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X509(1)                             OpenSSL                            X509(1)



NAME
       x509 - Certificate display and signing utility

SYNOPSIS
       openssl x509 [-inform DER|PEM|NET] [-outform DER|PEM|NET] [-keyform DER|PEM]
       [-CAform DER|PEM] [-CAkeyform DER|PEM] [-in filename] [-out filename] [-serial]
       [-hash] [-subject_hash] [-issuer_hash] [-subject] [-issuer] [-nameopt option]
       [-email] [-ocsp_uri] [-startdate] [-enddate] [-purpose] [-dates] [-modulus]
       [-pubkey] [-fingerprint] [-alias] [-noout] [-trustout] [-clrtrust] [-clrreject]
       [-addtrust arg] [-addreject arg] [-setalias arg] [-days arg] [-set_serial n]
       [-signkey filename] [-x509toreq] [-req] [-CA filename] [-CAkey filename]
       [-CAcreateserial] [-CAserial filename] [-text] [-C] [-md2|-md5|-sha1|-mdc2]
       [-clrext] [-extfile filename] [-extensions section] [-engine id]

DESCRIPTION
       The x509 command is a multi purpose certificate utility. It can be used to display
       certificate information, convert certificates to various forms, sign certificate
       requests like a "mini CA" or edit certificate trust settings.

       Since there are a large number of options they will split up into various sections.

OPTIONS
   INPUT, OUTPUT AND GENERAL PURPOSE OPTIONS
       -inform DER|PEM|NET
           This specifies the input format normally the command will expect an X509
           certificate but this can change if other options such as -req are present. The
           DER format is the DER encoding of the certificate and PEM is the base64
           encoding of the DER encoding with header and footer lines added. The NET option
           is an obscure Netscape server format that is now obsolete.

       -outform DER|PEM|NET
           This specifies the output format, the options have the same meaning as the
           -inform option.

       -in filename
           This specifies the input filename to read a certificate from or standard input
           if this option is not specified.

       -out filename
           This specifies the output filename to write to or standard output by default.

       -md2|-md5|-sha1|-mdc2
           the digest to use. This affects any signing or display option that uses a
           message digest, such as the -fingerprint, -signkey and -CA options. If not
           specified then SHA1 is used. If the key being used to sign with is a DSA key
           then this option has no effect: SHA1 is always used with DSA keys.  For full
           list of digests see openssl dgst -h output.

       -engine id
           specifying an engine (by its unique id string) will cause x509 to attempt to
           obtain a functional reference to the specified engine, thus initialising it if
           needed. The engine will then be set as the default for all available
           algorithms.

   DISPLAY OPTIONS
       Note: the -alias and -purpose options are also display options but are described in
       the TRUST SETTINGS section.

       -text
           prints out the certificate in text form. Full details are output including the
           public key, signature algorithms, issuer and subject names, serial number any
           extensions present and any trust settings.

       -certopt option
           customise the output format used with -text. The option argument can be a
           single option or multiple options separated by commas. The -certopt switch may
           be also be used more than once to set multiple options. See the TEXT OPTIONS
           section for more information.

       -noout
           this option prevents output of the encoded version of the request.

       -pubkey
           outputs the the certificate's SubjectPublicKeyInfo block in PEM format.

       -modulus
           this option prints out the value of the modulus of the public key contained in
           the certificate.

       -serial
           outputs the certificate serial number.

       -subject_hash
           outputs the "hash" of the certificate subject name. This is used in OpenSSL to
           form an index to allow certificates in a directory to be looked up by subject
           name.

       -issuer_hash
           outputs the "hash" of the certificate issuer name.

       -hash
           synonym for "-subject_hash" for backward compatibility reasons.

       -subject_hash_old
           outputs the "hash" of the certificate subject name using the older algorithm as
           used by OpenSSL versions before 1.0.0.

       -issuer_hash_old
           outputs the "hash" of the certificate issuer name using the older algorithm as
           used by OpenSSL versions before 1.0.0.

       -subject
           outputs the subject name.

       -issuer
           outputs the issuer name.

       -nameopt option
           option which determines how the subject or issuer names are displayed. The
           option argument can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas.
           Alternatively the -nameopt switch may be used more than once to set multiple
           options. See the NAME OPTIONS section for more information.

       -email
           outputs the email address(es) if any.

       -ocsp_uri
           outputs the OCSP responder address(es) if any.

       -startdate
           prints out the start date of the certificate, that is the notBefore date.

       -enddate
           prints out the expiry date of the certificate, that is the notAfter date.

       -dates
           prints out the start and expiry dates of a certificate.

       -fingerprint
           prints out the digest of the DER encoded version of the whole certificate (see
           digest options).

       -C  this outputs the certificate in the form of a C source file.

   TRUST SETTINGS
       Please note these options are currently experimental and may well change.

       A trusted certificate is an ordinary certificate which has several additional
       pieces of information attached to it such as the permitted and prohibited uses of
       the certificate and an "alias".

       Normally when a certificate is being verified at least one certificate must be
       "trusted". By default a trusted certificate must be stored locally and must be a
       root CA: any certificate chain ending in this CA is then usable for any purpose.

       Trust settings currently are only used with a root CA. They allow a finer control
       over the purposes the root CA can be used for. For example a CA may be trusted for
       SSL client but not SSL server use.

       See the description of the verify utility for more information on the meaning of
       trust settings.

       Future versions of OpenSSL will recognize trust settings on any certificate: not
       just root CAs.

       -trustout
           this causes x509 to output a trusted certificate. An ordinary or trusted
           certificate can be input but by default an ordinary certificate is output and
           any trust settings are discarded. With the -trustout option a trusted
           certificate is output. A trusted certificate is automatically output if any
           trust settings are modified.

       -setalias arg
           sets the alias of the certificate. This will allow the certificate to be
           referred to using a nickname for example "Steve's Certificate".

       -alias
           outputs the certificate alias, if any.

       -clrtrust
           clears all the permitted or trusted uses of the certificate.

       -clrreject
           clears all the prohibited or rejected uses of the certificate.

       -addtrust arg
           adds a trusted certificate use. Any object name can be used here but currently
           only clientAuth (SSL client use), serverAuth (SSL server use) and
           emailProtection (S/MIME email) are used.  Other OpenSSL applications may define
           additional uses.

       -addreject arg
           adds a prohibited use. It accepts the same values as the -addtrust option.

       -purpose
           this option performs tests on the certificate extensions and outputs the
           results. For a more complete description see the CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS
           section.

   SIGNING OPTIONS
       The x509 utility can be used to sign certificates and requests: it can thus behave
       like a "mini CA".

       -signkey filename
           this option causes the input file to be self signed using the supplied private
           key.

           If the input file is a certificate it sets the issuer name to the subject name
           (i.e.  makes it self signed) changes the public key to the supplied value and
           changes the start and end dates. The start date is set to the current time and
           the end date is set to a value determined by the -days option. Any certificate
           extensions are retained unless the -clrext option is supplied.

           If the input is a certificate request then a self signed certificate is created
           using the supplied private key using the subject name in the request.

       -clrext
           delete any extensions from a certificate. This option is used when a
           certificate is being created from another certificate (for example with the
           -signkey or the -CA options). Normally all extensions are retained.

       -keyform PEM|DER
           specifies the format (DER or PEM) of the private key file used in the -signkey
           option.

       -days arg
           specifies the number of days to make a certificate valid for. The default is 30
           days.

       -x509toreq
           converts a certificate into a certificate request. The -signkey option is used
           to pass the required private key.

       -req
           by default a certificate is expected on input. With this option a certificate
           request is expected instead.

       -set_serial n
           specifies the serial number to use. This option can be used with either the
           -signkey or -CA options. If used in conjunction with the -CA option the serial
           number file (as specified by the -CAserial or -CAcreateserial options) is not
           used.

           The serial number can be decimal or hex (if preceded by 0x). Negative serial
           numbers can also be specified but their use is not recommended.

       -CA filename
           specifies the CA certificate to be used for signing. When this option is
           present x509 behaves like a "mini CA". The input file is signed by this CA
           using this option: that is its issuer name is set to the subject name of the CA
           and it is digitally signed using the CAs private key.

           This option is normally combined with the -req option. Without the -req option
           the input is a certificate which must be self signed.

       -CAkey filename
           sets the CA private key to sign a certificate with. If this option is not
           specified then it is assumed that the CA private key is present in the CA
           certificate file.

       -CAserial filename
           sets the CA serial number file to use.

           When the -CA option is used to sign a certificate it uses a serial number
           specified in a file. This file consist of one line containing an even number of
           hex digits with the serial number to use. After each use the serial number is
           incremented and written out to the file again.

           The default filename consists of the CA certificate file base name with ".srl"
           appended. For example if the CA certificate file is called "mycacert.pem" it
           expects to find a serial number file called "mycacert.srl".

       -CAcreateserial
           with this option the CA serial number file is created if it does not exist: it
           will contain the serial number "02" and the certificate being signed will have
           the 1 as its serial number. Normally if the -CA option is specified and the
           serial number file does not exist it is an error.

       -extfile filename
           file containing certificate extensions to use. If not specified then no
           extensions are added to the certificate.

       -extensions section
           the section to add certificate extensions from. If this option is not specified
           then the extensions should either be contained in the unnamed (default) section
           or the default section should contain a variable called "extensions" which
           contains the section to use. See the x509v3_config(5) manual page for details
           of the extension section format.

   NAME OPTIONS
       The nameopt command line switch determines how the subject and issuer names are
       displayed. If no nameopt switch is present the default "oneline" format is used
       which is compatible with previous versions of OpenSSL.  Each option is described in
       detail below, all options can be preceded by a - to turn the option off. Only the
       first four will normally be used.

       compat
           use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no name options at all.

       RFC2253
           displays names compatible with RFC2253 equivalent to esc_2253, esc_ctrl,
           esc_msb, utf8, dump_nostr, dump_unknown, dump_der, sep_comma_plus, dn_rev and
           sname.

       oneline
           a oneline format which is more readable than RFC2253. It is equivalent to
           specifying the  esc_2253, esc_ctrl, esc_msb, utf8, dump_nostr, dump_der,
           use_quote, sep_comma_plus_space, space_eq and sname options.

       multiline
           a multiline format. It is equivalent esc_ctrl, esc_msb, sep_multiline,
           space_eq, lname and align.

       esc_2253
           escape the "special" characters required by RFC2253 in a field That is ,+"<>;.
           Additionally # is escaped at the beginning of a string and a space character at
           the beginning or end of a string.

       esc_ctrl
           escape control characters. That is those with ASCII values less than 0x20
           (space) and the delete (0x7f) character. They are escaped using the RFC2253 \XX
           notation (where XX are two hex digits representing the character value).

       esc_msb
           escape characters with the MSB set, that is with ASCII values larger than 127.

       use_quote
           escapes some characters by surrounding the whole string with " characters,
           without the option all escaping is done with the \ character.

       utf8
           convert all strings to UTF8 format first. This is required by RFC2253. If you
           are lucky enough to have a UTF8 compatible terminal then the use of this option
           (and not setting esc_msb) may result in the correct display of multibyte
           (international) characters. Is this option is not present then multibyte
           characters larger than 0xff will be represented using the format \UXXXX for 16
           bits and \WXXXXXXXX for 32 bits.  Also if this option is off any UTF8Strings
           will be converted to their character form first.

       no_type
           this option does not attempt to interpret multibyte characters in any way. That
           is their content octets are merely dumped as though one octet represents each
           character. This is useful for diagnostic purposes but will result in rather odd
           looking output.

       show_type
           show the type of the ASN1 character string. The type precedes the field
           contents. For example "BMPSTRING: Hello World".

       dump_der
           when this option is set any fields that need to be hexdumped will be dumped
           using the DER encoding of the field. Otherwise just the content octets will be
           displayed. Both options use the RFC2253 #XXXX... format.

       dump_nostr
           dump non character string types (for example OCTET STRING) if this option is
           not set then non character string types will be displayed as though each
           content octet represents a single character.

       dump_all
           dump all fields. This option when used with dump_der allows the DER encoding of
           the structure to be unambiguously determined.

       dump_unknown
           dump any field whose OID is not recognised by OpenSSL.

       sep_comma_plus, sep_comma_plus_space, sep_semi_plus_space, sep_multiline
           these options determine the field separators. The first character is between
           RDNs and the second between multiple AVAs (multiple AVAs are very rare and
           their use is discouraged). The options ending in "space" additionally place a
           space after the separator to make it more readable. The sep_multiline uses a
           linefeed character for the RDN separator and a spaced + for the AVA separator.
           It also indents the fields by four characters.

       dn_rev
           reverse the fields of the DN. This is required by RFC2253. As a side effect
           this also reverses the order of multiple AVAs but this is permissible.

       nofname, sname, lname, oid
           these options alter how the field name is displayed. nofname does not display
           the field at all. sname uses the "short name" form (CN for commonName for
           example). lname uses the long form.  oid represents the OID in numerical form
           and is useful for diagnostic purpose.

       align
           align field values for a more readable output. Only usable with sep_multiline.

       space_eq
           places spaces round the = character which follows the field name.

   TEXT OPTIONS
       As well as customising the name output format, it is also possible to customise the
       actual fields printed using the certopt options when the text option is present.
       The default behaviour is to print all fields.

       compatible
           use the old format. This is equivalent to specifying no output options at all.

       no_header
           don't print header information: that is the lines saying "Certificate" and
           "Data".

       no_version
           don't print out the version number.

       no_serial
           don't print out the serial number.

       no_signame
           don't print out the signature algorithm used.

       no_validity
           don't print the validity, that is the notBefore and notAfter fields.

       no_subject
           don't print out the subject name.

       no_issuer
           don't print out the issuer name.

       no_pubkey
           don't print out the public key.

       no_sigdump
           don't give a hexadecimal dump of the certificate signature.

       no_aux
           don't print out certificate trust information.

       no_extensions
           don't print out any X509V3 extensions.

       ext_default
           retain default extension behaviour: attempt to print out unsupported
           certificate extensions.

       ext_error
           print an error message for unsupported certificate extensions.

       ext_parse
           ASN1 parse unsupported extensions.

       ext_dump
           hex dump unsupported extensions.

       ca_default
           the value used by the ca utility, equivalent to no_issuer, no_pubkey,
           no_header, no_version, no_sigdump and no_signame.

EXAMPLES
       Note: in these examples the '\' means the example should be all on one line.

       Display the contents of a certificate:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -text

       Display the certificate serial number:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -serial

       Display the certificate subject name:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject

       Display the certificate subject name in RFC2253 form:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt RFC2253

       Display the certificate subject name in oneline form on a terminal supporting UTF8:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -subject -nameopt oneline,-esc_msb

       Display the certificate MD5 fingerprint:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint

       Display the certificate SHA1 fingerprint:

        openssl x509 -sha1 -in cert.pem -noout -fingerprint

       Convert a certificate from PEM to DER format:

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -inform PEM -out cert.der -outform DER

       Convert a certificate to a certificate request:

        openssl x509 -x509toreq -in cert.pem -out req.pem -signkey key.pem

       Convert a certificate request into a self signed certificate using extensions for a
       CA:

        openssl x509 -req -in careq.pem -extfile openssl.cnf -extensions v3_ca \
               -signkey key.pem -out cacert.pem

       Sign a certificate request using the CA certificate above and add user certificate
       extensions:

        openssl x509 -req -in req.pem -extfile openssl.cnf -extensions v3_usr \
               -CA cacert.pem -CAkey key.pem -CAcreateserial

       Set a certificate to be trusted for SSL client use and change set its alias to
       "Steve's Class 1 CA"

        openssl x509 -in cert.pem -addtrust clientAuth \
               -setalias "Steve's Class 1 CA" -out trust.pem

NOTES
       The PEM format uses the header and footer lines:

        -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END CERTIFICATE-----

       it will also handle files containing:

        -----BEGIN X509 CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END X509 CERTIFICATE-----

       Trusted certificates have the lines

        -----BEGIN TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----
        -----END TRUSTED CERTIFICATE-----

       The conversion to UTF8 format used with the name options assumes that T61Strings
       use the ISO8859-1 character set. This is wrong but Netscape and MSIE do this as do
       many certificates. So although this is incorrect it is more likely to display the
       majority of certificates correctly.

       The -fingerprint option takes the digest of the DER encoded certificate.  This is
       commonly called a "fingerprint". Because of the nature of message digests the
       fingerprint of a certificate is unique to that certificate and two certificates
       with the same fingerprint can be considered to be the same.

       The Netscape fingerprint uses MD5 whereas MSIE uses SHA1.

       The -email option searches the subject name and the subject alternative name
       extension. Only unique email addresses will be printed out: it will not print the
       same address more than once.

CERTIFICATE EXTENSIONS
       The -purpose option checks the certificate extensions and determines what the
       certificate can be used for. The actual checks done are rather complex and include
       various hacks and workarounds to handle broken certificates and software.

       The same code is used when verifying untrusted certificates in chains so this
       section is useful if a chain is rejected by the verify code.

       The basicConstraints extension CA flag is used to determine whether the certificate
       can be used as a CA. If the CA flag is true then it is a CA, if the CA flag is
       false then it is not a CA. All CAs should have the CA flag set to true.

       If the basicConstraints extension is absent then the certificate is considered to
       be a "possible CA" other extensions are checked according to the intended use of
       the certificate. A warning is given in this case because the certificate should
       really not be regarded as a CA: however it is allowed to be a CA to work around
       some broken software.

       If the certificate is a V1 certificate (and thus has no extensions) and it is self
       signed it is also assumed to be a CA but a warning is again given: this is to work
       around the problem of Verisign roots which are V1 self signed certificates.

       If the keyUsage extension is present then additional restraints are made on the
       uses of the certificate. A CA certificate must have the keyCertSign bit set if the
       keyUsage extension is present.

       The extended key usage extension places additional restrictions on the certificate
       uses. If this extension is present (whether critical or not) the key can only be
       used for the purposes specified.

       A complete description of each test is given below. The comments about
       basicConstraints and keyUsage and V1 certificates above apply to all CA
       certificates.

       SSL Client
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web client
           authentication" OID.  keyUsage must be absent or it must have the
           digitalSignature bit set. Netscape certificate type must be absent or it must
           have the SSL client bit set.

       SSL Client CA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web client
           authentication" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or it must have
           the SSL CA bit set: this is used as a work around if the basicConstraints
           extension is absent.

       SSL Server
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web server
           authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  keyUsage must be absent or it must
           have the digitalSignature, the keyEncipherment set or both bits set.  Netscape
           certificate type must be absent or have the SSL server bit set.

       SSL Server CA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "web server
           authentication" and/or one of the SGC OIDs.  Netscape certificate type must be
           absent or the SSL CA bit must be set: this is used as a work around if the
           basicConstraints extension is absent.

       Netscape SSL Server
           For Netscape SSL clients to connect to an SSL server it must have the
           keyEncipherment bit set if the keyUsage extension is present. This isn't always
           valid because some cipher suites use the key for digital signing.  Otherwise it
           is the same as a normal SSL server.

       Common S/MIME Client Tests
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "email
           protection" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or should have the
           S/MIME bit set. If the S/MIME bit is not set in netscape certificate type then
           the SSL client bit is tolerated as an alternative but a warning is shown: this
           is because some Verisign certificates don't set the S/MIME bit.

       S/MIME Signing
           In addition to the common S/MIME client tests the digitalSignature bit must be
           set if the keyUsage extension is present.

       S/MIME Encryption
           In addition to the common S/MIME tests the keyEncipherment bit must be set if
           the keyUsage extension is present.

       S/MIME CA
           The extended key usage extension must be absent or include the "email
           protection" OID. Netscape certificate type must be absent or must have the
           S/MIME CA bit set: this is used as a work around if the basicConstraints
           extension is absent.

       CRL Signing
           The keyUsage extension must be absent or it must have the CRL signing bit set.

       CRL Signing CA
           The normal CA tests apply. Except in this case the basicConstraints extension
           must be present.

BUGS
       Extensions in certificates are not transferred to certificate requests and vice
       versa.

       It is possible to produce invalid certificates or requests by specifying the wrong
       private key or using inconsistent options in some cases: these should be checked.

       There should be options to explicitly set such things as start and end dates rather
       than an offset from the current time.

       The code to implement the verify behaviour described in the TRUST SETTINGS is
       currently being developed. It thus describes the intended behaviour rather than the
       current behaviour. It is hoped that it will represent reality in OpenSSL 0.9.5 and
       later.

SEE ALSO
       req(1), ca(1), genrsa(1), gendsa(1), verify(1), x509v3_config(5)

HISTORY
       Before OpenSSL 0.9.8, the default digest for RSA keys was MD5.

       The hash algorithm used in the -subject_hash and -issuer_hash options before
       OpenSSL 1.0.0 was based on the deprecated MD5 algorithm and the encoding of the
       distinguished name. In OpenSSL 1.0.0 and later it is based on a canonical version
       of the DN using SHA1. This means that any directories using the old form must have
       their links rebuilt using c_rehash or similar.



1.0.1e                            2017-03-22                           X509(1)

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