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X509V3_CONFIG(5)                    OpenSSL                   X509V3_CONFIG(5)

       x509v3_config - X509 V3 certificate extension configuration format

       Several of the OpenSSL utilities can add extensions to a certificate or certificate
       request based on the contents of a configuration file.

       Typically the application will contain an option to point to an extension section.
       Each line of the extension section takes the form:

        extension_name=[critical,] extension_options

       If critical is present then the extension will be critical.

       The format of extension_options depends on the value of extension_name.

       There are four main types of extension: string extensions, multi-valued extensions,
       raw and arbitrary extensions.

       String extensions simply have a string which contains either the value itself or
       how it is obtained.

       For example:

        nsComment="This is a Comment"

       Multi-valued extensions have a short form and a long form. The short form is a list
       of names and values:


       The long form allows the values to be placed in a separate section:




       Both forms are equivalent.

       The syntax of raw extensions is governed by the extension code: it can for example
       contain data in multiple sections. The correct syntax to use is defined by the
       extension code itself: check out the certificate policies extension for an example.

       If an extension type is unsupported then the arbitrary extension syntax must be
       used, see the ARBITRARY EXTENSIONS section for more details.

       The following sections describe each supported extension in detail.

   Basic Constraints.
       This is a multi valued extension which indicates whether a certificate is a CA
       certificate. The first (mandatory) name is CA followed by TRUE or FALSE. If CA is
       TRUE then an optional pathlen name followed by an non-negative value can be

       For example:



        basicConstraints=critical,CA:TRUE, pathlen:0

       A CA certificate must include the basicConstraints value with the CA field set to
       TRUE. An end user certificate must either set CA to FALSE or exclude the extension
       entirely. Some software may require the inclusion of basicConstraints with CA set
       to FALSE for end entity certificates.

       The pathlen parameter indicates the maximum number of CAs that can appear below
       this one in a chain. So if you have a CA with a pathlen of zero it can only be used
       to sign end user certificates and not further CAs.

   Key Usage.
       Key usage is a multi valued extension consisting of a list of names of the
       permitted key usages.

       The supporte names are: digitalSignature, nonRepudiation, keyEncipherment,
       dataEncipherment, keyAgreement, keyCertSign, cRLSign, encipherOnly and


        keyUsage=digitalSignature, nonRepudiation

        keyUsage=critical, keyCertSign

   Extended Key Usage.
       This extensions consists of a list of usages indicating purposes for which the
       certificate public key can be used for,

       These can either be object short names of the dotted numerical form of OIDs.  While
       any OID can be used only certain values make sense. In particular the following
       PKIX, NS and MS values are meaningful:

        Value                  Meaning
        -----                  -------
        serverAuth             SSL/TLS Web Server Authentication.
        clientAuth             SSL/TLS Web Client Authentication.
        codeSigning            Code signing.
        emailProtection        E-mail Protection (S/MIME).
        timeStamping           Trusted Timestamping
        msCodeInd              Microsoft Individual Code Signing (authenticode)
        msCodeCom              Microsoft Commercial Code Signing (authenticode)
        msCTLSign              Microsoft Trust List Signing
        msSGC                  Microsoft Server Gated Crypto
        msEFS                  Microsoft Encrypted File System
        nsSGC                  Netscape Server Gated Crypto



   Subject Key Identifier.
       This is really a string extension and can take two possible values. Either the word
       hash which will automatically follow the guidelines in RFC3280 or a hex string
       giving the extension value to include. The use of the hex string is strongly



   Authority Key Identifier.
       The authority key identifier extension permits two options. keyid and issuer: both
       can take the optional value "always".

       If the keyid option is present an attempt is made to copy the subject key
       identifier from the parent certificate. If the value "always" is present then an
       error is returned if the option fails.

       The issuer option copies the issuer and serial number from the issuer certificate.
       This will only be done if the keyid option fails or is not included unless the
       "always" flag will always include the value.



   Subject Alternative Name.
       The subject alternative name extension allows various literal values to be included
       in the configuration file. These include email (an email address) URI a uniform
       resource indicator, DNS (a DNS domain name), RID (a registered ID: OBJECT
       IDENTIFIER), IP (an IP address), dirName (a distinguished name) and otherName.

       The email option include a special 'copy' value. This will automatically include
       and email addresses contained in the certificate subject name in the extension.

       The IP address used in the IP options can be in either IPv4 or IPv6 format.

       The value of dirName should point to a section containing the distinguished name to
       use as a set of name value pairs. Multi values AVAs can be formed by preceeding the
       name with a + character.

       otherName can include arbitrary data associated with an OID: the value should be
       the OID followed by a semicolon and the content in standard ASN1_generate_nconf(3)


        subjectAltName=email:copy,email:my AT other.address,URI:http://my.url.here/
        subjectAltName=email:my AT other.address,RID:
        subjectAltName=otherName:;UTF8:some other identifier


        O=My Organization
        OU=My Unit
        CN=My Name

   Issuer Alternative Name.
       The issuer alternative name option supports all the literal options of subject
       alternative name. It does not support the email:copy option because that would not
       make sense. It does support an additional issuer:copy option that will copy all the
       subject alternative name values from the issuer certificate (if possible).


        issuserAltName = issuer:copy

   Authority Info Access.
       The authority information access extension gives details about how to access
       certain information relating to the CA. Its syntax is accessOID;location where
       location has the same syntax as subject alternative name (except that email:copy is
       not supported). accessOID can be any valid OID but only certain values are
       meaningful, for example OCSP and caIssuers.


        authorityInfoAccess = OCSP;URI:http://ocsp.my.host/
        authorityInfoAccess = caIssuers;URI:http://my.ca/ca.html

   CRL distribution points.
       This is a multi-valued extension whose options can be either in name:value pair
       using the same form as subject alternative name or a single value representing a
       section name containing all the distribution point fields.

       For a name:value pair a new DistributionPoint with the fullName field set to the
       given value both the cRLissuer and reasons fields are omitted in this case.

       In the single option case the section indicated contains values for each field. In
       this section:

       If the name is "fullname" the value field should contain the full name of the
       distribution point in the same format as subject alternative name.

       If the name is "relativename" then the value field should contain a section name
       whose contents represent a DN fragment to be placed in this field.

       The name "CRLIssuer" if present should contain a value for this field in subject
       alternative name format.

       If the name is "reasons" the value field should consist of a comma separated field
       containing the reasons. Valid reasons are: "keyCompromise", "CACompromise",
       "affiliationChanged", "superseded", "cessationOfOperation", "certificateHold",
       "privilegeWithdrawn" and "AACompromise".

       Simple examples:


       Full distribution point example:



        reasons=keyCompromise, CACompromise

        CN=Some Name

   Issuing Distribution Point
       This extension should only appear in CRLs. It is a multi valued extension whose
       syntax is similar to the "section" pointed to by the CRL distribution points
       extension with a few differences.

       The names "reasons" and "CRLissuer" are not recognized.

       The name "onlysomereasons" is accepted which sets this field. The value is in the
       same format as the CRL distribution point "reasons" field.

       The names "onlyuser", "onlyCA", "onlyAA" and "indirectCRL" are also accepted the
       values should be a boolean value (TRUE or FALSE) to indicate the value of the
       corresponding field.


        issuingDistributionPoint=critical, @idp_section


        onlysomereasons=keyCompromise, CACompromise

        CN=Some Name

   Certificate Policies.
       This is a raw extension. All the fields of this extension can be set by using the
       appropriate syntax.

       If you follow the PKIX recommendations and just using one OID then you just include
       the value of that OID. Multiple OIDs can be set separated by commas, for example:


       If you wish to include qualifiers then the policy OID and qualifiers need to be
       specified in a separate section: this is done by using the @section syntax instead
       of a literal OID value.

       The section referred to must include the policy OID using the name
       policyIdentifier, cPSuri qualifiers can be included using the syntax:


       userNotice qualifiers can be set using the syntax:


       The value of the userNotice qualifier is specified in the relevant section.  This
       section can include explicitText, organization and noticeNumbers options.
       explicitText and organization are text strings, noticeNumbers is a comma separated
       list of numbers. The organization and noticeNumbers options (if included) must BOTH
       be present. If you use the userNotice option with IE5 then you need the 'ia5org'
       option at the top level to modify the encoding: otherwise it will not be
       interpreted properly.




        policyIdentifier =


        explicitText="Explicit Text Here"
        organization="Organisation Name"

       The ia5org option changes the type of the organization field. In RFC2459 it can
       only be of type DisplayText. In RFC3280 IA5Strring is also permissible.  Some
       software (for example some versions of MSIE) may require ia5org.

   Policy Constraints
       This is a multi-valued extension which consisting of the names
       requireExplicitPolicy or inhibitPolicyMapping and a non negative intger value. At
       least one component must be present.


        policyConstraints = requireExplicitPolicy:3

   Inhibit Any Policy
       This is a string extension whose value must be a non negative integer.


        inhibitAnyPolicy = 2

   Name Constraints
       The name constraints extension is a multi-valued extension. The name should begin
       with the word permitted or excluded followed by a ;. The rest of the name and the
       value follows the syntax of subjectAltName except email:copy is not supported and
       the IP form should consist of an IP addresses and subnet mask separated by a /.




       issuingDistributionPoint = idp_section

   OCSP No Check
       The OCSP No Check extension is a string extension but its value is ignored.


        noCheck = ignored

       The following extensions are non standard, Netscape specific and largely obsolete.
       Their use in new applications is discouraged.

   Netscape String extensions.
       Netscape Comment (nsComment) is a string extension containing a comment which will
       be displayed when the certificate is viewed in some browsers.


        nsComment = "Some Random Comment"

       Other supported extensions in this category are: nsBaseUrl, nsRevocationUrl,
       nsCaRevocationUrl, nsRenewalUrl, nsCaPolicyUrl and nsSslServerName.

   Netscape Certificate Type
       This is a multi-valued extensions which consists of a list of flags to be included.
       It was used to indicate the purposes for which a certificate could be used. The
       basicConstraints, keyUsage and extended key usage extensions are now used instead.

       Acceptable values for nsCertType are: client, server, email, objsign, reserved,
       sslCA, emailCA, objCA.

       If an extension is not supported by the OpenSSL code then it must be encoded using
       the arbitrary extension format. It is also possible to use the arbitrary format for
       supported extensions. Extreme care should be taken to ensure that the data is
       formatted correctly for the given extension type.

       There are two ways to encode arbitrary extensions.

       The first way is to use the word ASN1 followed by the extension content using the
       same syntax as ASN1_generate_nconf(3).  For example:,ASN1:UTF8String:Some random data


        field1 = UTF8:field1
        field2 = UTF8:field2

       It is also possible to use the word DER to include the raw encoded data in any

       The value following DER is a hex dump of the DER encoding of the extension Any
       extension can be placed in this form to override the default behaviour.  For


       There is no guarantee that a specific implementation will process a given
       extension. It may therefore be sometimes possible to use certificates for purposes
       prohibited by their extensions because a specific application does not recognize or
       honour the values of the relevant extensions.

       The DER and ASN1 options should be used with caution. It is possible to create
       totally invalid extensions if they are not used carefully.

       If an extension is multi-value and a field value must contain a comma the long form
       must be used otherwise the comma would be misinterpreted as a field separator. For


       will produce an error but the equivalent form:



       is valid.

       Due to the behaviour of the OpenSSL conf library the same field name can only occur
       once in a section. This means that:




       will only recognize the last value. This can be worked around by using the form:



       The X509v3 extension code was first added to OpenSSL 0.9.2.

       Policy mappings, inhibit any policy and name constraints support was added in
       OpenSSL 0.9.8

       The directoryName and otherName option as well as the ASN1 option for arbitrary
       extensions was added in OpenSSL 0.9.8

       req(1), ca(1), x509(1), ASN1_generate_nconf(3)

1.0.1e                            2013-02-11                  X509V3_CONFIG(5)

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