unzip(1) - phpMan

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UNZIP(1L)                                                            UNZIP(1L)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip     [-Z]    [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]]    file[.zip]    [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly found  on  MS-
       DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to extract into the current
       directory (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified  ZIP  archive.
       A  companion  program,  zip(1L), creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible
       with archives created by PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in  many  cases
       the program options or default behaviors differ.

              Path  of  the ZIP archive(s).  If the file specification is a wildcard, each
              matching file is processed in an order determined by  the  operating  system
              (or file system).  Only the filename can be a wildcard; the path itself can-
              not.  Wildcard expressions are similar to those supported in  commonly  used
              Unix shells (sh, ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches  any  single  character found inside the brackets; ranges are
                     specified by a beginning character, a hyphen, and an  ending  charac-
                     ter.   If  an  exclamation  point or a caret ('!' or '^') follows the
                     left bracket, then the range of characters  within  the  brackets  is
                     complemented  (that  is,  anything  except  the characters inside the
                     brackets is considered a match).  To specify a verbatim left bracket,
                     the three-character sequence ''[[]'' has to be used.

              (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modi-
              fied by the operating system, particularly  under  Unix  and  VMS.)   If  no
              matches  are  found,  the specification is assumed to be a literal filename;
              and if that also fails, the  suffix  .zip  is  appended.   Note  that  self-
              extracting  ZIP  files  are  supported,  as with any other ZIP archive; just
              specify the .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An optional list of archive members to be processed,  separated  by  spaces.
              (VMS  versions  compiled  with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas
              instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)  Regular expressions (wildcards) may  be
              used  to match multiple members; see above.  Again, be sure to quote expres-
              sions that would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating  system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An  optional  list of archive members to be excluded from processing.  Since
              wildcard characters normally match ('/') directory  separators  (for  excep-
              tions  see the option -W), this option may be used to exclude any files that
              are in subdirectories.  For example,  ''unzip  foo  *.[ch]  -x  */*''  would
              extract  all C source files in the main directory, but none in any subdirec-
              tories.  Without the -x option, all C source files in all directories within
              the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An  optional directory to which to extract files.  By default, all files and
              subdirectories are recreated in the current directory; the -d option  allows
              extraction  in an arbitrary directory (always assuming one has permission to
              write to the directory).  This option need not appear at the end of the com-
              mand  line;  it  is also accepted before the zipfile specification (with the
              normal options), immediately after the zipfile specification, or between the
              file(s)  and  the  -x  option.  The option and directory may be concatenated
              without any white space between them, but note that this  may  cause  normal
              shell  behavior  to  be  suppressed.   In  particular,  ''-d ~''  (tilde) is
              expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user's  home  directory,  but
              ''-d~'' is treated as a literal subdirectory ''~'' of the current directory.

       Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage screen  is  lim-
       ited  to  22  or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the
       basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive  list  of  all  possible  flags.   The
       exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L)  mode.   If  the  first  option  on  the command line is -Z, the
              remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.  See the  appropriate
              manual page for a description of these options.

       -A     [OS/2,  Unix  DLL]  print  extended help for the DLL's programming interface

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (''CRT'').  This option is similar to the  -p
              option  except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted, the
              -a option is allowed, and ASCII-EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed
              if appropriate.  This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that already exist on
              disk and that are newer than the disk  copies.   By  default  unzip  queries
              before  overwriting,  but the -o option may be used to suppress the queries.
              Note that under many operating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment  vari-
              able  must  be  set correctly in order for -f and -u to work properly (under
              Unix the variable is usually set automatically).  The reasons for  this  are
              somewhat  subtle but have to do with the differences between DOS-format file
              times (always local time) and Unix-format times (always in GMT/UTC) and  the
              necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is ''PST8PDT'' (US Pacific
              time with  automatic  adjustment  for  Daylight  Savings  Time  or  ''summer

       -l     list  archive  files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file sizes and
              modification dates and times of the specified files are printed, along  with
              totals for all files specified.  If UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined,
              the -l option also lists columns for  the  sizes  of  stored  OS/2  extended
              attributes  (EAs)  and  OS/2  access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
              zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are displayed.   If  a
              file  was  archived from a single-case file system (for example, the old MS-
              DOS FAT file system) and the -L option was given, the filename is  converted
              to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract  files  to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is sent to std-
              out, and the files are always extracted in binary format, just as  they  are
              stored (no conversions).

       -t     test  archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in memory and
              compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check,  an  enhanced  checksum)  of  the
              expanded file with the original file's stored CRC value.

       -T     [most  OSes]  set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file
              in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go option except  that  it  can  be
              used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ''unzip -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update  existing  files and create new ones if needed.  This option performs
              the same function as the -f option, extracting (with query) files  that  are
              newer  than  those  with  the same name on disk, and in addition it extracts
              those files that do not already exist on disk.  See -f above for information
              on setting the timezone properly.

       -v     list  archive  files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version info.  This
              option has evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.  As  an
              option  it  has  two  purposes:   when  a zipfile is specified with no other
              options, -v lists archive files verbosely, adding to the basic -l  info  the
              compression  method,  compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In
              contrast to most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the 12 additional
              header  bytes of encrypted entries from the compressed size numbers.  There-
              fore, compressed size and compression ratio figures are independent  of  the
              entry's  encryption  status  and  show  the correct compression performance.
              (The complete size of the  encrypted  compressed  data  stream  for  zipfile
              entries  is  reported by the more verbose zipinfo(1L) reports, see the sepa-
              rate manual.)  When no zipfile is specified (that is, the  complete  command
              is simply ''unzip -v''), a diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition to the
              normal header with release date and version, unzip lists the  home  Info-ZIP
              ftp site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target
              operating system for which it was compiled, as well as (possibly) the  hard-
              ware on which it was compiled, the compiler and version used, and the compi-
              lation date; any special compilation options that might affect the program's
              operation (see also DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in environment
              variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS below).  As a mod-
              ifier  it works in conjunction with other options (e.g., -t) to produce more
              verbose or debugging output; this is not yet fully implemented but  will  be
              in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert  text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are
              stored (as ''binary'' files).  The -a option causes files identified by  zip
              as  text  files  (those  with the 't' label in zipinfo listings, rather than
              'b') to be automatically extracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-
              file  characters  and  the character set itself as necessary.  (For example,
              Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL) and  have  no  end-of-
              file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most
              PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.  In addition,
              IBM  mainframes  and the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the
              more common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that  zip's
              identification of text files is by no means perfect; some ''text'' files may
              actually be binary and vice versa.  unzip  therefore  prints  ''[text]''  or
              ''[binary]''  as  a visual check for each file it extracts when using the -a
              option.  The -aa option forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless
              of the supposed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This is a short-
              cut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C') when extract-
              ing  Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is enabled by default, see

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a  above)  to  fixed-length,  512-byte
              record  format.   Doubling the option (-bb) forces all files to be extracted
              in this format. When extracting to standard  output  (-c  or  -p  option  in
              effect),  the  default  conversion of text record delimiters is disabled for
              binary (-b) resp. all (-bb) files.

       -B     [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of each overwrit-
              ten  file.  The backup file is gets the name of the target file with a tilde
              and optionally a unique sequence number (up  to  5  digits)  appended.   The
              sequence number is applied whenever another file with the original name plus
              tilde already exists.  When used together with the  "overwrite  all"  option
              -o,  numbered backup files are never created. In this case, all backup files
              are named as the original file with an appended tilde, existing backup files
              are  deleted  without  notice.   This feature works similarly to the default
              behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

              Example: the old copy of ''foo'' is renamed to ''foo~''.

              Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option does not prevent  loss  of
              existing  data  under  all circumstances.  For example, when unzip is run in
              overwrite-all mode, an  existing  ''foo~''  file  is  deleted  before  unzip
              attempts  to  rename  ''foo''  to  ''foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails
              (because of a file locks, insufficient privileges, or ...),  the  extraction
              of ''foo~'' gets cancelled, but the old backup file is already lost.  A sim-
              ilar scenario takes place when the sequence number range for numbered backup
              files  gets  exhausted  (99999, or 65535 for 16-bit systems).  In this case,
              the backup file with the maximum sequence number is deleted and replaced  by
              the new backup version without notice.

       -C     use  case-insensitive matching for the selection of archive entries from the
              command-line list of extract  selection  patterns.   unzip's  philosophy  is
              ''you get what you ask for'' (this is also responsible for the -L/-U change;
              see the relevant options below).  Because some file systems are fully  case-
              sensitive  (notably  those under the Unix operating system) and because both
              ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across platforms, unzip's default
              behavior  is  to match both wildcard and literal filenames case-sensitively.
              That is, specifying ''makefile'' on the command line will only match ''make-
              file''  in  the archive, not ''Makefile'' or ''MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for
              wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the behavior of
              many  other  operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which preserves
              mixed case but is not sensitive to it), the -C option may be used  to  force
              all  filename  matches  to  be  case-insensitive.  In the example above, all
              three files would then match ''makefile'' (or ''make*'', or  similar).   The
              -C  option affects file specs in both the normal file list and the excluded-
              file list (xlist).

              Please note that the -C option does neither affect the search for  the  zip-
              file(s) nor the matching of archive entries to existing files on the extrac-
              tion path.  On a case-sensitive file system, unzip will never try  to  over-
              write a file ''FOO'' when extracting an entry ''foo''!

       -D     skip  restoration  of timestamps for extracted items.  Normally, unzip tries
              to restore all meta-information for extracted items that are supplied in the
              Zip  archive  (and do not require privileges or impose a security risk).  By
              specifying -D, unzip is told  to  suppress  restoration  of  timestamps  for
              directories  explicitly  created from Zip archive entries.  This option only
              applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories  (currently
              ATheOS,  BeOS,  MacOS, OS/2, Unix, VMS, Win32, for other unzip ports, -D has
              no effect).  The duplicated  option  -DD  forces  suppression  of  timestamp
              restoration  for all extracted entries (files and directories).  This option
              results in setting the timestamps for all extracted entries to  the  current

              On  VMS,  the default setting for this option is -D for consistency with the
              behaviour of BACKUP: file timestamps are restored, timestamps  of  extracted
              directories  are  left at the current time.  To enable restoration of direc-
              tory timestamps, the negated option --D should be specified.   On  VMS,  the
              option  -D  disables  timestamp  restoration  for  all extracted Zip archive
              items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the default  -D
              to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension  from  stored  file-

       -F     [non-Acorn  systems supporting long filenames with embedded commas, and only
              if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS  defined]  translate  filetype  information
              from  ACORN  RISC  OS  extra  field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and
              append it to the names of the extracted files.  (When  the  stored  filename
              appears  to  already have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced
              by the info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS  extra  fields.  Instead,  the
              most compatible filename stored in the generic part of the entry's header is

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;  all  files
              are deposited in the extraction directory (by default, the current one).

       -J     [BeOS  only]  junk file attributes.  The file's BeOS file attributes are not
              restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.   All  Macintosh  specific  info  is
              skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS,  BeOS,  Unix only] retain SUID/SGID/Tacky file attributes.  Without
              this flag, these attribute bits are cleared for security reasons.

       -L     convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating
              system or file system.  (This was unzip's default behavior in releases prior
              to 5.11; the new default behavior is identical to the old behavior with  the
              -U  option,  which is now obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)
              Depending on the archiver, files archived  under  single-case  file  systems
              (VMS,  old  MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be stored as all-uppercase names; this can
              be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to  a  case-preserving  file  system
              such  as  OS/2  HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as under Unix.  By default
              unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as they're stored (excepting
              truncation,  conversion of unsupported characters, etc.); this option causes
              the names of all files from certain systems to be  converted  to  lowercase.
              The  -LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase, regardless
              of the originating file system.

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix  more(1)  com-
              mand.  At the end of a screenful of output, unzip pauses with a ''--More--''
              prompt; the next screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return)  key
              or the space bar.  unzip can be terminated by pressing the ''q'' key and, on
              some systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is  no  for-
              ward-searching  or  editing  capability.  Also, unzip doesn't notice if long
              lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively resulting in the  printing
              of  two  or more lines and the likelihood that some text will scroll off the
              top of the screen before being viewed.  On some systems the number of avail-
              able  lines  on  the screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes the
              height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists, skip the  extrac-
              tion  of  that  file  without  prompting.   By  default unzip queries before
              extracting any file that already exists; the user may  choose  to  overwrite
              only  the  current file, overwrite all files, skip extraction of the current
              file, skip extraction of all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments are created
              with  the  -c  option of zip(1L), or with the -N option of the Amiga port of
              zip(1L), which stores filenotes as comments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous option,  so
              use  it  with care.  (It is often used with -f, however, and is the only way
              to overwrite directory EAs under OS/2.)

       -P password
              use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any).  THIS  IS  INSE-
              CURE!   Many  multi-user  operating systems provide ways for any user to see
              the current command line of any other  user;  even  on  stand-alone  systems
              there is always the threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plain-
              text password as part of a command line  in  an  automated  script  is  even
              worse.   Whenever possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to enter
              passwords.  (And where security is truly important,  use  strong  encryption
              such  as  Pretty Good Privacy instead of the relatively weak encryption pro-
              vided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).   Ordinarily  unzip  prints
              the  names  of the files it's extracting or testing, the extraction methods,
              any file or zipfile comments that may be stored in the archive, and possibly
              a  summary  when finished with each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the
              printing of some or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.  Since all PC
              operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip by default extracts file-
              names with spaces intact (e.g., ''EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, how-
              ever, since MS-DOS in particular does not gracefully support spaces in file-
              names.  Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in
              some cases.

       -S     [VMS]  convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format, instead of
              the text-file default, variable-length record  format.   (Stream_LF  is  the
              default record format of VMS unzip. It is applied unless conversion (-a, -aa
              and/or -b, -bb) is requested or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT only] modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When  UNICODE_SUP-
              PORT  is available, the option -U forces unzip to escape all non-ASCII char-
              acters from UTF-8 coded filenames as ''#Uxxxx'' (for  UCS-2  characters,  or
              ''#Lxxxxxx''  for  unicode  codepoints  needing  3  octets).  This option is
              mainly provided for debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8  support  is
              suspected to mangle up extracted filenames.

              The  option  -UU allows to entirely disable the recognition of UTF-8 encoded
              filenames.  The handling of filename codings within unzip falls back to  the
              behaviour of previous versions.

              [old,  obsolete  usage]  leave  filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS,
              VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with  a  version
              number,  in  the format file.ext;##.  By default the '';##'' version numbers
              are stripped, but this option allows them to be retained.  (On file  systems
              that  limit filenames to particularly short lengths, the version numbers may
              be truncated or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled] modifies  the  pat-
              tern  matching  routine  so  that  both  '?'  (single-char wildcard) and '*'
              (multi-char wildcard) do not match the directory  separator  character  '/'.
              (The  two-character  sequence  ''**''  acts  as  a  multi-char wildcard that
              includes the directory separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

               "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
               "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
               "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
               "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                       but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to the pattern matching style used  by
              the  shells  of  some  of UnZip's supported target OSs (one example is Acorn
              RISC OS).  This option may  not  be  available  on  systems  where  the  Zip
              archive's  internal  directory separator character '/' is allowed as regular
              character in native operating system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip uses  the
              same pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile specifications and zip
              entry selection patterns in most ports.  For systems allowing '/' as regular
              filename  character,  the -W option would not work as expected on a wildcard
              zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT, Tandem] restore owner/protection info  (UICs  and  ACL
              entries)  under  VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix, or access
              control lists (ACLs) under certain network-enabled versions  of  OS/2  (Warp
              Server  with IBM LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer
              1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases  this  will  require
              special  system privileges, and doubling the option (-XX) under NT instructs
              unzip to use privileges for extraction; but under Unix, for example, a  user
              who  belongs  to  several  groups  can  restore  files owned by any of those
              groups, as long as the user IDs match his or her own.   Note  that  ordinary
              file  attributes  are always restored--this option applies only to optional,
              extra ownership info available on some operating systems.  [NT's access con-
              trol  lists  do  not  appear  to be especially compatible with OS/2's, so no
              attempt is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.   It  is
              not clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS] treat archived file name endings of ''.nnn'' (where ''nnn'' is a deci-
              mal  number) as if they were VMS version numbers ('';nnn'').   (The  default
              is to treat them as file types.)  Example:
                       "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS,  OS/2,  NT]  restore  the  volume label if the extraction medium is
              removable (e.g., a diskette).  Doubling the option (-$$) allows fixed  media
              (hard disks) to be labelled as well.  By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext  environment
              variable. During extraction, filename extensions that match one of the items
              in this extension list are  swapped  in  front  of  the  base  name  of  the
              extracted file.

       -:     [all  but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive members into
              locations outside of the current '' extraction root folder''.  For  security
              reasons,  unzip  normally  removes  ''parent dir'' path components (''../'')
              from the names of extracted file.  This  safety  feature  (new  for  version
              5.50)  prevents unzip from accidentally writing files to ''sensitive'' areas
              outside the active extraction folder tree head.  The -:  option  lets  unzip
              switch  back to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to allow exact extrac-
              tion of (older) archives that used ''../''  components  to  create  multiple
              directory  trees at the level of the current extraction folder.  This option
              does not enable writing  explicitly  to  the  root  directory  (''/'').   To
              achieve  this,  it  is necessary to set the extraction target folder to root
              (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it is still  possi-
              ble  to  implicitly write to the root directory by specifying enough ''../''
              path components within the zip archive.  Use this option with  extreme  cau-

       -^     [Unix  only]  allow  control  characters  in  names of extracted ZIP archive
              entries.  On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit) character  code  with
              the two exception '/' (directory delimiter) and NUL (0x00, the C string ter-
              mination indicator), unless the specific file system  has  more  restrictive
              conventions.   Generally,  this allows to embed ASCII control characters (or
              even sophisticated control sequences) in file names, at  least  on  'native'
              Unix file systems.  However, it may be highly suspicious to make use of this
              Unix "feature".  Embedded control characters in file names might have  nasty
              side  effects  when  displayed on screen by some listing code without suffi-
              cient filtering.  And, for ordinary users, it may  be  difficult  to  handle
              such  file  names  (e.g.  when trying to specify it for open, copy, move, or
              delete operations).  Therefore, unzip  applies  a  filter  by  default  that
              removes  potentially  dangerous  control  characters from the extracted file
              names. The -^ option allows to override this filter in the  rare  case  that
              embedded filename control characters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS]  force  unconditionally  conversion  of  file names to ODS2-compatible
              names.  The default is to exploit the destination  file  system,  preserving
              case  and  extended file name characters on an ODS5 destination file system;
              and applying the ODS2-compatibility file name filtering on an ODS2  destina-
              tion file system.

       unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an environment vari-
       able.  This can be done with any option, but it is probably most  useful  with  the
       -a,  -L,  -C,  -q,  -o,  or  -n  modifiers:   make unzip auto-convert text files by
       default, make it convert filenames from uppercase systems  to  lowercase,  make  it
       match  names  case-insensitively,  make  it quieter, or make it always overwrite or
       never overwrite files as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip act as  qui-
       etly  as  possible,  only reporting errors, one would use one of the following com-

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment options are, in effect, considered to be just like any  other  command-
       line  options,  except  that  they are effectively the first options on the command
       line.  To override an environment option, one may use  the  ''minus  operator''  to
       remove  it.  For instance, to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above,
       use the command

           unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the second is  a  minus  sign,
       acting  on  the  q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quiet-
       ness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two (or more) minuses may be used:

           unzip -t--q zipfile
           unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it is reasonably
       intuitive:   just ignore the first hyphen and go from there.  It is also consistent
       with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above, the default variable names are  UNZIP_OPTS  for
       VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be
       confused with the environment variable), and UNZIP for all other operating systems.
       For  compatibility  with  zip(1L),  UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If both
       UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.  unzip's  diagnos-
       tic  option  (-v  with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone  in  order
       for  the  -f  and  -u  to  operate  correctly.  See the description of -f above for
       details.  This variable may also be necessary to get timestamps of extracted  files
       to  be  set  correctly.   The WIN32 (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port of unzip gets the
       timezone configuration from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the  Con-
       trol Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored for this port.

       Encrypted  archives  are  fully  supported  by Info-ZIP software, but due to United
       States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be disabled in  your  com-
       piled  binary.  However, since spring 2000, US export restrictions have been liber-
       ated, and our source archives do now include full crypt code.   In  case  you  need
       binary  distributions  with  crypt  support  enabled, see the file ''WHERE'' in any
       Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for locations both inside  and  outside  the

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a version for
       crypt support, either attempt to test or extract  an  encrypted  archive,  or  else
       check  unzip's  diagnostic screen (see the -v option above) for ''[decryption]'' as
       one of the special compilation options.

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the command line,
       but  at  a  cost in security.  The preferred decryption method is simply to extract
       normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted, unzip  will  prompt  for  the  password
       without echoing what is typed.  unzip continues to use the same password as long as
       it appears to be valid, by testing a 12-byte header  on  each  file.   The  correct
       password  will  always check out against the header, but there is a 1-in-256 chance
       that an incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security feature of the PKWARE
       zipfile  format;  it  helps prevent brute-force attacks that might otherwise gain a
       large speed advantage by testing only the header.)  In the case that  an  incorrect
       password  is  given  but  it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC
       will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the extrac-
       tion  because  the  ''decrypted''  bytes  do not constitute a valid compressed data

       If the first password fails the header check on some file, unzip  will  prompt  for
       another  password,  and  so on until all files are extracted.  If a password is not
       known, entering a null password (that is, just a carriage return or  ''Enter'')  is
       taken  as  a  signal  to skip all further prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the
       archive(s) will thereafter be extracted.  (In fact, that's not  quite  true;  older
       versions  of  zip(1L) and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each
       encrypted file to see if the null password works.  This may result in ''false posi-
       tives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with accented Euro-
       pean characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other  archivers.   This
       problem  stems  from  the  use  of  multiple  encoding methods for such characters,
       including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM
       code  page; Windows PKZIP 2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS
       PKZIP); Info-ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO  cod-
       ing  (Latin-1 etc.) everywhere else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow 8-bit
       passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the default  character  set
       first  (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate one (e.g., OEM code page) to test
       passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if both of  these  fail,  EBCDIC  encoding  will  be
       tested  as  a  last  resort.   (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because
       there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC  encoding.)   ISO  character
       encodings  other  than  Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to the encryp-
       tion  password  handling  in  unzip.  On systems that use UTF-8 as native character
       encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the native UTF-8 encoded password; the
       built-in  attempts  to  check the password in translated encoding have not yet been
       adapted for UTF-8 support and will consequently fail.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive  letters.zip  into  the  current
       directory and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirectories as necessary:

           unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

           unzip -j letters

       To test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive
       is OK or not:

           unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the summaries:

           unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards,
       as  in  Unix; double quotes could have been used instead, as in the source examples
       below.)  To extract to standard output all members of letters.zip whose  names  end
       in  .tex, auto-converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output
       into more(1):

           unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a  printing

           unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To  extract  all  FORTRAN and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and Makefile--into the
       /tmp directory:

           unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is  turned  on).
       To  extract  all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of case (e.g., both *.c and
       *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or similar):

           unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names  to  lower-
       case  and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (with-
       out respect to any files that might be marked ''binary''):

           unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current directory, with-
       out  querying  (NOTE:  be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in
       another--ZIP archives other than those created by Zip 2.1 or later contain no time-
       zone  information,  and  a ''newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be

           unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to cre-
       ate any files not already there (same caveat as previous example):

           unzip -uo sources

       To  display  a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored
       in environment variables, whether decryption support was compiled in, the  compiler
       with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

           unzip -v

       In  the  last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.  To do a
       singly quiet listing:

           unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

           unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note that the ''.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard listing:

           unzip --ql file.zip
           unzip -l-q file.zip
           unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it very useful to define a pair of
       aliases:   tt  for ''unzip -tq'' and ii for ''unzip -Z'' (or ''zipinfo'').  One may
       then simply type ''tt zipfile'' to test an archive, something that is worth  making
       a  habit  of doing.  With luck unzip will report ''No errors detected in compressed
       data of zipfile.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful  to  set  the  UNZIP  environment  variable  to
       ''-aL''  and  is  tempted  to  add  ''-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO variable is set to

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE  and
       takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but processing completed
                     successfully anyway.  This includes zipfiles where one or more  files
                     was  skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with
                     an unknown password.

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.   Processing  may
                     have  completed  successfully anyway; some broken zipfiles created by
                     other archivers have simple work-arounds.

              3      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing proba-
                     bly failed immediately.

              4      unzip  was  unable  to allocate memory for one or more buffers during
                     program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read
                     the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk.

              7      unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression.

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              81     testing  or extraction of one or more files failed due to unsupported
                     compression methods or unsupported decryption.

              82     no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).  (If even  one
                     file is successfully processed, however, the exit status is 1.)

       VMS  interprets  standard  Unix  (or  PC)  return  values as other, scarier-looking
       things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.  The  current  map-
       ping  is  as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit, 0x7fff0001 for warning errors,
       and (0x7fff000? + 16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the  '?'
       is  2  (error)  for  unzip  values  2,  9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the
       remaining ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation option to expand
       upon  this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in a human-readable explanation
       of what the error status means.

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in conjunction  with  zip.   (All
       parts  must be concatenated together in order, and then ''zip -F'' (for zip 2.x) or
       ''zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to
       ''fix'' it.  Also, zip 3.0 and later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a
       combined single-file archive using ''zip -s- inarchive -O  outarchive''.   See  the
       zip  3 manual page for more information.)  This will definitely be corrected in the
       next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet supported, except  with  funzip  (and
       then only the first member of the archive can be extracted).

       Archives  encrypted  with  8-bit  passwords (e.g., passwords with accented European
       characters) may not be portable across systems and/or  other  archivers.   See  the
       discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's  -M (''more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrapping of long
       lines. However, the code may fail to detect the correct wrapping locations.  First,
       TAB characters (and similar control sequences) are not taken into account, they are
       handled as ordinary printable characters.  Second, depending on the actual system /
       OS port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on "commonly
       used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would require the implemen-
       tation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on the output console.

       Dates,  times  and  permissions of stored directories are not restored except under
       Unix. (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now restored.)

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive  on  a  defective  floppy
       diskette,  if the ''Fail'' option is chosen from DOS's ''Abort, Retry, Fail?'' mes-
       sage, older versions of unzip may hang the system, requiring a reboot.  This  prob-
       lem appears to be fixed, but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to ter-
       minate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC, not  always
       reproducible).   This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or
       an operating system bug (improper handling of page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been
       abandoned in favor of Digital Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix]  Unix  special  files  such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block devices and
       character devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented in the zip-
       file,  nor  are hard-linked files relinked.  Basically the only file types restored
       by unzip are regular files, directories and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are  only  updated  if  the  -o
       (''overwrite all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of the operating system;
       because directories only have a creation time associated with them,  unzip  has  no
       way  to  determine  whether  the stored attributes are newer or older than those on
       disk.  In practice this may mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack the
       archive  normally  (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then over-
       write just the directory entries (e.g., ''unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is accepted  for
       the  -d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less com-
       mon VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only allows skip-
       ping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be a choice for creating a
       new version of the file.  In fact, the ''overwrite'' choice does create a new  ver-
       sion; the old version is not overwritten or deleted.

       funzip(1L),  zip(1L),  zipcloak(1L),  zipgrep(1L),  zipinfo(1L),  zipnote(1L), zip-

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
           ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members  of  the  Zip-Bugs  work-
       group)  are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code, Zip64, Win32, Unix,
       Unicode); Christian Spieler (UnZip maintenance coordination,  VMS,  MS-DOS,  Win32,
       shared code, general Zip and UnZip integration and optimization); Onno van der Lin-
       den (Zip); Mike White (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows DLLs);  Kai  Uwe  Rommel  (OS/2,
       Win32);  Steven  M.  Schweda  (VMS,  Unix,  support  of new features); Paul Kienitz
       (Amiga, Win32,  Unicode);  Chris  Herborth  (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);  Jonathan  Hudson
       (SMS/QDOS);  Sergio  Monesi  (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari, MVS); John Bush
       (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site maintenance); Steve  Salisbury
       (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave
       Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The following people were former members of the Info-ZIP development group and pro-
       vided  major  contributions  to  key  parts of the current code: Greg ''Cave Newt''
       Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-loup  Gailly  (deflate  compression);
       Mark Adler (inflate decompression, fUnZip).

       The  author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based is Samuel H.
       Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.  Kirschbaum organized and
       led  Info-ZIP  in  its  early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing
       list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full list of contributors  to  UnZip  has  grown  quite
       large;  please  refer  to  the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a
       relatively complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                     20 April 2009 (v6.0)                    UNZIP(1L)

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