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VERIFY(1)                           OpenSSL                          VERIFY(1)



NAME
       verify - Utility to verify certificates.

SYNOPSIS
       openssl verify [-CApath directory] [-CAfile file] [-trusted_first] [-purpose
       purpose] [-policy arg] [-ignore_critical] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all]
       [-policy_check] [-explicit_policy] [-inhibit_any] [-inhibit_map] [-x509_strict]
       [-extended_crl] [-use_deltas] [-policy_print] [-untrusted file] [-help]
       [-issuer_checks] [-attime timestamp] [-verbose] [-] [certificates]

DESCRIPTION
       The verify command verifies certificate chains.

COMMAND OPTIONS
       -CApath directory
           A directory of trusted certificates. The certificates should have names of the
           form: hash.0 or have symbolic links to them of this form ("hash" is the hashed
           certificate subject name: see the -hash option of the x509 utility). Under Unix
           the c_rehash script will automatically create symbolic links to a directory of
           certificates.

       -CAfile file
           A file of trusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
           in PEM format concatenated together.

       -untrusted file
           A file of untrusted certificates. The file should contain multiple certificates
           in PEM format concatenated together.

       -trusted_first
           Use certificates in CA file or CA directory before the certificates in the
           untrusted file when building the trust chain to verify certificates.  This is
           mainly useful in environments with Bridge CA or Cross-Certified CAs.

       -purpose purpose
           The intended use for the certificate. If this option is not specified, verify
           will not consider certificate purpose during chain verification.  Currently
           accepted uses are sslclient, sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt.
           See the VERIFY OPERATION section for more information.

       -help
           Print out a usage message.

       -verbose
           Print extra information about the operations being performed.

       -issuer_checks
           Print out diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate of the
           current certificate. This shows why each candidate issuer certificate was
           rejected. The presence of rejection messages does not itself imply that
           anything is wrong; during the normal verification process, several rejections
           may take place.

       -attime timestamp
           Perform validation checks using the time specified by timestamp and not the
           current system time. timestamp is the number of seconds since 01.01.1970 (UNIX
           time).

       -policy arg
           Enable policy processing and add arg to the user-initial-policy-set (see
           RFC5280). The policy arg can be an object name an OID in numeric form.  This
           argument can appear more than once.

       -policy_check
           Enables certificate policy processing.

       -explicit_policy
           Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (see RFC5280).

       -inhibit_any
           Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (see RFC5280).

       -inhibit_map
           Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (see RFC5280).

       -policy_print
           Print out diagnostics related to policy processing.

       -crl_check
           Checks end entity certificate validity by attempting to look up a valid CRL.
           If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.

       -crl_check_all
           Checks the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting to look up
           valid CRLs.

       -ignore_critical
           Normally if an unhandled critical extension is present which is not supported
           by OpenSSL the certificate is rejected (as required by RFC5280).  If this
           option is set critical extensions are ignored.

       -x509_strict
           For strict X.509 compliance, disable non-compliant workarounds for broken
           certificates.

       -extended_crl
           Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate CRL signing
           keys.

       -use_deltas
           Enable support for delta CRLs.

       -check_ss_sig
           Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA. This is disabled by default
           because it doesn't add any security.

       -   Indicates the last option. All arguments following this are assumed to be
           certificate files. This is useful if the first certificate filename begins with
           a -.

       certificates
           One or more certificates to verify. If no certificates are given, verify will
           attempt to read a certificate from standard input. Certificates must be in PEM
           format.

VERIFY OPERATION
       The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and S/MIME
       verification, therefore this description applies to these verify operations too.

       There is one crucial difference between the verify operations performed by the
       verify program: wherever possible an attempt is made to continue after an error
       whereas normally the verify operation would halt on the first error. This allows
       all the problems with a certificate chain to be determined.

       The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.

       Firstly a certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate and
       ending in the root CA. It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built up. The
       chain is built up by looking up the issuers certificate of the current certificate.
       If a certificate is found which is its own issuer it is assumed to be the root CA.

       The process of 'looking up the issuers certificate' itself involves a number of
       steps. In versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.5a the first certificate whose subject
       name matched the issuer of the current certificate was assumed to be the issuers
       certificate. In OpenSSL 0.9.6 and later all certificates whose subject name matches
       the issuer name of the current certificate are subject to further tests. The
       relevant authority key identifier components of the current certificate (if
       present) must match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer and serial
       number of the candidate issuer, in addition the keyUsage extension of the candidate
       issuer (if present) must permit certificate signing.

       The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no match is
       found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates. The root CA is
       always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the certificate to verify is a
       root certificate then an exact match must be found in the trusted list.

       The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions for
       consistency with the supplied purpose. If the -purpose option is not included then
       no checks are done. The supplied or "leaf" certificate must have extensions
       compatible with the supplied purpose and all other certificates must also be valid
       CA certificates. The precise extensions required are described in more detail in
       the CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS section of the x509 utility.

       The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA. The root CA
       should be trusted for the supplied purpose. For compatibility with previous
       versions of SSLeay and OpenSSL a certificate with no trust settings is considered
       to be valid for all purposes.

       The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain. The validity
       period is checked against the current system time and the notBefore and notAfter
       dates in the certificate. The certificate signatures are also checked at this
       point.

       If all operations complete successfully then certificate is considered valid. If
       any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.

DIAGNOSTICS
       When a verify operation fails the output messages can be somewhat cryptic. The
       general form of the error message is:

        server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024 bit)
        error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

       The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified followed by the
       subject name of the certificate. The second line contains the error number and the
       depth. The depth is number of the certificate being verified when a problem was
       detected starting with zero for the certificate being verified itself then 1 for
       the CA that signed the certificate and so on. Finally a text version of the error
       number is presented.

       An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below, this also
       includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file x509_vfy.h Some
       of the error codes are defined but never returned: these are described as "unused".

       0 X509_V_OK: ok
           the operation was successful.

       2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT: unable to get issuer certificate
           the issuer certificate of a looked up certificate could not be found. This
           normally means the list of trusted certificates is not complete.

       3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL: unable to get certificate CRL
           the CRL of a certificate could not be found.

       4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt certificate's
       signature
           the certificate signature could not be decrypted. This means that the actual
           signature value could not be determined rather than it not matching the
           expected value, this is only meaningful for RSA keys.

       5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE: unable to decrypt CRL's signature
           the CRL signature could not be decrypted: this means that the actual signature
           value could not be determined rather than it not matching the expected value.
           Unused.

       6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY: unable to decode issuer public key
           the public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be read.

       7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: certificate signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE: CRL signature failure
           the signature of the certificate is invalid.

       9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID: certificate is not yet valid
           the certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the current time.

       10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED: certificate has expired
           the certificate has expired: that is the notAfter date is before the current
           time.

       11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID: CRL is not yet valid
           the CRL is not yet valid.

       12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED: CRL has expired
           the CRL has expired.

       13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD: format error in certificate's
       notBefore field
           the certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

       14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD: format error in certificate's notAfter
       field
           the certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

       15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's lastUpdate
       field
           the CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time.

       16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD: format error in CRL's nextUpdate
       field
           the CRL nextUpdate field contains an invalid time.

       17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM: out of memory
           an error occurred trying to allocate memory. This should never happen.

       18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT: self signed certificate
           the passed certificate is self signed and the same certificate cannot be found
           in the list of trusted certificates.

       19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN: self signed certificate in certificate
       chain
           the certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted certificates but
           the root could not be found locally.

       20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY: unable to get local issuer
       certificate
           the issuer certificate could not be found: this occurs if the issuer
           certificate of an untrusted certificate cannot be found.

       21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE: unable to verify the first
       certificate
           no signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one certificate
           and it is not self signed.

       22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG: certificate chain too long
           the certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum depth.
           Unused.

       23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED: certificate revoked
           the certificate has been revoked.

       24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA: invalid CA certificate
           a CA certificate is invalid. Either it is not a CA or its extensions are not
           consistent with the supplied purpose.

       25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED: path length constraint exceeded
           the basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

       26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE: unsupported certificate purpose
           the supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

       27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED: certificate not trusted
           the root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.

       28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED: certificate rejected
           the root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

       29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH: subject issuer mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject name
           did not match the issuer name of the current certificate. Only displayed when
           the -issuer_checks option is set.

       30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH: authority and subject key identifier mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its subject key
           identifier was present and did not match the authority key identifier current
           certificate. Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

       31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH: authority and issuer serial number
       mismatch
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its issuer name
           and serial number was present and did not match the authority key identifier of
           the current certificate. Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

       32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN:key usage does not include certificate signing
           the current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its keyUsage
           extension does not permit certificate signing.

       50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION: application verification failure
           an application specific error. Unused.

BUGS
       Although the issuer checks are a considerably improvement over the old technique
       they still suffer from limitations in the underlying X509_LOOKUP API. One
       consequence of this is that trusted certificates with matching subject name must
       either appear in a file (as specified by the -CAfile option) or a directory (as
       specified by -CApath. If they occur in both then only the certificates in the file
       will be recognised.

       Previous versions of OpenSSL assume certificates with matching subject name are
       identical and mishandled them.

       Previous versions of this documentation swapped the meaning of the
       X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT and 20
       X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY error codes.

SEE ALSO
       x509(1)



1.0.1e                            2017-03-22                         VERIFY(1)

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