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ZSH(1)                                                                  ZSH(1)

       zsh - the Z shell

       Because  zsh contains many features, the zsh manual has been split into a number of

       zsh          Zsh overview (this section)
       zshroadmap   Informal introduction to the manual
       zshmisc      Anything not fitting into the other sections
       zshexpn      Zsh command and parameter expansion
       zshparam     Zsh parameters
       zshoptions   Zsh options
       zshbuiltins  Zsh built-in functions
       zshzle       Zsh command line editing
       zshcompwid   Zsh completion widgets
       zshcompsys   Zsh completion system
       zshcompctl   Zsh completion control
       zshmodules   Zsh loadable modules
       zshcalsys    Zsh built-in calendar functions
       zshtcpsys    Zsh built-in TCP functions
       zshzftpsys   Zsh built-in FTP client
       zshcontrib   Additional zsh functions and utilities
       zshall       Meta-man page containing all of the above

       Zsh is a UNIX command interpreter (shell) usable as an interactive login shell  and
       as  a  shell  script  command  processor.  Of the standard shells, zsh most closely
       resembles ksh but includes  many  enhancements.   Zsh  has  command  line  editing,
       builtin spelling correction, programmable command completion, shell functions (with
       autoloading), a history mechanism, and a host of other features.

       Zsh was originally written by Paul Falstad <pf AT zsh.org>.  Zsh is now maintained  by
       the members of the zsh-workers mailing list <zsh-workers AT zsh.org>.  The development
       is currently coordinated by Peter Stephenson <pws AT zsh.org>.  The coordinator can be
       contacted  at <coordinator AT zsh.org>, but matters relating to the code should gener-
       ally go to the mailing list.

       Zsh is available from the following anonymous FTP sites.  These  mirror  sites  are
       kept  frequently  up  to  date.   The  sites  marked  with  (H)  may  be  mirroring
       ftp.cs.elte.hu instead of the primary site.

       Primary site








              The up-to-date source code is available  via  anonymous  CVS  and  Git  from
              Sourceforge.   See http://sourceforge.net/projects/zsh/ for details.  A sum-
              mary of  instructions  for  the  CVS  and  Git  archives  can  be  found  at

       Zsh has 3 mailing lists:

       <zsh-announce AT zsh.org>
              Announcements  about  releases,  major  changes in the shell and the monthly
              posting of the Zsh FAQ.  (moderated)

       <zsh-users AT zsh.org>
              User discussions.

       <zsh-workers AT zsh.org>
              Hacking, development, bug reports and patches.

       To subscribe or unsubscribe, send mail to the associated administrative address for
       the mailing list.

       <zsh-announce-subscribe AT zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-subscribe AT zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-subscribe AT zsh.org>
       <zsh-announce-unsubscribe AT zsh.org>
       <zsh-users-unsubscribe AT zsh.org>
       <zsh-workers-unsubscribe AT zsh.org>

       to zsh-announce are automatically  forwarded  to  zsh-users.   All  submissions  to
       zsh-users are automatically forwarded to zsh-workers.

       If  you  have  problems subscribing/unsubscribing to any of the mailing lists, send
       mail to <listmaster AT zsh.org>.  The mailing lists are maintained by Karsten Thygesen
       <karthy AT kom.dk>.

       The mailing lists are archived; the archives can be accessed via the administrative
       addresses listed above.  There is also a hypertext  archive,  maintained  by  Geoff
       Wing <gcw AT zsh.org>, available at http://www.zsh.org/mla/.

       Zsh  has a list of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), maintained by Peter Stephenson
       <pws AT zsh.org>.  It is regularly posted to the  newsgroup  comp.unix.shell  and  the
       zsh-announce  mailing  list.  The latest version can be found at any of the Zsh FTP
       sites, or at http://www.zsh.org/FAQ/.  The contact address for FAQ-related  matters
       is <faqmaster AT zsh.org>.

       Zsh  has a web page which is located at http://www.zsh.org/.  This is maintained by
       Karsten Thygesen <karthy AT zsh.org>, of SunSITE Denmark.   The  contact  address  for
       web-related matters is <webmaster AT zsh.org>.

       A  userguide is currently in preparation.  It is intended to complement the manual,
       with explanations and hints on issues where the manual can be  cabbalistic,  hiero-
       graphic,  or  downright  mystifying  (for example, the word 'hierographic' does not
       exist).   It  can  be  viewed  in   its   current   state   at   http://zsh.source-
       forge.net/Guide/.   At the time of writing, chapters dealing with startup files and
       their contents and the new completion system were essentially complete.

       A 'wiki' website for zsh has been created at http://www.zshwiki.org/.   This  is  a
       site  which  can  be  added  to  and modified directly by users without any special
       permission.  You can add your own zsh tips and configurations.

       The following flags are interpreted by the shell when invoked  to  determine  where
       the shell will read commands from:

       -c     Take  the  first  argument as a command to execute, rather than reading com-
              mands from a script or standard input.  If any further arguments are  given,
              the  first  one  is  assigned  to $0, rather than being used as a positional

       -i     Force shell to be interactive.  It is still possible to specify a script  to

       -s     Force shell to read commands from the standard input.  If the -s flag is not
              present and an argument is given, the first argument  is  taken  to  be  the
              pathname of a script to execute.

       If  there  are  any remaining arguments after option processing, and neither of the
       options -c or -s was supplied, the first argument is taken as the file  name  of  a
       script containing shell commands to be executed.  If the option PATH_SCRIPT is set,
       and the file name does not contain a directory path (i.e. there is no  '/'  in  the
       name),  first the current directory and then the command path given by the variable
       PATH are searched for the script.  If the option is not set or the file  name  con-
       tains a '/' it is used directly.

       After the first one or two arguments have been appropriated as described above, the
       remaining arguments are assigned to the positional parameters.

       For further options, which are common to invocation and the set builtin, see zshop-

       Options may be specified by name using the -o option.  -o acts like a single-letter
       option, but takes a following string as the option name.  For example,

              zsh -x -o shwordsplit scr

       runs the script scr, setting the XTRACE option by the corresponding letter '-x' and
       the  SH_WORD_SPLIT  option  by name.  Options may be turned off by name by using +o
       instead of -o.  -o can be stacked up with preceding single-letter options,  so  for
       example '-xo shwordsplit' or '-xoshwordsplit' is equivalent to '-x -o shwordsplit'.

       Options may also be specified by name in GNU long  option  style,  '--option-name'.
       When this is done, '-' characters in the option name are permitted: they are trans-
       lated into '_', and thus ignored.  So, for example, 'zsh  --sh-word-split'  invokes
       zsh  with  the SH_WORD_SPLIT option turned on.  Like other option syntaxes, options
       can be turned off by replacing the initial '-' with a '+';  thus  '+-sh-word-split'
       is  equivalent  to  '--no-sh-word-split'.   Unlike other option syntaxes, GNU-style
       long options cannot be stacked with any other options, so for  example  '-x-shword-
       split' is an error, rather than being treated like '-x --shwordsplit'.

       The  special  GNU-style  option '--version' is handled; it sends to standard output
       the shell's version information, then exits successfully.  '--help'  is  also  han-
       dled;  it sends to standard output a list of options that can be used when invoking
       the shell, then exits successfully.

       Option processing may be finished, allowing following arguments that start with '-'
       or  '+'  to  be  treated as normal arguments, in two ways.  Firstly, a lone '-' (or
       '+') as an argument by itself ends option processing.  Secondly, a  special  option
       '--'  (or  '+-'),  which  may  be specified on its own (which is the standard POSIX
       usage) or may be stacked with preceding options (so  '-x-'  is  equivalent  to  '-x
       --').   Options are not permitted to be stacked after '--' (so '-x-f' is an error),
       but note the GNU-style option form discussed above, where '--shwordsplit'  is  per-
       mitted and does not end option processing.

       Except  when  the  sh/ksh emulation single-letter options are in effect, the option
       '-b' (or '+b') ends option processing.  '-b' is like '--', except that further sin-
       gle-letter options can be stacked after the '-b' and will take effect as normal.

       Zsh  tries  to emulate sh or ksh when it is invoked as sh or ksh respectively; more
       precisely, it looks at the first letter of  the  name  by  which  it  was  invoked,
       excluding  any  initial 'r' (assumed to stand for 'restricted'), and if that is 's'
       or 'k' it will emulate sh or ksh.  Furthermore, if invoked as su (which happens  on
       certain  systems  when the shell is executed by the su command), the shell will try
       to find an alternative name from the SHELL environment variable and perform  emula-
       tion based on that.

       In  sh and ksh compatibility modes the following parameters are not special and not
       initialized by the shell: ARGC, argv, cdpath, fignore, fpath, HISTCHARS,  mailpath,
       MANPATH,  manpath,  path, prompt, PROMPT, PROMPT2, PROMPT3, PROMPT4, psvar, status,

       The usual zsh startup/shutdown scripts  are  not  executed.   Login  shells  source
       /etc/profile followed by $HOME/.profile.  If the ENV environment variable is set on
       invocation, $ENV is sourced after the profile scripts.  The value of  ENV  is  sub-
       jected  to  parameter  expansion,  command  substitution,  and arithmetic expansion
       before being interpreted as a pathname.   Note  that  the  PRIVILEGED  option  also
       affects the execution of startup files.

       The following options are set if the shell is invoked as sh or ksh: NO_BAD_PATTERN,
       SH_GLOB,   SH_OPTION_LETTERS,   SH_WORD_SPLIT.    Additionally   the  BSD_ECHO  and
       IGNORE_BRACES options are set if zsh is invoked as sh.  Also, the KSH_OPTION_PRINT,
       is invoked as ksh.

       When the basename of the command used to invoke zsh starts with the letter  'r'  or
       the  '-r'  command  line  option  is  supplied  at  invocation,  the  shell becomes
       restricted.  Emulation mode is determined after stripping the letter 'r'  from  the
       invocation name.  The following are disabled in restricted mode:

       ?      changing directories with the cd builtin

       ?      changing or unsetting the PATH, path, MODULE_PATH, module_path, SHELL, HIST-
              LD_AOUT_LIBRARY_PATH, LD_PRELOAD and  LD_AOUT_PRELOAD parameters

       ?      specifying command names containing /

       ?      specifying command pathnames using hash

       ?      redirecting output to files

       ?      using the exec builtin command to replace the shell with another command

       ?      using jobs -Z to overwrite the shell process' argument and environment space

       ?      using the ARGV0 parameter to override argv[0] for external commands

       ?      turning off restricted mode with set +r or unsetopt RESTRICTED

       These restrictions are enforced after processing the startup  files.   The  startup
       files  should  set  up PATH to point to a directory of commands which can be safely
       invoked in the restricted environment.  They may also add further  restrictions  by
       disabling selected builtins.

       Restricted  mode  can  also be activated any time by setting the RESTRICTED option.
       This immediately enables all the restrictions described above  even  if  the  shell
       still has not processed all startup files.

       Commands  are  first  read from /etc/zshenv; this cannot be overridden.  Subsequent
       behaviour is modified by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options;  the  former  affects  all
       startup files, while the second only affects global startup files (those shown here
       with an path starting with a /).  If one of the options is unset at any point,  any
       subsequent  startup file(s) of the corresponding type will not be read.  It is also
       possible for a file in $ZDOTDIR to re-enable GLOBAL_RCS. Both  RCS  and  GLOBAL_RCS
       are set by default.

       Commands  are then read from $ZDOTDIR/.zshenv.  If the shell is a login shell, com-
       mands are read from /etc/zprofile and then $ZDOTDIR/.zprofile.  Then, if the  shell
       is  interactive,  commands  are  read  from  /etc/zshrc  and  then $ZDOTDIR/.zshrc.
       Finally, if the shell is a login shell, /etc/zlogin and $ZDOTDIR/.zlogin are  read.

       When  a  login  shell  exits, the files $ZDOTDIR/.zlogout and then /etc/zlogout are
       read.  This happens with either an explicit exit via the exit or  logout  commands,
       or  an  implicit  exit  by  reading end-of-file from the terminal.  However, if the
       shell terminates due to exec'ing another process, the logout files  are  not  read.
       These  are also affected by the RCS and GLOBAL_RCS options.  Note also that the RCS
       option affects the saving of history files, i.e. if RCS is  unset  when  the  shell
       exits, no history file will be saved.

       If ZDOTDIR is unset, HOME is used instead.  Files listed above as being in /etc may
       be in another directory, depending on the installation.

       As /etc/zshenv is run for all instances of zsh, it is important that it be kept  as
       small as possible.  In particular, it is a good idea to put code that does not need
       to be run for every single shell behind a test of the form 'if [[ -o rcs  ]];  then
       ...' so that it will not be executed when zsh is invoked with the '-f' option.

       Any  of these files may be pre-compiled with the zcompile builtin command (see zsh-
       builtins(1)).  If a compiled file exists (named for the original file plus the .zwc
       extension)  and  it is newer than the original file, the compiled file will be used

       ${TMPPREFIX}*   (default is /tmp/zsh*)
       /etc/zlogout    (installation-specific - /etc is the default)

       sh(1), csh(1), tcsh(1), rc(1), bash(1), ksh(1), zshbuiltins(1), zshcompwid(1), zsh-
       compsys(1),  zshcompctl(1),  zshexpn(1),  zshmisc(1), zshmodules(1), zshoptions(1),
       zshparam(1), zshzle(1)

       IEEE Standard for information Technology  -  Portable  Operating  System  Interface
       (POSIX) - Part 2: Shell and Utilities, IEEE Inc, 1993, ISBN 1-55937-255-9.

zsh 4.3.14                     December 6, 2011                         ZSH(1)

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