code, also known as the
           Data Resident Set size or DRS.


        7. ENVIRON  --  Environment variables
           Display all of the environment variables, if any, as seen by the respective processes.
           These variables will be displayed in their raw native order, not the sorted order  you
           are accustomed to seeing with an unqualified `set'.

           Note:  The ENVIRON field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width.  When displayed, it
           plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up
           to  the maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields could still suf-
           fer truncation.  This is especially true for this field.  See topic  5c.  SCROLLING  a
           Window for additional information on accessing any truncated data.


        8. Flags  --  Task Flags
           This  column  represents  the  task's  current scheduling flags which are expressed in
           hexadecimal notation and with zeros suppressed.  These flags are officially documented
           in <linux/sched.h>.


        9. GID  --  Group Id
           The effective group ID.


       10. GROUP  --  Group Name
           The effective group name.


       11. NI  --  Nice Value
           The  nice  value  of the task.  A negative nice value means higher priority, whereas a
           positive nice value means lower priority.  Zero in this field  simply  means  priority
           will not be adjusted in determining a task's dispatch-ability.


       12. P  --  Last used CPU (SMP)
           A  number  representing  the last used processor.  In a true SMP environment this will
           likely change frequently since the kernel intentionally uses weak affinity.  Also, the
           very  act  of  running  top  may  break this weak affinity and cause more processes to
           change CPUs more often (because of the extra demand for cpu time).


       13. PGRP  --  Process Group Id
           Every process is member of a unique process group which is used  for  distribution  of
           signals  and  by  terminals  to arbitrate requests for their input and output.  When a
           process is created (forked), it becomes a member of the process group of  its  parent.
           By  convention,  this  value  equals the process ID (see PID) of the first member of a
           process group, called the process group leader.


       14. PID  --  Process Id
           The task's unique process ID, which periodically wraps,  though  never  restarting  at
           zero.  In kernel terms, it is a dispatchable entity defined by a task_struct.

           This  value  may  also be used as: a process group ID (see PGRP); a session ID for the
           session leader (see SID); a thread group ID for the thread group  leader  (see  TGID);
           and a TTY process group ID for the process group leader (see TPGID).


       15. PPID  --  Parent Process Id
           The process ID (pid) of a task's parent.


       16. PR  --  Priority
           The scheduling priority of the task.  If you see `rt' in this field, it means the task
           is running under real time scheduling priority.

           Under linux, real time priority is somewhat misleading since traditionally the operat-
           ing  itself  was  not  preemptible.   And while the 2.6 kernel can be made mostly pre-
           emptible, it is not always so.


       17. RES  --  Resident Memory Size (KiB)
           The non-swapped physical memory a task is using.


       18. RUID  --  Real User Id
           The real user ID.


       19. RUSER  --  Real User Name
           The real user name.


       20. S  --  Process Status
           The status of the task which can be one of:
               D = uninterruptible sleep
               R = running
               S = sleeping
               T = stopped by job control signal
               t = stopped by debugger during trace
               Z = zombie

           Tasks shown as running should be more properly thought of as ready to run   --   their
           task_struct  is  simply  represented  on the Linux run-queue.  Even without a true SMP
           machine, you may see numerous tasks in this state depending on  top's  delay  interval
           and nice value.


       21. SHR  --  Shared Memory Size (KiB)
           The  amount  of shared memory available to a task, not all of which is typically resi-
           dent.  It simply reflects memory that could be  potentially  shared  with  other  pro-
           cesses.


       22. SID  --  Session Id
           A  session  is  a  collection of process groups (see PGRP), usually established by the
           login shell.  A newly forked process joins the session of its creator.  By convention,
           this  value equals the process ID (see PID) of the first member of the session, called
           the session leader, which is usually the login shell.


       23. SUID  --  Saved User Id
           The saved user ID.


       24. SUPGIDS  --  Supplementary Group IDs
           The IDs of any supplementary group(s) established at login or inherited from a  task's
           parent.  They are displayed in a comma delimited list.

           Note:  The SUPGIDS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width.  When displayed, it
           plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up
           to  the maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields could still suf-
           fer truncation.  See topic 5c.  SCROLLING  a  Window  for  additional  information  on
           accessing any truncated data.


       25. SUPGRPS  --  Supplementary Group Names
           The  names  of  any  supplementary  group(s)  established at login or inherited from a
           task's parent.  They are displayed in a comma delimited list.

           Note: The SUPGRPS field, unlike most columns, is not fixed-width.  When displayed,  it
           plus any other variable width columns will be allocated all remaining screen width (up
           to the maximum 512 characters).  Even so, such variable width fields could still  suf-
           fer  truncation.   See  topic  5c.  SCROLLING  a  Window for additional information on
           accessing any truncated data.


       26. SUSER  --  Saved User Name
           The saved user name.


       27. SWAP  --  Swapped Size (KiB)
           The non-resident portion of a task's address space.


       28. TGID  --  Thread Group Id
           The ID of the thread group to which a task belongs.  It is the PID of the thread group
           leader.  In kernel terms, it represents those tasks that share an mm_struct.


       29. TIME  --  CPU Time
           Total  CPU  time the task has used since it started.  When Cumulative mode is On, each
           process is listed with the cpu time that it and its dead children have used.  You tog-
           gle  Cumulative  mode with `S', which is both a command-line option and an interactive
           command.  See the `S' interactive command for additional  information  regarding  this
           mode.


       30. TIME+  --  CPU Time, hundredths
           The same as TIME, but reflecting more granularity through hundredths of a second.


       31. TPGID  --  Tty Process Group Id
           The  process  group  ID  of  the  foreground process for the connected tty, or -1 if a
           process is not connected to a terminal.  By convention, this value equals the  process
           ID (see PID) of the process group leader (see PGRP).


       32. TTY  --  Controlling Tty
           The  name  of the controlling terminal.  This is usually the device (serial port, pty,
           etc.) from which the process was started, and which it uses for input or output.  How-
           ever, a task need not be associated with a terminal, in which case you'll see `?' dis-
           played.


       33. UID  --  User Id
           The effective user ID of the task's owner.


       34. USED  --  Memory in Use (KiB)
           This field represents the non-swapped physical memory a task has used (RES)  plus  the
           non-resident portion of its address space (SWAP).


       35. USER  --  User Name
           The effective user name of the task's owner.


       36. VIRT  --  Virtual Memory Size (KiB)
           The  total  amount of virtual memory used by the task.  It includes all code, data and
           shared libraries plus pages that have been swapped out and pages that have been mapped
           but not used.


       37. WCHAN  --  Sleeping in Function
           Depending  on  the  availability  of the kernel link map (System.map), this field will
           show the name or the address of the kernel function in which  the  task  is  currently
           sleeping.  Running tasks will display a dash ('-') in this column.

           By  displaying  this  field,  top's  own working set could be increased by over 700Kb,
           depending on the kernel version.  Should that occur, your only means of reducing  that
           overhead will be to stop and restart top.


       38. nDRT  --  Dirty Pages Count
           The  number of pages that have been modified since they were last written to auxiliary
           storage.  Dirty pages must be written to auxiliary storage  before  the  corresponding
           physical memory location can be used for some other virtual page.


       39. nMaj  --  Major Page Fault Count
           The  number  of  major page faults that have occurred for a task.  A page fault occurs
           when a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not  currently
           present  in its address space.  A major page fault is when auxiliary storage access is
           involved in making that page available.


       40. nMin  --  Minor Page Fault count
           The number of minor page faults that have occurred for a task.  A  page  fault  occurs
           when  a process attempts to read from or write to a virtual page that is not currently
           present in its address space.  A minor page fault does not involve  auxiliary  storage
           access in making that page available.


       41. nTH  --  Number of Threads
           The number of threads associated with a process.


       42. nsIPC  --  IPC namespace
           The  Inode of the namespace used to isolate interprocess communication (IPC) resources
           such as System V IPC objects and POSIX message queues.


       43. nsMNT  --  MNT namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate filesystem mount points thus offering  dif-
           ferent views of the filesystem hierarchy.


       44. nsNET  --  NET namespace
           The  Inode  of  the  namespace  used  to isolate resources such as network devices, IP
           addresses, IP routing, port numbers, etc.


       45. nsPID  --  PID namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate process ID numbers meaning  they  need  not
           remain unique.  Thus, each such namespace could have its own `init' (PID #1) to manage
           various initialization tasks and reap orphaned child processes.


       46. nsUSER  --  USER namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate the user and group  ID  numbers.   Thus,  a
           process could have a normal unprivileged user ID outside a user namespace while having
           a user ID of 0, with full root privileges, inside that namespace.


       47. nsUTS  --  UTS namespace
           The Inode of the namespace used to isolate hostname and NIS domain name.   UTS  simply
           means "UNIX Time-sharing System".


       48. vMj  --  Major Page Fault Count Delta
           The number of major page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMaj).


       49. vMn  --  Minor Page Fault Count Delta
           The number of minor page faults that have occurred since the last update (see nMin).



   3b. MANAGING Fields
       After  pressing  the  interactive  command `f' or `F' (Fields Management) you will be pre-
       sented with a screen showing: 1) the `current' window name; 2) the designated sort  field;
       3)  all  fields  in  their  current order along with descriptions.  Entries marked with an
       asterisk are the currently displayed fields, screen width permitting.


           o  As the on screen instructions indicate, you navigate among the fields with  the  Up
              and Down arrow keys.  The PgUp, PgDn, Home and End keys can also be used to quickly
              reach the first or last available field.


           o  The Right arrow key selects a field for repositioning and the Left arrow key or the
              <Enter> key commits that field's placement.


           o  The `d' key or the <Space> bar toggles a field's display status, and thus the pres-
              ence or absence of the asterisk.


           o  The `s' key designates a field as the sort field.  See topic  4c.  TASK  AREA  Com-
              mands, SORTING for additional information regarding your selection of a sort field.


           o  The `a' and `w' keys can be used to cycle through all available windows and the `q'
              or <Esc> keys exit Fields Management.


       The Fields Management screen can also be used to change the `current'  window/field  group
       in  either  full-screen mode or alternate-display mode.  Whatever was targeted when `q' or
       <Esc> was pressed will be made current as you return to the top  display.   See  topic  5.
       ALTERNATE-DISPLAY  Provisions  and  the `g' interactive command for insight into `current'
       windows and field groups.


       Note: Any window that has been scrolled horizontally will be reset if  any  field  changes
       are  made via the Fields Management screen.  Any vertical scrolled position, however, will
       not be affected.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for  additional  information  regarding
       vertical and horizontal scrolling.


4. INTERACTIVE Commands
       Listed  below  is  a brief index of commands within categories.  Some commands appear more
       than once  --  their meaning or scope may vary depending on the context in which they  are
       issued.

         4a. Global-Commands
               <Ent/Sp> ?, =, 0,
               A, B, d, E, e, g, h, H, I, k, q, r, s, W, X, Y, Z
         4b. Summary-Area-Commands
               C, l, t, m, 1, 2, 3
         4c. Task-Area-Commands
               Appearance:  b, J, j, x, y, z
               Content:     c, f, F, o, O, S, u, U, V
               Size:        #, i, n
               Sorting:     <, >, f, F, R
         4d. Color-Mapping
               <Ret>, a, B, b, H, M, q, S, T, w, z, 0 - 7
         5b. Commands-for-Windows
               -, _, =, +, A, a, g, G, w
         5c. Scrolling-a-Window
               C, Up, Dn, Left, Right, PgUp, PgDn, Home, End
         5d. Searching-in-a-Window
               L, &


   4a. GLOBAL Commands
       The  global  interactive commands are always available in both full-screen mode and alter-
       nate-display mode.  However, some of these interactive commands  are  not  available  when
       running in Secure mode.

       If  you  wish  to know in advance whether or not your top has been secured, simply ask for
       help and view the system summary on the second line.


         <Enter> or <Space>  :Refresh-Display
              These commands awaken top and following receipt of any  input  the  entire  display
              will  be  repainted.   They  also force an update of any hotplugged cpu or physical
              memory changes.

              Use either of these keys if you have a large delay interval and wish to see current
              status,


          ? | h  :Help
              There  are two help levels available.  The first will provide a reminder of all the
              basic interactive commands.  If top is secured, that screen will be abbreviated.

              Typing `h' or `?' on that help screen will take you to help for  those  interactive
              commands applicable to alternate-display mode.


          =  :Exit-Task-Limits
              Removes  restrictions  on which tasks are shown.  This command will reverse any `i'
              (idle tasks) and `n' (max tasks) commands that might be active.  It  also  provides
              for  an exit from PID monitoring, User filtering and Other filtering.  See the `-p'
              command-line option for a discussion of PID monitoring, the `U' or `u'  interactive
              commands  for User filtering and the `O' or `o' interactive commands for Other fil-
              tering.

              Additionally, any window that has been scrolled will be reset  with  this  command.
              See  topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for additional information regarding vertical and
              horizontal scrolling.

              When operating in alternate-display mode this command has a broader meaning.


          0  :Zero-Suppress toggle
              This command determines whether zeros are shown  or  suppressed  for  many  of  the
              fields  in  a  task  window.  Fields like UID, GID, NI, PR or P are not affected by
              this toggle.


          A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
              This command will switch between full-screen mode and alternate-display mode.   See
              topic  5.  ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' interactive command for insight
              into `current' windows and field groups.


          B  :Bold-Disable/Enable toggle
              This command will influence use of the bold terminfo capability and alters both the
              summary  area and task area for the `current' window.  While it is intended primar-
              ily for use with dumb terminals, it can be applied anytime.

              Note: When this toggle is On and top is operating in monochrome  mode,  the  entire
              display  will  appear  as normal text.  Thus, unless the `x' and/or `y' toggles are
              using reverse for emphasis, there will be no visual confirmation that they are even
              on.


       *  d | s  :Change-Delay-Time-interval
              You will be prompted to enter the delay time, in seconds, between display updates.

              Fractional  seconds  are honored, but a negative number is not allowed.  Entering 0
              causes (nearly) continuous updates, with an unsatisfactory display  as  the  system
              and  tty  driver  try  to keep up with top's demands.  The delay value is inversely
              proportional to system loading, so set it with care.

              If at any time you wish to know the current delay time, simply  ask  for  help  and
              view the system summary on the second line.


          E  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Summary Area
              With  this  command you can cycle through the available summary area memory scaling
              which ranges from  KiB  (kibibytes  or  1,024  bytes)  through  EiB  (exbibytes  or
              1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes).

              If  you see a `+' between a displayed number and the following label, it means that
              top was forced to truncate some portion of that number.   By  raising  the  scaling
              factor, such truncation can be avoided.


          e  :Extend-Memory-Scale in Task Windows
              With  this  command  you can cycle through the available task window memory scaling
              which ranges from  KiB  (kibibytes  or  1,024  bytes)  through  PiB  (pebibytes  or
              1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes).

              While  top  will  try  to honor the selected target range, additional scaling might
              still be necessary in order to accommodate current values.  If you wish  to  see  a
              more  homogeneous result in the memory columns, raising the scaling range will usu-
              ally accomplish that goal.  Raising it too high, however, is likely to  produce  an
              all zero result which cannot be suppressed with the `0' interactive command.


          g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
              You  will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designating the field group
              which should be made the `current' window.  You will  soon  grow  comfortable  with
              these 4 windows, especially after experimenting with alternate-display mode.


          H  :Threads-mode toggle
              When  this  toggle is On, individual threads will be displayed for all processes in
              all visible task windows.  Otherwise, top displays a summation of  all  threads  in
              each process.


          I  :Irix/Solaris-Mode toggle
              When  operating  in  Solaris  mode  (`I'  toggled  Off), a task's cpu usage will be
              divided by the total number of CPUs.  After issuing this command,  you'll  be  told
              the new state of this toggle.


       *  k  :Kill-a-task
              You will be prompted for a PID and then the signal to send.

              Entering  no  PID  or a negative number will be interpreted as the default shown in
              the prompt (the first task displayed).  A PID value of zero means the  top  program
              itself.

              The  default signal, as reflected in the prompt, is SIGTERM.  However, you can send
              any signal, via number or name.

              If you wish to abort the kill process, do one of the following  depending  on  your
              progress:
                  1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number
                  2) at the signal prompt, type 0 (or any invalid signal)
                  3) at any prompt, type <Esc>


          q  :Quit


       *  r  :Renice-a-Task
              You will be prompted for a PID and then the value to nice it to.

              Entering  no  PID  or a negative number will be interpreted as the default shown in
              the prompt (the first task displayed).  A PID value of zero means the  top  program
              itself.

              A  positive  nice value will cause a process to lose priority.  Conversely, a nega-
              tive nice value will cause a process to be viewed more favorably by the kernel.  As
              a  general  rule, ordinary users can only increase the nice value and are prevented
              from lowering it.

              If you wish to abort the renice process, do one of the following depending on  your
              progress:
                  1) at the pid prompt, type an invalid number
                  2) at the nice prompt, type <Enter> with no input
                  3) at any prompt, type <Esc>


          W  :Write-the-Configuration-File
              This  will  save  all of your options and toggles plus the current display mode and
              delay time.  By issuing this command just before quitting top,  you  will  be  able
              restart later in exactly that same state.


          X  :Extra-Fixed-Width
              Some fields are fixed width and not scalable.  As such, they are subject to trunca-
              tion which would be indicated by a `+' in the last position.

              This interactive command can be used to alter the widths of the following fields:

                  field  default    field  default    field  default
                  GID       5       GROUP     8       WCHAN    10
                  RUID      5       RUSER     8       nsIPC    10
                  SUID      5       SUSER     8       nsMNT    10
                  UID       5       USER      8       nsNET    10
                                    TTY       8       nsPID    10
                                                      nsUSER   10
                                                      nsUTS    10

              You will be prompted for the amount to be added to the default widths shown  above.
              Entering zero forces a return to those defaults.

              If  you enter a negative number, top will automatically increase the column size as
              needed until there is no more truncated data.  You can accelerate this  process  by
              reducing the delay interval or holding down the <Space> bar.

              Note:  Whether  explicitly  or automatically increased, the widths for these fields
              are never decreased by top.  To narrow them you must specify a  smaller  number  or
              restore the defaults.


          Y  :Inspect-Other-Output
              After  issuing  the `Y' interactive command, you will be prompted for a target PID.
              Typing a value or accepting the default results in a separate screen.  That  screen
              can be used to view a variety of files or piped command output while the normal top
              iterative display is paused.

              Note: This interactive command is only fully realized when supporting entries  have
              been  manually added to the end of the top configuration file.  For details on cre-
              ating those entries, see topic 6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries.

              Most of the keys used to navigate the Inspect feature are reflected in  its  header
              prologue.   There  are, however, additional keys available once you have selected a
              particular file or command.  They are familiar to anyone who  has  used  the  pager
              `less' and are summarized here for future reference.

                  key      function
                  =        alternate status-line, file or pipeline
                  /        find, equivalent to `L' locate
                  n        find next, equivalent to `&' locate next
                  <Space>  scroll down, equivalent to <PgDn>
                  b        scroll up, equivalent to <PgUp>
                  g        first line, equivalent to <Home>
                  G        last line, equivalent to <End>


          Z  :Change-Color-Mapping
              This key will take you to a separate screen where you can change the colors for the
              `current' window, or for all windows.  For details regarding this interactive  com-
              mand see topic 4d. COLOR Mapping.


       *  The  commands  shown  with an asterisk (`*') are not available in Secure mode, nor will
          they be shown on the level-1 help screen.


   4b. SUMMARY AREA Commands
       The summary area interactive commands are always available in both  full-screen  mode  and
       alternate-display  mode.   They affect the beginning lines of your display and will deter-
       mine the position of messages and prompts.

       These commands always impact just the `current' window/field group.  See topic  5.  ALTER-
       NATE-DISPLAY Provisions and the `g' interactive command for insight into `current' windows
       and field groups.


          C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
              Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever the message line is not
              otherwise being used.  For additional information see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.


          l  :Load-Average/Uptime toggle
              This  is also the line containing the program name (possibly an alias) when operat-
              ing in full-screen mode or the `current'  window  name  when  operating  in  alter-
              nate-display mode.


          t  :Task/Cpu-States toggle
              This  command  affects from 2 to many summary area lines, depending on the state of
              the `1', `2' or `3' command toggles and whether or not top is  running  under  true
              SMP.

              This  portion of the summary area is also influenced by the `H' interactive command
              toggle, as reflected in the total label which shows either Tasks or Threads.

              This command serves as a 4-way toggle, cycling through these modes:
                  1. detailed percentages by category (default)
                  2. abbreviated user/system and total % + bar graph
                  3. abbreviated user/system and total % + block graph
                  4. turn off task and cpu states display

              When operating in either of the graphic modes, the display becomes much more  mean-
              ingful when individual CPUs or NUMA nodes are also displayed.  See the the `1', `2'
              and `3' commands below for additional information.


          m  :Memory/Swap-Usage toggle
              This command affects the two summary area lines dealing with physical  and  virtual
              memory.

              This command serves as a 4-way toggle, cycling through these modes:
                  1. detailed percentages by memory type (default)
                  2. abbreviated % used/total available + bar graph
                  3. abbreviated % used/total available + block graph
                  4. turn off memory display


          1  :Single/Separate-Cpu-States toggle
              This  command  affects how the `t' command's Cpu States portion is shown.  Although
              this toggle exists primarily to serve massively-parallel SMP machines,  it  is  not
              restricted to solely SMP environments.

              When  you  see  `%Cpu(s):'  in  the  summary area, the `1' toggle is On and all cpu
              information is gathered in a single line.  Otherwise, each cpu is  displayed  sepa-
              rately as: `%Cpu0, %Cpu1, ...'  up to available screen height.


          2  :NUMA-Nodes/Cpu-Summary toggle
              This  command  toggles between the `1' command cpu summary display (only) or a sum-
              mary display plus the cpu usage statistics for each NUMA Node.  It is  only  avail-
              able if a system has the requisite NUMA support.


          3  :Expand-NUMA-Node
              You will be invited to enter a number representing a NUMA Node.  Thereafter, a node
              summary plus the statistics for each cpu in that node will be  shown  until  either
              the  `1' or `2' command toggle is pressed.  This interactive command is only avail-
              able if a system has the requisite NUMA support.


       Note: If the entire summary area has been toggled Off for any window, you  would  be  left
       with  just the message line.  In that way, you will have maximized available task rows but
       (temporarily) sacrificed the program name in full-screen mode or the `current' window name
       when in alternate-display mode.


   4c. TASK AREA Commands
       The task area interactive commands are always available in full-screen mode.

       The  task  area  interactive commands are never available in alternate-display mode if the
       `current' window's task display has been toggled Off (see topic 5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY  Pro-
       visions).


       APPEARANCE of task window


          J  :Justify-Numeric-Columns toggle
              Alternates  between  right-justified (the default) and left-justified numeric data.
              If the numeric data completely fills the available column, this command toggle  may
              impact the column header only.


          j  :Justify-Character-Columns toggle
              Alternates between left-justified (the default) and right-justified character data.
              If the character data completely fills the available column,  this  command  toggle
              may impact the column header only.


         The  following  commands  will  also  be influenced by the state of the global `B' (bold
         enable) toggle.


          b  :Bold/Reverse toggle
              This command will impact how the `x' and `y' toggles are displayed.   It  may  also
              impact the summary area when a bar graph has been selected for cpu states or memory
              usage via the 't' or 'm' toggles.


          x  :Column-Highlight toggle
              Changes highlighting for the current sort field.  If  you  forget  which  field  is
              being  sorted this command can serve as a quick visual reminder, providing the sort
              field is being displayed.  The sort field might not be visible because:
                  1) there is insufficient Screen Width
                  2) the `f' interactive command turned it Off

              Note: Whenever Searching and/or Other Filtering is active in a window, column high-
              lighting is temporarily disabled.  See the notes at the end of topics 5d. SEARCHING
              and 5e. FILTERING for an explanation why.


          y  :Row-Highlight toggle
              Changes highlighting for "running" tasks.  For additional insight  into  this  task
              state, see topic 3a. DESCRIPTIONS of Fields, the `S' field (Process Status).

              Use  of  this  provision provides important insight into your system's health.  The
              only costs will be a few additional tty escape sequences.


          z  :Color/Monochrome toggle
              Switches the `current' window between your last used color  scheme  and  the  older
              form of black-on-white or white-on-black.  This command will alter both the summary
              area and task area but does not affect the state of the `x', `y' or `b' toggles.


       CONTENT of task window


          c  :Command-Line/Program-Name toggle
              This command will be honored whether or not the COMMAND column is  currently  visi-
              ble.  Later, should that field come into view, the change you applied will be seen.


          f | F  :Fields-Management
              These  keys  display  a  separate screen where you can change which fields are dis-
              played, their order and also designate the sort field.  For additional  information
              on these interactive commands see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.


          o | O  :Other-Filtering
              You  will  be prompted for the selection criteria which then determines which tasks
              will be shown in the `current' window.  Your criteria can be made case sensitive or
              case  can  be ignored.  And you determine if top should include or exclude matching
              tasks.

              See topic 5e. FILTERING in a window for details on  these  and  additional  related
              interactive commands.


          S  :Cumulative-Time-Mode toggle
              When  Cumulative  mode  is On, each process is listed with the cpu time that it and
              its dead children have used.

              When Off, programs that fork into many separate tasks will appear  less  demanding.
              For  programs  like `init' or a shell this is appropriate but for others, like com-
              pilers, perhaps not.  Experiment with two task windows sharing the same sort  field
              but with different `S' states and see which representation you prefer.

              After issuing this command, you'll be informed of the new state of this toggle.  If
              you wish to know in advance whether or not Cumulative mode is in effect, simply ask
              for help and view the window summary on the second line.


          u | U  :Show-Specific-User-Only
              You  will  be  prompted  for the uid or name of the user to display.  The -u option
              matches on  effective user whereas the -U option matches on any user (real,  effec-
              tive, saved, or filesystem).

              Thereafter,  in  that task window only matching users will be shown, or possibly no
              processes will be shown.  Prepending an exclamation point ('!') to the user  id  or
              name  instructs  top to display only processes with users not matching the one pro-
              vided.

              Different task windows can be used to filter different users.  Later, if  you  wish
              to  monitor all users again in the `current' window, re-issue this command but just
              press <Enter> at the prompt.


          V  :Forest-View-Mode toggle
              In this mode, processes are reordered according to their parents and the layout  of
              the  COMMAND column resembles that of a tree.  In forest view mode it is still pos-
              sible to toggle between program name and command line (see the `c' interactive com-
              mand) or between processes and threads (see the `H' interactive command).

              Note:  Typing  any  key  affecting the sort order will exit forest view mode in the
              `current' window.  See topic 4c. TASK AREA Commands,  SORTING  for  information  on
              those keys.


       SIZE of task window


          i  :Idle-Process toggle
              Displays  all tasks or just active tasks.  When this toggle is Off, tasks that have
              not used any CPU since the last update will not be displayed.  However, due to  the
              granularity  of  the  %CPU  and TIME+ fields, some processes may still be displayed
              that appear to have used no CPU.

              If this command is applied to the last task display when in alternate-display mode,
              then  it  will  not  affect the window's size, as all prior task displays will have
              already been painted.


          n | #  :Set-Maximum-Tasks
              You will be prompted to enter the number of tasks to display.  The lessor  of  your
              number and available screen rows will be used.

              When  used  in  alternate-display  mode, this is the command that gives you precise
              control over the size of each currently visible task display, except for  the  very
              last.   It  will not affect the last window's size, as all prior task displays will
              have already been painted.

              Note: If you wish to increase the size of the last visible  task  display  when  in
              alternate-display mode, simply decrease the size of the task display(s) above it.

       SORTING of task window

          For  compatibility,  this top supports most of the former top sort keys.  Since this is
          primarily a service to former top users, these commands  do  not  appear  on  any  help
          screen.
                command   sorted-field                  supported
                A         start time (non-display)      No
                M         %MEM                          Yes
                N         PID                           Yes
                P         %CPU                          Yes
                T         TIME+                         Yes

          Before  using  any  of the following sort provisions, top suggests that you temporarily
          turn on column highlighting using the `x' interactive command.  That will  help  ensure
          that the actual sort environment matches your intent.

          The  following interactive commands will only be honored when the current sort field is
          visible.  The sort field might not be visible because:
                1) there is insufficient Screen Width
                2) the `f' interactive command turned it Off


             <  :Move-Sort-Field-Left
                 Moves the sort column to the left unless the current sort  field  is  the  first
                 field being displayed.


             >  :Move-Sort-Field-Right
                 Moves  the  sort  column  to the right unless the current sort field is the last
                 field being displayed.


          The following interactive commands will always be honored whether or  not  the  current
          sort field is visible.


             f | F  :Fields-Management
                 These keys display a separate screen where you can change which field is used as
                 the sort column, among other functions.  This can be a convenient way to  simply
                 verify  the current sort field, when running top with column highlighting turned
                 Off.


             R  :Reverse/Normal-Sort-Field toggle
                 Using this interactive command you can alternate between high-to-low and low-to-
                 high sorts.


          Note:  Field  sorting uses internal values, not those in column display.  Thus, the TTY
          and WCHAN fields will violate strict ASCII collating sequence.


   4d. COLOR Mapping
       When you issue the `Z' interactive command, you will be presented with a separate  screen.
       That  screen  can be used to change the colors in just the `current' window or in all four
       windows before returning to the top display.


       The following interactive commands are available.
           4 upper case letters to select a target
           8 numbers to select a color
           normal toggles available
               B         :bold disable/enable
               b         :running tasks "bold"/reverse
               z         :color/mono
           other commands available
               a/w       :apply, then go to next/prior
               <Enter>   :apply and exit
               q         :abandon current changes and exit

       If you use `a' or `w' to cycle the targeted window, you will have applied the color scheme
       that  was  displayed  when you left that window.  You can, of course, easily return to any
       window and reapply different colors or turn colors Off completely with the `z' toggle.

       The Color Mapping screen can also be used to change the `current'  window/field  group  in
       either  full-screen  mode  or  alternate-display  mode.  Whatever was targeted when `q' or
       <Enter> was pressed will be made current as you return to the top display.

5. ALTERNATE-DISPLAY Provisions
   5a. WINDOWS Overview
       Field Groups/Windows:
          In full-screen mode there is a single window represented by the  entire  screen.   That
          single  window  can  still be changed to display 1 of 4 different field groups (see the
          `g' interactive command, repeated below).  Each of the 4 field groups has a unique sep-
          arately configurable summary area and its own configurable task area.

          In  alternate-display  mode,  those  4  underlying field groups can now be made visible
          simultaneously, or can be turned Off individually at your command.

          The summary area will always exist, even if it's only the message line.  At  any  given
          time  only  one  summary  area  can be displayed.  However, depending on your commands,
          there could be from zero to four  separate  task  displays  currently  showing  on  the
          screen.

       Current Window:
          The  `current'  window is the window associated with the summary area and the window to
          which task related commands are always directed.  Since in alternate-display  mode  you
          can  toggle  the  task display Off, some commands might be restricted for the `current'
          window.

          A further complication arises when you have toggled the first summary  area  line  Off.
          With  the  loss  of the window name (the `l' toggled line), you'll not easily know what
          window is the `current' window.


   5b. COMMANDS for Windows
          - | _  :Show/Hide-Window(s) toggles
              The `-' key turns the `current' window's task display On and Off.   When  On,  that
              task area will show a minimum of the columns header you've established with the `f'
              interactive command.  It will also reflect  any  other  task  area  options/toggles
              you've applied yielding zero or more tasks.

              The  `_'  key  does  the  same  for all task displays.  In other words, it switches
              between the currently visible task display(s) and any task display(s) you had  tog-
              gled  Off.   If all 4 task displays are currently visible, this interactive command
              will leave the summary area as the only display element.


       *  = | +  :Equalize-(reinitialize)-Window(s)
              The `=' key forces the `current' window's task display  to  be  visible.   It  also
              reverses  any  `i'  (idle  tasks),  `n'  (max tasks), `u/U' (user filter) and `o/O'
              (other filter) commands that might  be  active.   Also,  if  the  window  had  been
              scrolled, it will be reset with this command.  See topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window for
              additional information regarding vertical and horizontal scrolling.

              The `+' key does the same for all windows.  The four task displays  will  reappear,
              evenly  balanced.   They  will also have retained any customizations you had previ-
              ously applied, except for the `i' (idle tasks), `n' (max tasks), `u/U'  (user  fil-
              ter), `o/O' (other filter) and scrolling interactive commands.


       *  A  :Alternate-Display-Mode toggle
              This command will switch between full-screen mode and alternate-display mode.

              The  first  time  you  issue  this  command,  all four task displays will be shown.
              Thereafter when you switch modes, you will see only the task display(s) you've cho-
              sen to make visible.


       *  a | w  :Next-Window-Forward/Backward
              This  will  change  the `current' window, which in turn changes the window to which
              commands are directed.  These keys act in a circular fashion so you can  reach  any
              desired window using either key.

              Assuming  the  window  name is visible (you have not toggled `l' Off), whenever the
              `current' window name loses its emphasis/color, that's a reminder the task  display
              is Off and many commands will be restricted.


       *  g  :Choose-Another-Window/Field-Group
              You  will be prompted to enter a number between 1 and 4 designating the field group
              which should be made the `current' window.

              In full-screen mode, this command is necessary to alter the `current'  window.   In
              alternate-display  mode,  it is simply a less convenient alternative to the `a' and
              `w' commands.


          G  :Change-Window/Field-Group-Name
              You will be prompted for a new name to be applied to the `current' window.  It does
              not require that the window name be visible (the `l' toggle to be On).


       *  The interactive commands shown with an asterisk (`*') have use beyond alternate-display
          mode.
              =, A, g    are always available
              a, w       act the same with color mapping
                         and fields management


   5c. SCROLLING a Window
       Typically a task window is a partial view into a systems's total tasks/threads which shows
       only  some  of the available fields/columns.  With these scrolling keys, you can move that
       view vertically or horizontally to reveal any desired task or column.


       Up,PgUp  :Scroll-Tasks
           Move the view up toward the first task row, until the first task is displayed  at  the
           top  of the `current' window.  The Up arrow key moves a single line while PgUp scrolls
           the entire window.


       Down,PgDn  :Scroll-Tasks
           Move the view down toward the last task row, until the last task is the only task dis-
           played  at  the  top  of the `current' window.  The Down arrow key moves a single line
           while PgDn scrolls the entire window.


       Left,Right  :Scroll-Columns
           Move the view of displayable fields horizontally one column at a time.

           Note: As a reminder, some fields/columns are not fixed-width but allocated all remain-
           ing screen width when visible.  When scrolling right or left, that feature may produce
           some unexpected results initially.

           Additionally, there are special provisions for any variable  width  field  when  posi-
           tioned  as  the  last displayed field.  Once that field is reached via the right arrow
           key, and is thus the only column shown, you can continue scrolling horizontally within
           such a field.  See the `C' interactive command below for additional information.


       Home  :Jump-to-Home-Position
           Reposition the display to the un-scrolled coordinates.


       End  :Jump-to-End-Position
           Reposition  the  display  so  that  the rightmost column reflects the last displayable
           field and the bottom task row represents the last task.

           Note: From this position it is still possible to scroll down and right using the arrow
           keys.   This  is true until a single column and a single task is left as the only dis-
           play element.


       C  :Show-scroll-coordinates toggle
           Toggle an informational message which is displayed whenever the message  line  is  not
           otherwise being used.  That message will take one of two forms depending on whether or
           not a variable width column has also been scrolled.

             scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields)
             scroll coordinates: y = n/n (tasks), x = n/n (fields) + nn

           The coordinates shown as n/n are relative to the upper left corner  of  the  `current'
           window.   The additional `+ nn' represents the displacement into a variable width col-
           umn when it has been scrolled horizontally.  Such  displacement  occurs  in  normal  8
           character tab stop amounts via the right and left arrow keys.


           y = n/n (tasks)
               The  first  n  represents  the topmost visible task and is controlled by scrolling
               keys.  The second n is updated automatically to reflect total tasks.


           x = n/n (fields)
               The first n  represents  the  leftmost  displayed  column  and  is  controlled  by
               scrolling  keys.   The  second  n is the total number of displayable fields and is
               established with the `f' interactive command.


       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen mode but  never  avail-
       able  in  alternate-display  mode  if the `current' window's task display has been toggled
       Off.

       Note: When any form of filtering is active, you can expect some  slight  aberrations  when
       scrolling  since  not all tasks will be visible.  This is particularly apparent when using
       the Up/Down arrow keys.


   5d. SEARCHING in a Window
       You can use these interactive commands to locate a task row containing a particular value.


       L  :Locate-a-string
           You will be prompted for the case-sensitive string to locate starting from the current
           window coordinates.  There are no restrictions on search string content.

           Searches  are  not limited to values from a single field or column.  All of the values
           displayed in a task row are allowed in a search string.  You may include spaces,  num-
           bers, symbols and even forest view artwork.

           Keying  <Enter>  with no input will effectively disable the `&' key until a new search
           string is entered.


       &  :Locate-next
           Assuming a search string has been established, top will attempt  to  locate  the  next
           occurrence.


       When  a match is found, the current window is repositioned vertically so the task row con-
       taining that string is first.  The scroll coordinates message can provide confirmation  of
       such vertical repositioning (see the `C' interactive command).  Horizontal scrolling, how-
       ever, is never altered via searching.

       The availability of a matching string will be influenced by the following factors.

          a. Which fields are displayable from the total available,
             see topic 3b. MANAGING Fields.

          b. Scrolling a window vertically and/or horizontally,
             see topic 5c. SCROLLING a Window.

          c. The state of the command/command-line toggle,
             see the `c' interactive command.

          d. The stability of the chosen sort column,
             for example PID is good but %CPU bad.


       If a search fails, restoring the `current' window home  (unscrolled)  position,  scrolling
       horizontally, displaying command-lines or choosing a more stable sort field could yet pro-
       duce a successful `&' search.

       The above interactive commands are always available in full-screen mode but  never  avail-
       able  in  alternate-display  mode  if the `current' window's task display has been toggled
       Off.

       Note: Whenever a Search is active in a window, top will turn column  highlighting  Off  to
       prevent false matches on internal non-display escape sequences.  Such highlighting will be
       restored when a window's search string is empty.  See  the  `x'  interactive  command  for
       additional information on sort column highlighting.


   5e. FILTERING in a Window
       You  can  use  this  Other  Filter feature to establish selection criteria which will then
       determine which tasks are shown in the `current' window.

       Establishing a filter requires: 1) a field name; 2) an operator; and 3) a selection value,
       as a minimum.  This is the most complex of top's user input requirements so, when you make
       a mistake, command recall will be your friend.  Remember the Up/Down arrow keys  or  their
       aliases when prompted for input.

       Filter Basics

          1. field names are case sensitive and spelled as in the header

          2. selection values need not comprise the full displayed field

          3. a selection is either case insensitive or sensitive to case

          4. the default is inclusion, prepending `!' denotes exclusions

          5. multiple selection criteria can be applied to a task window

          6. inclusion and exclusion criteria can be used simultaneously

          7. the 1 equality and 2 relational filters can be freely mixed

          8. separate unique filters are maintained for each task window

          If  a  field is not turned on or is not currently in view, then your selection criteria
          will not affect the display.  Later, should a filtered field become visible, the selec-
          tion criteria will then be applied.

       Keyboard Summary

         o  :Other-Filter (lower case)
             You will be prompted to establish a filter that ignores case when matching.


         O  :Other-Filter (upper case)
             You will be prompted to establish a case sensitive filter.


        ^O  :Show-Active-Filters (Ctrl key + `o')
             This can serve as a reminder of which filters are active in the `current' window.  A
             summary will be shown on the message line until you press the <Enter> key.


         =  :Reset-Filtering in current window
             This clears all of your selection criteria in the `current'  window.   It  also  has
             additional impact so please see topic 4a. GLOBAL Commands.


         +  :Reset-Filtering in all windows
             This  clears  the  selection  criteria  in  all  windows, assuming you are in alter-
             nate-display mode.  As with the `=' interactive command, it too has additional  con-
             sequences so you might wish to see topic 5b. COMMANDS for Windows.

       Input Requirements

          When  prompted for selection criteria, the data you provide must take one of two forms.
          There are 3 required pieces of information, with a 4th as optional.  These examples use
          spaces for clarity but your input generally would not.
                  #1           #2  #3              ( required )
                  Field-Name   ?   include-if-value
               !  Field-Name   ?   exclude-if-value
               #4                                  ( optional )

          Items  #1,  #3  and  #4 should be self-explanatory.  Item #2 represents both a required
          delimiter and the operator which must be one of either equality (`=') or relation  (`<'
          or `>').

          The  `='  equality  operator  requires  only  a  partial match and that can reduce your
          `if-value' input requirements.  The `>'  or  `<'  relational  operators  always  employ
          string comparisons, even with numeric fields.  They are designed to work with a field's
          default justification and with homogeneous data.  When  some  field's  numeric  amounts
          have  been  subjected  to scaling while others have not, that data is no longer homoge-
          neous.

          If you establish a relational filter and you have changed the default Numeric or  Char-
          acter  justification,  that  filter  is  likely  to  fail.  When a relational filter is
          applied to a memory field and you have not changed the scaling, it may produce mislead-
          ing  results.   This  happens, for example, because `100.0m' (MiB) would appear greater
          than `1.000g' (GiB) when compared as strings.

          If your filtered results appear suspect, simply altering justification or  scaling  may
          yet  achieve  the desired objective.  See the `j', `J' and `e' interactive commands for
          additional information.

       Potential Problems

          These GROUP filters could produce the exact same results or the second  one  might  not
          display anything at all, just a blank task window.
               GROUP=root        ( only the same results when )
               GROUP=ROOT        ( invoked via lower case `o' )

          Either of these RES filters might yield inconsistent and/or misleading results, depend-
          ing on the current memory scaling factor.  Or both filters could produce the exact same
          results.
               RES>9999          ( only the same results when )
               !RES<10000        ( memory scaling is at `KiB' )

          This  nMin  filter  illustrates  a  problem unique to scalable fields.  This particular
          field can display a maximum of 4 digits, beyond which values are  automatically  scaled
          to  KiB  or above.  So while amounts greater than 9999 exist, they will appear as 2.6m,
          197k, etc.
               nMin>9999         ( always a blank task window )

       Potential Solutions

          These examples illustrate how Other Filtering can  be  creatively  applied  to  achieve
          almost  any  desired  result.   Single quotes are sometimes shown to delimit the spaces
          which are part of a filter or to represent a request for status (^O)  accurately.   But
          if you used them with if-values in real life, no matches would be found.

          Assuming  field  nTH  is displayed, the first filter will result in only multi-threaded
          processes being shown.  It also reminds us that a trailing space is part of every  dis-
          played field.  The second filter achieves the exact same results with less typing.
               !nTH=` 1 '                ( ' for clarity only )
               nTH>1                     ( same with less i/p )

          With  Forest  View  mode active and the COMMAND column in view, this filter effectively
          collapses child processes so that just 3 levels are shown.
               !COMMAND=`       `- '     ( ' for clarity only )

          The final two filters appear as in response to the status request key (^O).   In  real-
          ity, each filter would have required separate input.  The PR example shows the two con-
          current filters necessary to display tasks with priorities of 20 or  more,  since  some
          might  be  negative.   Then  by  exploiting trailing spaces, the nMin series of filters
          could achieve the failed `9999' objective discussed above.
               `PR>20' + `!PR=-'         ( 2 for right result )
               `!nMin=0 ' + `!nMin=1 ' + `!nMin=2 ' + `!nMin=3 ' ...

       Note: Whenever Other Filtering is active in a window, top will  turn  column  highlighting
       Off  to prevent false matches on internal non-display escape sequences.  Such highlighting
       will be restored when a window is no longer subject to filtering.  See the `x' interactive
       command for additional information on sort column highlighting.


6. FILES
   6a. SYSTEM Configuration File
       The  presence  of this file will influence which version of the help screen is shown to an
       ordinary user.  More importantly, it will limit what ordinary users are allowed to do when
       top is running.  They will not be able to issue the following commands.
           k        Kill a task
           r        Renice a task
           d or s   Change delay/sleep interval

       The  system  configuration file is not created by top.  Rather, you create this file manu-
       ally and place it in the /etc directory.  Its name must be `toprc' and must have no  lead-
       ing `.' (period).  It must have only two lines.

       Here is an example of the contents of /etc/toprc:
           s        # line 1: secure mode switch
           5.0      # line 2: delay interval in seconds


   6b. PERSONAL Configuration File
       This  file is written as `$HOME/.your-name-4-top' + `rc'.  Use the `W' interactive command
       to create it or update it.

       Here is the general layout:
           global   # line  1: the program name/alias notation
             "      # line  2: id,altscr,irixps,delay,curwin
           per ea   # line  a: winname,fieldscur
           window   # line  b: winflags,sortindx,maxtasks,graph modes
             "      # line  c: summclr,msgsclr,headclr,taskclr
           global   # line 15: additional miscellaneous settings
             "      # any remaining lines are devoted to the
             "      # generalized inspect provisions
             "      # discussed below

       If the $HOME variable is not present, top will try to  write  the  personal  configuration
       file to the current directory, subject to permissions.


   6c. ADDING INSPECT Entries
       To  exploit  the  `Y' interactive command, you must add entries at the end of the top per-
       sonal configuration file.  Such entries simply reflect a file to be read or  command/pipe-
       line to be executed whose results will then be displayed in a separate scrollable, search-
       able window.

       If you don't know the location or name of your top rcfile, use the `W' interactive command
       to rewrite it and note those details.

       Inspect  entries can be added with a redirected echo or by editing the configuration file.
       Redirecting an echo risks overwriting the rcfile should it replace (>) rather than  append
       (>>)  to  that  file.   Conversely, when using an editor care must be taken not to corrupt
       existing lines, some of which will contain unprintable data or unusual characters.

       Those Inspect entries beginning with a `#' character are ignored, regardless  of  content.
       Otherwise  they  consist of the following 3 elements, each of which must be separated by a
       tab character (thus 2 `\t' total):

         .type:  literal `file' or `pipe'
         .name:  selection shown on the Inspect screen
         .fmts:  string representing a path or command

       The two types of Inspect entries are not interchangeable.  Those designated `file' will be
       accessed  using  fopen  and  must reference a single file in the `.fmts' element.  Entries
       specifying `pipe' will employ popen, their `.fmts' element could  contain  many  pipelined
       commands and, none can be interactive.

       If  the  file or pipeline represented in your `.fmts' deals with the specific PID input or
       accepted when prompted, then the format string must also contain the  `%d'  specifier,  as
       these examples illustrate.

         .fmts=  /proc/%d/numa_maps
         .fmts=  lsof -P -p %d

       For  `pipe'  type  entries only, you may also wish to redirect stderr to stdout for a more
       comprehensive result.  Thus the format string becomes:

         .fmts=  pmap -x %d 2>&1

       Here are examples of both types of Inspect entries as they might  appear  in  the  rcfile.
       The first entry will be ignored due to the initial `#' character.  For clarity, the pseudo
       tab depictions (^I) are surrounded by an extra space but the actual tabs would not be.

         # pipe ^I Sockets ^I lsof -n -P -i 2>&1
         pipe ^I Open Files ^I lsof -P -p %d 2>&1
         file ^I NUMA Info ^I /proc/%d/numa_maps
         pipe ^I Log ^I tail -n100 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr

       Except for the commented entry above, these next examples show what  could  be  echoed  to
       achieve  similar  results,  assuming  the  rcfile  name was `.toprc'.  However, due to the
       embedded tab characters, each of these lines should be preceded  by  `/bin/echo  -e',  not
       just  a simple an `echo', to enable backslash interpretation regardless of which shell you
       use.

         "pipe\tOpen Files\tlsof -P -p %d 2>&1" >> ~/.toprc
         "file\tNUMA Info\t/proc/%d/numa_maps" >> ~/.toprc
         "pipe\tLog\ttail -n200 /var/log/syslog | sort -Mr" >> ~/.toprc

       Caution: If any inspect entry you create produces output with unprintable characters  they
       will  be  displayed in either the ^C notation or hexadecimal <FF> form, depending on their
       value.  This applies to tab characters as well, which will show as `^I'.  If  you  want  a
       truer representation, any embedded tabs should be expanded.

         # next would have contained `\t' ...
         # file ^I <your_name> ^I /proc/%d/status
         # but this will eliminate embedded `\t' ...
         pipe ^I <your_name> ^I cat /proc/%d/status | expand -

       The  above  example takes what could have been a `file' entry but employs a `pipe' instead
       so as to expand the embedded tabs.

       Note: While `pipe' type entries have been discussed in terms of  pipelines  and  commands,
       there is nothing to prevent you from including  shell scripts as well.  Perhaps even newly
       created scripts designed specifically for the `Y' interactive command.

       Lastly, as the number of your Inspect entries grows over time, the `Options:' row will  be
       truncated  when  screen  width  is exceeded.  That does not affect operation other than to
       make some selections invisible.

       However, if some choices are lost to truncation but you want to see more options, there is
       an easy solution hinted at below.

         Inspection Pause at pid ...
         Use:  left/right then <Enter> ...
         Options:  help  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11 ...

       The  entries  in the top rcfile would have a number for the `.name' element and the `help'
       entry would identify a shell script you've written explaining what those  numbered  selec-
       tions actually mean.  In that way, many more choices can be made visible.


7. STUPID TRICKS Sampler
       Many  of these tricks work best when you give top a scheduling boost.  So plan on starting
       him with a nice value of -10, assuming you've got the authority.


   7a. Kernel Magic
       For these stupid tricks, top needs full-screen mode.


       o  The user interface, through prompts and help,  intentionally  implies  that  the  delay
          interval  is  limited  to  tenths of a second.  However, you're free to set any desired
          delay.  If you want to see Linux at his scheduling best, try a delay of .09 seconds  or
          less.

          For  this  experiment, under x-windows open an xterm and maximize it.  Then do the fol-
          lowing:
            . provide a scheduling boost and tiny delay via:
                nice -n -10 top -d.09
            . keep sorted column highlighting Off so as to
              minimize path length
            . turn On reverse row highlighting for emphasis
            . try various sort columns (TIME/MEM work well),
              and normal or reverse sorts to bring the most
              active processes into view

          What you'll see is a very busy Linux doing what he's always done for you, but there was
          no program available to illustrate this.


       o  Under  an  xterm  using  `white-on-black' colors, on top's Color Mapping screen set the
          task color to black and be sure that task highlighting is set  to  bold,  not  reverse.
          Then set the delay interval to around .3 seconds.

          After  bringing  the  most  active processes into view, what you'll see are the ghostly
          images of just the currently running tasks.


       o  Delete the existing rcfile, or create a new symlink.  Start this new version then  type
          `T'  (a secret key, see topic 4c. Task Area Commands, SORTING) followed by `W' and `q'.
          Finally, restart the program with -d0 (zero delay).

          Your display will be refreshed at three times the rate of the former top, a 300%  speed
          advantage.   As  top climbs the TIME ladder, be as patient as you can while speculating
          on whether or not top will ever reach the top.


   7b. Bouncing Windows
       For these stupid tricks, top needs alternate-display mode.


       o  With 3 or 4 task displays visible, pick any window other than the last  and  turn  idle
          processes  Off using the `i' command toggle.  Depending on where you applied `i', some-
          times several task displays are bouncing and sometimes it's like an accordion,  as  top
          tries his best to allocate space.


       o  Set  each window's summary lines differently: one with no memory ('m'); another with no
          states ('t'); maybe one with nothing at all, just the message line.  Then hold down `a'
          or `w' and watch a variation on bouncing windows  --  hopping windows.


       o  Display  all  4  windows and for each, in turn, set idle processes to Off using the `i'
          command toggle.  You've just entered the "extreme bounce" zone.


   7c. The Big Bird Window
       This stupid trick also requires alternate-display mode.


       o  Display all 4 windows and make sure that 1:Def is the  `current'  window.   Then,  keep
          increasing  window  size with the `n' interactive command until all the other task dis-
          plays are "pushed out of the nest".

          When they've all been displaced, toggle between all visible/invisible windows using the
          `_' command toggle.  Then ponder this:
             is top fibbing or telling honestly your imposed truth?


   7d. The Ol' Switcheroo
       This stupid trick works best without alternate-display mode, since justification is active
       on a per window basis.


       o  Start top and make COMMAND the last (rightmost) column displayed.   If  necessary,  use
          the  `c'  command  toggle  to display command lines and ensure that forest view mode is
          active with the `V' command toggle.

          Then use the up/down arrow keys to position the display so that some truncated  command
          lines  are  shown (`+' in last position).  You may have to resize your xterm to produce
          truncation.

          Lastly, use the `j' command toggle to make the COMMAND column right justified.

          Now use the right arrow key to reach the COMMAND column.   Continuing  with  the  right
          arrow key, watch closely the direction of travel for the command lines being shown.

             some lines travel left, while others travel right

             eventually all lines will Switcheroo, and move right


8. BUGS
       To report bugs, follow the instructions at:
           http://www.debian.org/Bugs/Reporting


9. HISTORY Former top
       The   original   top   was   written   by   Roger   Binns,  based  on  Branko  Lankester's
       <lankeste AT fwi.nl> ps program.

       Robert Nation <nation AT rocket.com> adapted it for the proc file system.

       Helmut Geyer <Helmut.Geyer AT iwr.de> added support for configurable fields.

       Plus many other individuals contributed over the years.


10. AUTHOR
       This entirely new and enhanced replacement was written by:
           Jim Warner, <james.warner AT comcast.net>

       With invaluable help from:
           Craig Small, <csmall AT enc.au>
           Albert Cahalan, <albert AT users.net>



11. SEE Also
       free(1), ps(1), uptime(1), atop(1), slabtop(1), vmstat(8), w(1).



procps-ng                                   July 2014                                      TOP(1)

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