zip(1) - phpMan

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ZIP(1L)                                                                ZIP(1L)

       zip - package and compress (archive) files

       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]  [--longoption  ...]   [-b path] [-n suf-
       fixes] [-t date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options  and
       handle  all  options  and arguments more consistently.  Some old command lines that
       depend on command line inconsistencies may no longer work.

       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for Unix, VMS, MSDOS, OS/2, Windows
       9x/NT/XP,  Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn RISC OS.  It is analogous to a
       combination of the Unix commands tar(1) and  compress(1)  and  is  compatible  with
       PKZIP (Phil Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A  companion  program (unzip(1L)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1L) pro-
       grams can work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP  features  up
       to PKZIP version 4.6), and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip
       (with some exceptions, notably streamed archives, but recent  changes  in  the  zip
       file  standard may facilitate better compatibility).  zip version 3.0 is compatible
       with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports the Zip64 extensions of  PKZIP  4.5  which  allow
       archives  as  well as files to exceed the previous 2 GB limit (4 GB in some cases).
       zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2 library is included  when  zip
       is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP 1.10 cannot extract files produced by PKZIP 2.04 or
       zip 3.0. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later versions)  to  extract

       See  the  EXAMPLES  section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical
       uses of zip.

       Large Archives and Zip64.  zip automatically uses the Zip64 extensions  when  files
       larger  than  4  GB are added to an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is
       updated (if the resulting archive still needs Zip64), the size of the archive  will
       exceed  4  GB,  or when the number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.
       Zip64 is also used for archives streamed from standard input as the  size  of  such
       archives  are not known in advance, but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to
       create PKZIP 2 compatible archives (as long as Zip64 extensions  are  not  needed).
       You  must  use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract
       files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries  encrypted  with  standard  encryption,  or
       split  archives  created  with the pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as
       data descriptors are used and PKZIP at the time of this writing  does  not  support
       data  descriptors  (but  recent  changes  in  the PKWare published zip standard now
       include some support for the data descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS
       X  as  part  of  the Unix port and most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS"
       below generally refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.  Support for some  Mac  OS
       features in the Unix Mac OS X port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next
       zip release.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying  any  parameters  on
       the command line.

       The  program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for archiving
       files; and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or  direc-

       The  zip program puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along
       with information about the files (name, path, date, time of last modification, pro-
       tection,  and  check  information  to  verify file integrity).  An entire directory
       structure can be packed into a zip archive  with  a  single  command.   Compression
       ratios  of  2:1  to  3:1 are common for text files.  zip has one compression method
       (deflation) and can also store files without compression.   (If  bzip2  support  is
       added,  zip  can  also compress using bzip2 compression, but such entries require a
       reasonably modern unzip to decompress.  When  bzip2  compression  is  selected,  it
       replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically chooses the better of
       the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each file
       to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where  archive  is  a new or existing zip archive and inpath is a directory or file
       path optionally including wildcards.  When  given  the  name  of  an  existing  zip
       archive,  zip  will  replace identically named entries in the zip archive (matching
       the relative names as stored in the archive) or add entries  for  new  names.   For
       example,  if exists and contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory
       foo contains the files foo/file1 and foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will replace foo/file1 in  and  add  foo/file3  to   After  this, contains foo/file1, foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from

       So if before the zip command is executed has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on  MacOS],  zip  takes  the
       list  of  input  files  from  standard input instead of from the command line.  For

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in

       Under Unix, this option can be used to powerful  effect  in  conjunction  with  the
       find (1)  command.   For  example, to archive all the C source files in the current
       directory and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.  zip will also accept a single dash ("-")  as  the  zip
       file  name,  in  which case it will write the zip file to standard output, allowing
       the output to be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the
       purpose of backing up the current directory.

       zip  also  accepts  a  single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in
       which case it will read the file from standard input, allowing zip  to  take  input
       from another program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of backing up the cur-
       rent directory. This generally produces better compression than the previous  exam-
       ple using the -r option because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files.
       The backup can be restored using the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a  filter,
       compressing standard input to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip  archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which
       is provided in the unzip package, or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip  pack-
       age  (but  some  gunzip may not support this if zip used the Zip64 extensions). For

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a  fil-
       ter,  zip  creates  a  Zip64  archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible
       unzip to read it.  This is to avoid  amgibuities  in  the  zip  file  structure  as
       defined  in  the  current  zip  standard (PKWARE AppNote) where the decision to use
       Zip64 needs to be made before data is written for the entry, but for a  stream  the
       size  of  the  data is not known at that point.  If the data is known to be smaller
       than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use of Zip64, but zip  will  exit
       with  an  error  if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and unzip 6 and later can read
       archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if not  needed
       when archive entries are copied (see the -U (--copy) option).

       When  directing  the output to another file, note that all options should be before
       the redirection including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.  When changing an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary  file
       with  the  new  contents, and only replace the old one when the process of creating
       the new version has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is
       added.  If  the  name  already  contains an extension other than .zip, the existing
       extension is kept unchanged.  However, split archives (archives split over multiple
       files) require the .zip extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.   When  zip  starts,  it scans for files to process (if
       needed).  If this scan takes longer than about 5 seconds, zip will display a "Scan-
       ning  files" message and start displaying progress dots every 2 seconds or every so
       many entries processed, whichever takes longer.  If there is more  than  2  seconds
       between dots it could indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean
       a slow network connection for example.  (Actually the initial file scan is  a  two-
       step process where the directory scan is followed by a sort and these two steps are
       separated with a space in the dots.  If updating an existing archive, a space  also
       appears  between the existing file scan and the new file scan.)  The scanning files
       dots are not controlled by the -ds dot size option, but the dots are turned off  by
       the  -q  quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used to scan for files and
       get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the  -MM
       option  below  for  more on how zip handles patterns that are not matched and files
       that are not readable.  If some files were skipped, a warning is issued at the  end
       of the zip operation noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip now supports two distinct types of command modes, external and
       internal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen) read files from  the  file
       system  (as  well as from an existing archive) while the internal modes (delete and
       copy) operate exclusively on entries in an existing archive.

              Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive  does  not  exist
              create it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update  existing  entries if newer on the file system and add new files.  If
              the archive does not exist issue warning then create a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update existing entries of an archive if newer on the file system.  Does not
              add new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select  entries in an existing archive and copy them to a new archive.  This
              new mode is similar to update but command line patterns  select  entries  in
              the  existing archive rather than files from the file system and it uses the
              --out option to write the resulting archive to a new file rather than update
              the existing archive, leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new File Sync option (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar
       to update.  This mode synchronizes the archive with  the  files  on  the  OS,  only
       replacing  files  in the archive if the file time or size of the OS file is differ-
       ent, adding new files, and deleting entries from the  archive  where  there  is  no
       matching file.  As this mode can delete entries from the archive, consider making a
       backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES  section  below  for

       Split archives.   zip  version  3.0  and  later can create split archives.  A split
       archive is a standard zip archive split over  multiple  files.   (Note  that  split
       archives  are  not  just archives split in to pieces, as the offsets of entries are
       now based on the start of each  split.   Concatenating  the  pieces  together  will
       invalidate  these  offsets,  but  unzip can usually deal with it.  zip will usually
       refuse to process such a spliced archive unless the -FF fix option is used  to  fix
       the offsets.)

       One  use  of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.
       For a split archive with 20 split files the  files  are  typically  named  (replace
       ARCHIVE  with the name of your archive) ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19,  Note that the last file is  the  .zip  file.   In  contrast,  spanned
       archives  are  the original multi-disk archive generally requiring floppy disks and
       using volume labels to store disk numbers.  zip supports  split  archives  but  not
       spanned  archives,  though  a procedure exists for converting split archives of the
       right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is also true, where  each  file  of  a
       spanned  archive  can  be copied in order to files with the above names to create a
       split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is  given  as  a
       number followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default
       is m).  The -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits  to  allow  changing
       removable  media,  for  example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s
       and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option  -O  (--out-
       put-file  or  --out)  to  allow  split  archives  to  be updated and saved in a new
       archive.  For example,

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads archive, even if split, adds the files  foo.c  and  bar.c,  and
       writes  the  resulting  archive  to  If is split then defaults to the same split size.  Be aware  that  if
       and  any split files that are created with it already exist, these are always over-
       written as needed without warning.  This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive using a spe-
       cific character set, in practice zips have stored paths in archives in whatever the
       local character set is.  This creates  problems  when  an  archive  is  created  or
       updated  on  a  system using one character set and then extracted on another system
       using a different character set.  When compiled with  Unicode  support  enabled  on
       platforms that support wide characters, zip now stores, in addition to the standard
       local path for backward compatibility, the UTF-8 translation  of  the  path.   This
       provides a common universal character set for storing paths that allows these paths
       to be fully extracted on other systems that support Unicode and to match  as  close
       as possible on systems that don't.

       On  Win32  systems  where paths are internally stored as Unicode but represented in
       the local character set, it's possible that some paths will  be  skipped  during  a
       local  character  set  directory  scan.   zip with Unicode support now can read and
       store these paths.  Note that Win 9x systems and FAT file systems don't fully  sup-
       port Unicode.

       Be aware that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes don't accu-
       rately show all characters due to how each operating system switches  in  character
       sets  for  display.   However,  directory  navigation tools should show the correct
       paths if the needed fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line  processing  and
       support for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where  s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a value
       is last in an argument and anything after it is taken as the value.  If the  option
       can  be  negated  and  "-"  immediately  follows the option, the option is negated.
       Short options can also be given as separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the same argument or as  the
       following argument.  An optional = is also supported.  So





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all  work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of values and use a slightly differ-
       ent format described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a  trailing
       dash to negate the option (if the option supports it), and can have a value (option
       argument) specified by preceeding it with = (no spaces).  Values  can  also  follow
       the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long  option  names  can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.  See the
       option descriptions below for which support  long  options.   To  avoid  confusion,
       avoid  abbreviating  a  negatable option with an embedded dash ("-") at the dash if
       you plan to negate it (the parser would consider a trailing dash, such as  for  the
       option --some-option using --some- as the option, as part of the name rather than a
       negating dash).  This may be changed to force the last dash in --some- to be negat-
       ing in the future.

              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust  self-extracting  executable  archive.   A self-extracting executable
              archive is created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. The -A
              option  tells  zip to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take
              into account this "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.  At present,  only
       the  Amiga port of zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting
       them. -J can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which is  recom-
              mended),  clear the archive bits of files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits
              are cleared they are cleared.  You may want to use the -sf show files option
              to  store  the list of files processed in case the archive operation must be
              repeated.  Also consider using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to  check
              out -DF as a possibly better way to do incremental backups.

              [WIN32]   Only include files that have the archive bit set.  Directories are
              not stored when -AS is used, though by default the paths of entries, includ-
              ing  directories,  are  stored  as  usual  and can be used by most unzips to
              recreate directories.

              The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified  and,
              if  used  with  -AC, -AS can provide an incremental backup capability.  How-
              ever, other applications can modify the archive bit and  it  may  not  be  a
              reliable indicator of which files have changed since the last archive opera-
              tion.  Alternative ways to create incremental backups are using  -t  to  use
              file  dates,  though  this won't catch old files copied to directories being
              archived, and -DF to create a differential archive.

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive  in  the  directory  /tmp,  copying  over
      to  the  current  directory when done. This option is useful when
              updating an existing archive and the file system containing this old archive
              does  not  have  enough  space to hold both old and new archives at the same
              time.  It may also be useful when streaming in some cases to avoid the  need
              for  data  descriptors.   Note  that  using this option may require zip take
              additional time to copy the archive file when done to the  destination  file

              Add one-line comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating) are
              done first, and the user is then prompted for a one-line  comment  for  each
              file.   Enter the comment followed by return, or just return for no comment.

              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the entry  foo/tom/junk,  all  of  the  files  that  start  with
              foo/harry/,  and all of the files that end with .o (in any path).  Note that
              shell pathname expansion has been inhibited with backslashes,  so  that  zip
              can  see  the  asterisks,  enabling  zip to match on the contents of the zip
              archive instead of the contents of the current directory.  (The  backslashes
              are  not  used on MSDOS-based platforms.)  Can also use quotes to escape the
              asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where  the  shell  expands  wildcards
              could result in the asterisks being converted to a list of files in the cur-
              rent directory and that list used to delete entries from the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip  archive.
              This  requires  that file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped
              by PKZIP on an MSDOS system.  (We considered making this case insensitive on
              systems  where  paths  were case insensitive, but it is possible the archive
              came from a system where case does matter and the archive could include both
              Bar  and  bar as separate files in the archive.)  But see the new option -ic
              to ignore case in the archive.

              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display dots while each entry is zipped (except on ports that have their own
              progress  indicator).  See -ds below for setting dot size.  The default is a
              dot every 10 MB of input file processed.  The -v option also  displays  dots
              (previously  at  a much higher rate than this but now -v also defaults to 10
              MB) and this rate is also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS] Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.   Good  for
              exporting  files  to  foreign  operating-systems.   Resource-forks  will  be
              ignored at all.

              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.  The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set  amount  of  input  file  processed  for each dot displayed.  See -dd to
              enable displaying dots.  Setting this option implies -dd.  Size  is  in  the
              format  nm  where n is a number and m is a multiplier.  Currently m can be k
              (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB), so if n is 100 and m is k,  size  would  be
              100k which is 100 KB.  The default is 10 MB.

              The  -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate
              is also controlled by this option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This option does not control the dots from the "Scanning files"  message  as
              zip scans for input files.  The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a
              fixed number of entries, whichever is longer.

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display the volume (disk) number each entry is being read from,  if  reading
              an existing archive, and being written to.

              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.  Directory entries
              are created by default so that their attributes can  be  saved  in  the  zip
              archive.   The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default
              options. For example under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a
              new  option  format  detailed  below,  and can include several options.) The
              option -D is a shorthand for -x "*/" but the latter previously could not  be
              set  as default in the ZIPOPT environment variable as the contents of ZIPOPT
              gets inserted near the beginning of the command line and the file  list  had
              to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

              -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.

              Create an archive that contains all new and changed files since the original
              archive was created.  For this to work, the  input  file  list  and  current
              directory must be the same as during the original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also  from  the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files
              not in foofull and the files where the size or file time of the files do not
              match those in foofull.

              Note  that  the  timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to
              the local timezone in order for this option to work correctly.  A change  in
              timezone  since  the  original  archive was created could result in no times
              matching and all files being included.

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to  create  a  normal
              archive  of  the  contents  of the directory as a full backup, then use this
              option to create incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is entered on
              the  terminal  in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard
              error is not a tty, zip will exit with an error).  The  password  prompt  is
              repeated to save the user from typing errors.

              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.

              Replace  (freshen)  an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been
              modified more recently than the version already in the zip  archive;  unlike
              the  update  option (-u) this will not add files that are not already in the
              zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which  the  original
              zip command was run, since paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be  set  according  to
              the local timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The reasons behind this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the  differ-
              ences  between  the  Unix-format  file times (always in GMT) and most of the
              other operating systems (always local time) and the necessity to compare the
              two.   A  typical TZ value is ''MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with auto-
              matic adjustment for ''summertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The format is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET,  hh  is  the
              difference  between GMT and local time such as -1 above, and DDD is the time
              zone when daylight savings time is in effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is
              no daylight savings time.  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix  the  zip  archive.  The  -F  option can be used if some portions of the
              archive are missing, but requires a  reasonably  intact  central  directory.
              The  input  archive  is scanned as usual, but zip will ignore some problems.
              The resulting archive should be valid, but any inconsistent entries will  be
              left out.

              When  doubled  as  in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip
              scans for special signatures to identify the limits between the archive mem-
              bers. The single -F is more reliable if the archive is not too much damaged,
              so try this option first.

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been truncated,  you  must  use
              -FF.   This is a change from zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a
              truncated archive.  The -F option now  more  reliably  fixes  archives  with
              minor  damage  and  the  -FF option is needed to fix archives where -F might
              have been sufficient before.

              Neither option will recover archives that have been incorrectly  transferred
              in  ascii  mode  instead of binary. After the repair, the -t option of unzip
              may show that some files have a bad CRC. Such files cannot be recovered; you
              can remove them from the archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note  that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded zip
              archive that was stored (without compression) in the archive and,  depending
              on  the  damage, it may find the entries in the embedded archive rather than
              the archive itself.  Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The format of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix  the  dam-
              aged archive,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries  to read the entries normally, copying good entries to the new archive
      If this doesn't work, as when the archive is truncated,  or  if
              some entries you know are in the archive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and  compare  the  resulting  archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF
              option may create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on  what  is  damaged,
              you can then use the -F option to fix that archive.

              A  split  archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have
              the last split of the archive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you
              must  use  -FF  to fix the archive, which will prompt you for the splits you

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a bad checksum  or
              are otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]   Normally  zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as
              zip can hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This option tells  zip  to  read
              the contents of any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize  the  contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally
              when an archive is updated, new  files  are  added  and  changed  files  are
              updated  but  files  that no longer exist on the OS are not deleted from the
              archive.  This option enables a new mode that checks entries in the  archive
              against  the  file  system.   If  the  file  time and file size of the entry
              matches that of the OS file, the  entry  is  copied  from  the  old  archive
              instead  of  being read from the file system and compressed.  If the OS file
              has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.  If the entry in the
              archive  does  not  match  a file on the OS, the entry is deleted.  Enabling
              this option should create archives that are the same as  new  archives,  but
              since  existing entries are copied instead of compressed, updating an exist-
              ing archive with -FS can be much faster than creating a new  archive.   Also
              consider using -u for updating an archive.

              For  this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same direc-
              tory it was created in so the relative paths match.  If few files are  being
              copied  from  the  old  archive,  it  may  be faster to create a new archive

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be  set  according  to
              the  local timezone in order for this option to work correctly.  A change in
              timezone since the original archive was created could  result  in  no  times
              matching and recompression of all files.

              This  option  deletes  files  from the archive.  If you need to preserve the
              original archive, make a copy of the archive first or use the  --out  option
              to  output the updated archive to a new file.  Even though it may be slower,
              creating a new archive with a new archive name is safer,  avoids  mismatches
              between archive and OS paths, and is preferred.

              Grow  (append  to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one.
              If this operation fails, zip attempts to restore the archive to its original
              state.  If  the  restoration fails, the archive might become corrupted. This
              option is ignored when there's no existing archive  or  when  at  least  one
              archive member must be updated or deleted.

              Display  the  zip  help information (this also appears if zip is run with no

              Display extended help including more on command line format, pattern  match-
              ing, and more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will  include  only the files that end in .c in the current directory
              and its subdirectories. (Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than the  current  one.)
              The  backslash  avoids  the  shell  filename  substitution, so that the name
              matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.  [This is for Unix and
              other  systems where \  escapes the next character.  For other systems where
              the shell does not process * do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So  to  include  dir,  a
              directory directly under the current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to  match  paths  such  as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard
              expansion in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories  (as

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the command line,
              this version actually allows -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of  files
              terminates  at  the  next  argument  starting with -, the end of the command
              line, or the list terminator @ (an argument that is just @).  So  the  above
              can be given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for example.  There must be a space between the option and the first file of
              a list.  For just one file you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not recommended  because
              they  can be confusing and, in particular, the -ifile format can cause prob-
              lems if the first letter of file combines with i to form a two-letter option
              starting with i.  Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i AT include.lst

              which will only include the files in the current directory and its subdirec-
              tories that match the patterns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R for
              more on patterns.

              [Acorn  RISC  OS]  Don't  scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not
              consider Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark archives when  SparkFS  is
              loaded) as directories but will store them as single files.

              For example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result
              in a zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while  using  the  'I'
              option  will  result in a zipfile containing a Spark archive. Obviously this
              second case will also be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS  isn't

              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only
              available on systems where the case of files is ignored.   On  systems  with
              case-insensitive  file systems, case is normally ignored when matching files
              on the file system but is not ignored for  -f  (freshen),  -d  (delete),  -U
              (copy),  and  similar modes when matching against archive entries (currently
              -f ignores case on VMS) because archive entries can be  from  systems  where
              case does matter and names that are the same except for case can exist in an
              archive.  The -ic option makes all  matching  case  insensitive.   This  can
              result in multiple archive entries matching a command line pattern.

              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and do not store direc-
              tory names. By default, zip will store the full path (relative to  the  cur-
              rent directory).

              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path including volume will
              be stored. By default the relative path will be stored.

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt to convert the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store  only  the
              MSDOS  attribute  (just  the  user  write attribute from Unix), and mark the
              entry as made under MSDOS (even though it was not); for  compatibility  with
              PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot handle certain names such as those with two

              Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR LF.
              This  option should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on
              Unix if the zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files
              already  contain CR LF, this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that
              unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the original file,  to  undo
              the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open  a  logfile  at  the  given path.  By default any existing file at that
              location is overwritten, but the -la option will result in an existing  file
              being  opened  and the new log information appended to any existing informa-
              tion.  Only warnings and errors are written to the log unless the -li option
              is also given, then all information messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages, such as file names being zipped, in the log.
              The default is to only include the command line, any  warnings  and  errors,
              and the final status.

              Translate  the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not
              be used on binary files.  This option can be used on MSDOS if the  zip  file
              is  intended for unzip under Unix.  If the file is converted and the file is
              later determined to be binary a warning is issued and the file  is  probably
              corrupted.   In  this release if -ll detects binary in the first buffer read
              from a file, zip now issues a warning and skips line end conversion  on  the
              file.   This  check seems to catch all binary files tested, but the original
              check remains and if a converted file is later determined to be binary  that
              warning  is  still  issued.   A  new  algorithm is now being used for binary
              detection that should allow line end conversion of text files in  UTF-8  and
              similar encodings.

              Display the zip license.

              Move  the  specified  files into the zip archive; actually, this deletes the
              target directories/files after making the specified zip archive. If a direc-
              tory  becomes  empty  after  removal  of  the  files,  the directory is also
              removed. No deletions are done until zip has  created  the  archive  without
              error.  This is useful for conserving disk space, but is potentially danger-
              ous so it is recommended to use it  in  combination  with  -T  to  test  the
              archive before removing all input files.

              All  input  patterns  must match at least one file and all input files found
              must be readable.  Normally when an input pattern does not match a file  the
              "name  not  matched" warning is issued and when an input file has been found
              but later is missing or not readable a missing or not  readable  warning  is
              issued.   In either case zip continues creating the archive, with missing or
              unreadable new files being skipped and files already in the archive  remain-
              ing unchanged.  After the archive is created, if any files were not readable
              zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most systems) instead of  the  normal
              success  return  (0 on most systems).  With -MM set, zip exits as soon as an
              input pattern is not matched (whenever the "name not matched" warning  would
              be  issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either case zip exits
              with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This option is useful when a known list of files is  to  be  zipped  so  any
              missing or unreadable files will result in an error.  It is less useful when
              used with wildcards, but zip will still exit with an error if any input pat-
              tern  doesn't  match  at least one file and if any matched files are unread-
              able.  If you want to create the archive anyway and only  need  to  know  if
              files  were skipped, don't use -MM and just check the return code.  Also -lf
              could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given suffixes.  Such  files
              are  simply  stored  (0%  compression)  in  the output zip file, so that zip
              doesn't waste its time trying to compress them.  The suffixes are  separated
              by either colons or semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn  foo foo

              will  copy  everything  from foo into, but will store any files that
              end in .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying to compress them (image
              and  sound  files often have their own specialized compression methods).  By
              default,  zip  does  not  compress  files  with  extensions  in   the   list
       Such  files are stored directly in the output
              archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the  default
              options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum  compression  option  -9 also attempts compression on all files
              regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes  (3  hex  digit
              format).  By default, zip does not compress files with filetypes in the list
              DDC:D96:68E (i.e. Archives, CFS files and PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing  of  wildcards
              is  still  done by the shell unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a
              list of paths is being read and no wildcard substitution is desired.

              [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga or MacOS filenotes as zipfile comments.  They  can
              be  restored  by  using  the -N option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are
              prompted for comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.

              Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last
              modified" time found among the entries in the zip archive.  This can be used
              without any other operations, if desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time of to  the  latest  time  of  the
              entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process  the  archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing
              archive, output the new archive to  output-file.   Useful  for  updating  an
              archive  without changing the existing archive and the input archive must be
              a different file than the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It  can  also  be
              used with -U to copy entries from an existing archive to a new archive.  See
              the EXAMPLES section below.

              Another use is converting zip files from one split  size  to  another.   For
              instance,  to  convert an archive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD
              splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g --out

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy mode will convert stream entries  (using  data  descriptors  and  which
              should  be  compatible  with most unzips) to normal entries (which should be
              compatible with all unzips), except if standard encryption  was  used.   For
              archives  with encrypted entries, zipcloak will decrypt the entries and con-
              vert them to normal entries.

              Include relative file paths as part of the names  of  files  stored  in  the
              archive.   This  is  the  default.   The  -j option junks the paths and just
              stores the names of the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use password to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS  INSECURE!   Many
              multi-user  operating  systems  provide ways for any user to see the current
              command line of any other user; even on stand-alone systems there is  always
              the  threat of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as
              part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever  pos-
              sible,  use  the  non-echoing,  interactive prompt to enter passwords.  (And
              where security is truly important, use strong encryption such as Pretty Good
              Privacy  instead of the relatively weak standard encryption provided by zip-
              file utilities.)

              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and comment prompts.   (Useful,
              for example, in shell scripts and background tasks).

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories  in  foo  are  saved  in  a  zip
              archive  named, including files with names starting with ".", since
              the recursion does not use the shell's file-name substitution mechanism.  If
              you wish to include only a specific subset of the files in directory foo and
              its subdirectories, use the -i option to specify the pattern of files to  be
              included.  You should not use -r with the name ".*", since that matches ".."
              which will attempt to zip up the parent directory  (probably  not  what  was

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note  that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down
              directories in the file system, any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are applied  to
              internal  archive pathnames once the directories are scanned.  To have wild-
              cards apply to files in subdirectories when recursing on  Unix  and  similar
              systems  where the shell does wildcard substitution, either escape all wild-
              cards or put all arguments with wildcards in quotes.  This lets zip see  the
              wildcards and match files in subdirectories using them as it recurses.

              Travel  the  directory  structure recursively starting at the current direc-
              tory; for example:

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at the current
              directory  are  stored into a zip archive named  Note that *.c will
              match file.c, a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More than one pattern can be  listed  as
              separate arguments.  Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns  are  relative  file  paths  as they appear in the archive, or will
              after zipping, and can have optional wildcards in them.  For example,  given
              the  current directory is foo and under it are directories foo1 and foo2 and
              in foo1 is the file bar.c,

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list  matching  was  enabled  by
              default  on Windows platforms.  Because of confusion resulting from the need
              to escape "[" and "]" in names, it is now off by default for Windows so  "["
              and  "]" are just normal characters in names.  This option enables [] match-
              ing again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split archive  is
              an  archive that could be split over many files.  As the archive is created,
              if the size of the archive reaches the specified split size, that  split  is
              closed  and  the next split opened.  In general all splits but the last will
              be the split size and the last will be whatever  is  left.   If  the  entire
              archive is smaller than the split size a single-file archive is created.

              Split  archives  are  stored  in numbered files.  For example, if the output
              archive is named archive  and  three  splits  are  required,  the  resulting
              archive   will   be   in  the  three  files  archive.z01,  archive.z02,  and
      Do not change the numbering of these files or the archive will
              not  be  readable  as  these  are used to determine the order the splits are

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.   Currently  the
              number  must be an integer.  The multiplier can currently be one of k (kilo-
              bytes), m (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or t (terabytes).  As 64k is the mini-
              mum split size, numbers without multipliers default to megabytes.  For exam-
              ple, to create a split archive called foo  with  the  contents  of  the  bar
              directory with splits of 670 MB that might be useful for burning on CDs, the

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently the old splits of a split archive are  not  excluded  from  a  new
              archive, but they can be specifically excluded.  If possible, keep the input
              and output archives out  of  the  path  being  zipped  when  creating  split

              Using  -s  without  -sp  as  above creates all the splits where foo is being
              written, in this case the current directory.  This split  mode  updates  the
              splits  as  the  archive  is  being  created, requiring all splits to remain
              writable, but creates split archives that are readable  by  any  unzip  that
              supports  split archives.  See -sp below for enabling split pause mode which
              allows splits to be written directly to removable media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and  provide  details
              of  how the splitting is being done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the
              bell when zip pauses for the next split destination.

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option  for  how  a
              split  archive  can  be  updated  as it is copied to a new archive.  A split
              archive can also be converted into a single-file archive using a split  size
              of 0 or negating the -s option:

                     zip -s 0 --out

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If  splitting  and using split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for
              each split destination.

              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The  new  command
              parser permutes the arguments, putting all options and any values associated
              with them before any non-option arguments.  This allows an option to  appear
              anywhere  in  the command line as long as any values that go with the option
              go with it.  This option displays the command line as zip sees it, including
              any  arguments from the environment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where
              allowed, options later in the command line can override options  earlier  in
              the command line.

              Show  the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if cre-
              ating a new archive, this will list the files that would be added.   If  the
              option is negated, -sf-, output only to an open log file.  Screen display is
              not recommended for large lists.

              Show all available options supported by zip as compiled on the current  sys-
              tem.  As this command reads the option table, it should include all options.
              Each line includes the short  option  (if  defined),  the  long  option  (if
              defined),  the  format of any value that goes with the option, if the option
              can be negated, and a small description.  The value format can be no  value,
              required  value,  optional value, single character value, number value, or a
              list of values.  The output of this option is not intended to  show  how  to
              use any option but only show what options are available.

              If  splitting  is  enabled  with  -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates
              split archives as -s does, but stream writing is used so each split  can  be
              closed  as  soon  as  it is written and zip will pause between each split to
              allow changing split destination or media.

              Though this split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it
              uses  stream archive format that may not be readable by some unzips.  Before
              relying on splits created with -sp, test a split archive with the unzip  you
              will be using.

              To  convert  a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive
              see the --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if exists, otherwise  show
              the standard version of the path.

              Enable  various  verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting
              is being done.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date,  where  mm  is
              the month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.
              The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified
              on or after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is
              the month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.
              The ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified
              before 30 November 1995, to the zip archive

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the old zip file
              is unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use  command  cmd  instead  of  'unzip  -tqq' to test an archive when the -T
              option is used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in  the  current  directory
              instead of the standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd,  {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the
              name of the archive is appended to the end of the command.  The return  code
              is checked for success (0 on Unix).

              Replace  (update)  an  existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been
              modified more recently than the version already in  the  zip  archive.   For

                     zip -u stuff *

              will  add any new files in the current directory, and update any files which
              have been modified since the zip archive was last created/modified
              (note that zip will not try to pack into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no  input  file  arguments  acts  like  the  -f
              (freshen) option.

              Copy  entries  from  one  archive  to another.  Requires the --out option to
              specify a different output file than the input archive.  Copy  mode  is  the
              reverse  of  -d  delete.  When delete is being used with --out, the selected
              entries are deleted from the archive and all other entries are copied to the
              new  archive,  while  copy  mode  selects  the  files  to include in the new
              archive.  Unlike -u update, input patterns on the command line  are  matched
              against archive entries only and not the file system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries  with  names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.  The
              wildcard must be escaped on some systems to prevent the shell  from  substi-
              tuting  names  of  files from the file system which may have no relevance to
              the entries in the archive.

              If no input files appear on the command line and --out is used, copy mode is

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This  is  useful  for  changing  split  size  for  instance.  Encrypting and
              decrypting entries is not yet supported using copy mode.  Use  zipcloak  for

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine  what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition
              to the standard file path, now includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if
              the  entry  path  is not entirely 7-bit ASCII.  When an entry is missing the
              Unicode path, zip reverts back to the standard file path.  The problem  with
              using  the  standard  path is this path is in the local character set of the
              zip that created the entry, which may contain characters that are not  valid
              in  the  character  set  being  used  by  the unzip.  When zip is reading an
              archive, if an entry also has a Unicode path, zip now defaults to using  the
              Unicode path to recreate the standard path using the current local character

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with  this  path  if
              there  is  a  mismatch between the stored standard path and the stored UTF-8
              path (which can happen if the standard path was updated).  In all cases,  if
              there is a mismatch it is assumed that the standard path is more current and
              zip uses that.  Values for v are

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters that are not valid in the current character set  are  escaped  as
              #Uxxxx  and  #Lxxxxxx,  where  x is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The
              first is used if a 16-bit character number is sufficient  to  represent  the
              Unicode character and the second if the character needs more than 16 bits to
              represent it's Unicode character code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard  path  field  on  systems
              where  UTF-8  is  the  current character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new
              extra fields otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces zip to store UTF-8 as native in the archive.  Note that storing UTF-8
              directly  is the default on Unix systems that support it.  This option could
              be useful on Windows systems where the escaped path is too  large  to  be  a
              valid path and the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is
              not backward compatible on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables  the  display
              of  a  progress  indicator during compression (see -dd for more on dots) and
              requests verbose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities.

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a  diagnostic  screen  is
              printed  instead.   This  should  now work even if stdout is redirected to a
              file, allowing easy saving of the information for sending with  bug  reports
              to  Info-ZIP.   The version screen provides the help screen header with pro-
              gram name, version, and release date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and
              distribution sites, and shows information about the target environment (com-
              piler type and  version,  OS  version,  compilation  date  and  the  enabled
              optional features used to create the zip executable).

              [VMS]  Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)   When a -V
              archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF
              text  files   and   pure  binary  files  like fixed-512) should be extracted
              intact.  Indexed files and file types with embedded  record  sizes  (notably
              variable-length record types) will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS]  Save  VMS  file  attributes,  and   all  allocated  blocks in a file,
              including  any  data beyond EOF.  Useful for moving ill-formed files   among
              VMS  systems.    When  a -VV archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system, almost
              all files will appear corrupt.

              [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name, including multiple
              versions  of  files.   Default  is  to use only the most recent version of a
              specified file.

              [VMS] Append the version number of the files to the name, including multiple
              versions  of  files, using the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most
              recent version of a specified file.

              Wildcards match only at a directory level.  Normally zip  handles  paths  as
              strings and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally  would  match  both  paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.
              Note that in the first case a directory boundary  (/)  was  crossed  in  the
              match.   With  -ws no directory bounds will be included in the match, making
              wildcards local to a specific directory level.  So, with -ws  enabled,  only
              the second path would be matched.

              When  using  -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does nor-

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which will include the contents of foo in while  excluding  all  the
              files that end in .o.  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution,
              so that the name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x AT exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in while  excluding  all  the
              files that match the patterns in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If  there  is no space between -x and the pattern, just one value is assumed
              (no list):

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2, uid/gid  and
              file times on Unix).  The zip format uses extra fields to include additional
              information for each entry.  Some extra fields are  specific  to  particular
              systems while others are applicable to all systems.  Normally when zip reads
              entries from an existing archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips
              the rest, and adds the extra fields applicable to that system.  With -X, zip
              strips all old fields and only includes the Unicode and Zip64  extra  fields
              (currently these two extra fields cannot be disabled).

              Negating  this  option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but also
              copies over any unrecognized extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in  the  zip
              archive,  instead  of  compressing  and  storing the file referred to by the
              link.  This can avoid multiple copies of files being included in the archive
              as  zip  recurses  the  directory  trees  and accesses files directly and by

              Prompt for a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment  is
              ended by a line containing just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on
              Unix, ^Z on MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set the default compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by
              zip are store and deflate.  Compression method can be set to:

              store  - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries
              with no compression.  This is generally faster than compressing entries, but
              results  in  no  space  savings.   This is the same as using -0 (compression
              level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines that  stor-
              ing is better than deflation, the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2  -  If  bzip2  support  is  compiled  in, this compression method also
              becomes available.  Only some modern unzips currently support the bzip2 com-
              pression  method,  so  test  the  unzip  you will be using before relying on
              archives using this method (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the  specified  digit  #,  where  -0
              indicates  no  compression  (store all files), -1 indicates the fastest com-
              pression speed (less compression) and -9 indicates the  slowest  compression
              speed  (optimal  compression, ignores the suffix list). The default compres-
              sion level is -6.

              Though still being worked, the intention is this setting will  control  com-
              pression  speed  for  all  compression methods.  Currently only deflation is

              [WIN32] Use priviliges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

              Take  the  list  of  input  files from standard input. Only one filename per

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label  for  the  drive  holding  the
              first  file  to be compressed.  If you want to include only the volume label
              or to force a specific drive, use the drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive (assuming it does not exist) and puts all  the  files
       in  the current directory in it, in compressed form (the .zip suffix is added auto-
       matically, unless the archive name contains a dot already; this allows the explicit
       specification of other suffixes).

       Because  of  the  way  the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files starting
       with "." are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive, containing all the files and directories in the direc-
       tory foo that is contained within the current directory.

       You  may want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without record-
       ing the directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave off the paths,  as

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you  are  short  on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both the
       original directory and the corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this case, you
       can create the archive in steps using the -m option.  If foo contains the subdirec-
       tories tom, dick, and harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates, and the next two add to it.  At  the  com-
       pletion  of  each zip command, the last created archive is deleted, making room for
       the next zip command to function.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is  given  as  a
       number  followed  optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The com-

              zip -s 2g -r foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB  each.
       If foo contained 5 GB of contents and the contents were stored in the split archive
       without compression (to make this example simple), this would create three  splits,
       split.z01 at 2 GB, split.z02 at 2 GB, and at a little over 1 GB.

       The  -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable
       media, for example, but read the descriptions and warnings  for  both  -s  and  -sp

       Though  zip  does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--out-
       put-file) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a  new  archive.   For

              zip foo.c bar.c --out

       reads  archive,  even  if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and
       writes the resulting archive to  If  is  split  then  defaults  to the same split size.  Be aware that and
       any split files that are created with it are always  overwritten  without  warning.
       This may be changed in the future.

       This  section  applies only to Unix.  Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS
       operation.  However, the special wildcard characters * and []  below  apply  to  at
       least MSDOS also.

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also
       called "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match any character in the range indicated  within  the  brackets  (example:
              [a-f],  [0-9]).   This  form of wildcard matching allows a user to specify a
              list of characters between square brackets and  if  any  of  the  characters
              match the expression matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation  is also supported, where any character in that position not in the
              list matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^ to  the  beginning  of
              the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option to avoid the
              confusion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When these characters are encountered (without being escaped with  a  backslash  or
       quotes),  the shell will look for files relative to the current path that match the
       pattern, and replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.

       The zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being
       modified  or,  in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list
       of files to be operated on, by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to
       do the name expansion.  In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files
       to do, it first looks for the name in the file system.  If it  finds  it,  it  then
       adds  it to the list of files to do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the name
       in the zip archive being modified (if it exists), using the pattern matching  char-
       acters  described  above, if present.  For each match, it will add that name to the
       list of files to be processed, unless this name  matches  one  given  with  the  -x
       option, or does not match any name given with the -i option.

       The  pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that
       end in ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that the backslash must  pre-
       cede  every  special character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire argument must be enclosed
       in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to  make
       zip  do  the pattern matching for file paths, and always for paths and strings that
       have spaces or wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to  pro-
       cess the wildcards.

       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

              contains  default  options that will be used when running zip.  The contents
              of this environment variable will get added to the command line  just  after
              the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC  OS] contains extensions separated by a : that will cause native file-
              names with one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file  with
              basename and extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)

       The  exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and
       takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.   Processing  may
                     have  completed  successfully anyway; some broken zipfiles created by
                     other archivers have simple work-arounds.

              4      zip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers during pro-
                     gram initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.  Processing proba-
                     bly failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be processed (such as input files larger than 2 GB
                     when  not  using  Zip64 or trying to read an existing archive that is
                     too large) or entry too large to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS interprets standard Unix  (or  PC)  return  values  as  other,  scarier-looking
       things, so zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets
       VMS Facility = 1955 (0x07A3), Code = 2* Unix_status, and  an  appropriate  Severity
       (as specified in ziperr.h).  More details are included in the VMS-specific documen-
       tation.  See [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which
       can be extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if they
       contain encrypted members or if they have been produced in a pipe or on a non-seek-
       able  device.  The  old  versions  of  zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an
       incorrect format.  The old versions can list the contents of the zip file but  can-
       not  extract  it  anyway (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not
       use encryption and use regular disk files, you do not have to care about this prob-

       Under  VMS,  not  all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only stream-LF
       format zip files are expected to work with zip.   Others  can  be  converted  using
       Rahul  Dhesi's  BILF  program.   This version of zip handles some of the conversion
       internally.  When using Kermit to transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS,  type  "set
       file  type  block" on VMS.  When transfering from MSDOS to VMS, type "set file type
       fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet
       syntax foo::*.*.

       On  OS/2,  zip cannot match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark
       or a hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit  DosFindFirst/Next  don't
       find such names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under  OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibil-
       ity) the amount returned by the 16-bit  version  of  DosQueryPathInfo().  Otherwise
       OS/2  1.3 and 2.0 would report different EA sizes when DIRing a file.  However, the
       structure layout returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit  different,  it
       uses  extra padding bytes and link pointers (it's a linked list) to have all fields
       on 4-byte boundaries for portability to future RISC OS/2  versions.  Therefore  the
       value reported by zip (which uses this 32-bit-mode size) differs from that reported
       by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for portability, even  the  16-bit  MS-C-com-
       piled version running on OS/2 1.3, so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright  (C)  1990-1997  Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly, Onno van
       der Linden, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution  to  use,  copy,  or  redis-
       tribute this software so long as all of the original files are included, that it is
       not sold for profit, and that this copyright notice is retained.


       Please  send bug reports and comments using the web page at:  For
       bug reports, please include the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options  used
       to  compile  it  (see zip -v), the machine and operating system in use, and as much
       additional information as possible.

       Thanks to R. P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this project,  and
       from  which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public
       domain the zip file format, compression format, and .ZIP  filename  extension,  and
       for accepting minor changes to the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on
       the deflate format; to Haruhiko Okumura and Leonid Broukhis for providing some use-
       ful  ideas  for  the  compression  algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter
       Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list and ftp site for  the  Info-ZIP
       group  to  use;  and  most importantly, to the Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the
       file infozip.who) without whose tireless testing and bug-fixing efforts a  portable
       zip  would not have been possible.  Finally we should thank (blame) the first Info-
       ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess in the first  place.
       The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated by E. Gordon
       for zip 3.0.

Info-ZIP                      16 June 2008 (v3.0)                      ZIP(1L)

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