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ZSHMODULES(1)                        General Commands Manual                        ZSHMODULES(1)

       zshmodules - zsh loadable modules

       Some  optional  parts of zsh are in modules, separate from the core of the shell.  Each of
       these modules may be linked in to the shell at build time, or can  be  dynamically  linked
       while  the shell is running if the installation supports this feature.  Modules are linked
       at runtime with the zmodload command, see zshbuiltins(1).

       The modules that are bundled with the zsh distribution are:

              Builtins for manipulating extended attributes (xattr).

              Builtins for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability (privilege) sets.

              A builtin that can clone a running shell onto another terminal.

              The compctl builtin for controlling completion.

              The basic completion code.

              Completion listing extensions.

              A module with utility builtins needed for the shell function based completion  sys-

              curses windowing commands

              Some date/time commands and parameters.

              A ZLE function duplicating EMACS' zap-to-char.

              An example of how to write a module.

              Some basic file manipulation commands as builtins.

              Interface to locale information.

              Access to external files via a special associative array.

              Standard scientific functions for use in mathematical evaluations.

              Arrange for files for new users to be installed.

              Access to internal hash tables via special associative arrays.

              Interface to the PCRE library.

              Interface to the POSIX regex library.

              A builtin that provides a timed execution facility within the shell.

              Manipulation of Unix domain sockets

              A builtin command interface to the stat system call.

              A builtin interface to various low-level system features.

              Manipulation of TCP sockets

              Interface to the termcap database.

              Interface to the terminfo database.

              A builtin FTP client.

              The Zsh Line Editor, including the bindkey and vared builtins.

              Access to internals of the Zsh Line Editor via parameters.

              A module allowing profiling for shell functions.

              A builtin for starting a command in a pseudo-terminal.

              Block and return when file descriptors are ready.

              Some utility builtins, e.g. the one for supporting configuration via styles.

       The  zsh/attr  module  is used for manipulating extended attributes.  The -h option causes
       all commands to operate on symbolic links instead of their targets.  The builtins in  this
       module are:

       zgetattr [ -h ] filename attribute [ parameter ]
              Get  the  extended attribute attribute from the specified filename. If the optional
              argument parameter is given, the attribute is set  on  that  parameter  instead  of
              being printed to stdout.

       zsetattr [ -h ] filename attribute value
              Set the extended attribute attribute on the specified filename to value.

       zdelattr [ -h ] filename attribute
              Remove the extended attribute attribute from the specified filename.

       zlistattr [ -h ] filename [ parameter ]
              List  the  extended  attributes  currently  set  on  the specified filename. If the
              optional argument parameter is given, the list of attributes is set on that parame-
              ter instead of being printed to stdout.

       zgetattr  and  zlistattr  allocate  memory  dynamically.   If  the  attribute  or  list of
       attributes grows between the allocation and the call to get them, they return 2.   On  all
       other  errors, 1 is returned.  This allows the calling function to check for this case and

       The zsh/cap module is used for manipulating POSIX.1e (POSIX.6) capability  sets.   If  the
       operating system does not support this interface, the builtins defined by this module will
       do nothing.  The builtins in this module are:

       cap [ capabilities ]
              Change the shell's process capability sets to the specified capabilities, otherwise
              display the shell's current capabilities.

       getcap filename ...
              This  is  a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.  It displays the
              capability sets on each specified filename.

       setcap capabilities filename ...
              This is a built-in implementation of the POSIX standard utility.  It sets the capa-
              bility sets on each specified filename to the specified capabilities.

       The zsh/clone module makes available one builtin command:

       clone tty
              Creates  a forked instance of the current shell, attached to the specified tty.  In
              the new shell, the PID, PPID and TTY special parameters are changed  appropriately.
              $!  is  set  to  zero  in the new shell, and to the new shell's PID in the original

              The return status of the builtin is zero in both shells if successful, and non-zero
              on error.

              The target of clone should be an unused terminal, such as an unused virtual console
              or a virtual terminal created by

              xterm -e sh -c 'trap : INT QUIT TSTP; tty; while :; do sleep 100000000; done'

              Some words of explanation are warranted about this long xterm  command  line:  when
              doing  clone  on  a  pseudo-terminal, some other session ("session" meant as a unix
              session group, or SID) is already owning the terminal. Hence the cloned zsh  cannot
              acquire the pseudo-terminal as a controlling tty. That means two things:

              the job control signals will go to the sh-started-by-xterm process
                    group (that's why we disable INT QUIT and TSTP with trap; otherwise
                    the while loop could get suspended or killed)

              the cloned shell will have job control disabled, and the job
                    control keys (control-C, control-\ and control-Z) will not work.

              This does not apply when cloning to an unused vc.

              Cloning  to  a  used (and unprepared) terminal will result in two processes reading
              simultaneously from the same terminal, with input bytes going  randomly  to  either

              clone is mostly useful as a shell built-in replacement for openvt.

       The  zsh/compctl  module makes available two builtin commands. compctl, is the old, depre-
       cated way to control completions for ZLE.  See zshcompctl(1).  The other builtin  command,
       compcall can be used in user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The  zsh/complete  module  makes  available  several builtin commands which can be used in
       user-defined completion widgets, see zshcompwid(1).

       The zsh/complist module offers three extensions to completion  listings:  the  ability  to
       highlight matches in such a list, the ability to scroll through long lists and a different
       style of menu completion.

   Colored completion listings
       Whenever one of the parameters ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS is set and the zsh/complist  mod-
       ule  is loaded or linked into the shell, completion lists will be colored.  Note, however,
       that complist will not automatically be loaded if it is not linked in:   on  systems  with
       dynamic loading, `zmodload zsh/complist' is required.

       The  parameters  ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS describe how matches are highlighted.  To turn
       on highlighting an empty value suffices, in which case all the default values given  below
       will  be used.  The format of the value of these parameters is the same as used by the GNU
       version of  the  ls  command:  a  colon-separated  list  of  specifications  of  the  form
       `name=value'.   The  name  may be one of the following strings, most of which specify file
       types for which the value will be used.  The strings and their default values are:

       no 0   for normal text (i.e. when displaying something other than a matched file)

       fi 0   for regular files

       di 32  for directories

       ln 36  for symbolic links.  If this has the  special  value  target,  symbolic  links  are
              dereferenced and the target file used to determine the display format.

       pi 31  for named pipes (FIFOs)

       so 33  for sockets

       bd 44;37
              for block devices

       cd 44;37
              for character devices

       or none
              for a symlink to nonexistent file (default is the value defined for ln)

       mi none
              for  a  non-existent  file (default is the value defined for fi); this code is cur-
              rently not used

       su 37;41
              for files with setuid bit set

       sg 30;43
              for files with setgid bit set

       tw 30;42
              for world writable directories with sticky bit set

       ow 34;43
              for world writable directories without sticky bit set

       sa none
              for files with an associated suffix alias; this is only tested after specific  suf-
              fixes, as described below

       st 37;44
              for directories with sticky bit set but not world writable

       ex 35  for executable files

       lc \e[ for the left code (see below)

       rc m   for the right code

       tc 0   for  the  character  indicating  the  file  type   printed  after  filenames if the
              LIST_TYPES option is set

       sp 0   for the spaces printed after matches to align the next column

       ec none
              for the end code

       Apart from these strings, the name may also be an asterisk (`*') followed by  any  string.
       The  value  given  for  such  a string will be used for all files whose name ends with the
       string.  The  name  may  also  be  an  equals  sign  (`=')  followed  by  a  pattern;  the
       EXTENDED_GLOB option will be turned on for evaluation of the pattern.  The value given for
       this pattern will be used for all matches (not just filenames) whose  display  string  are
       matched  by the pattern.  Definitions for the form with the leading equal sign take prece-
       dence over the values defined for file types, which in turn take precedence over the  form
       with the leading asterisk (file extensions).

       The leading-equals form also allows different parts of the displayed strings to be colored
       differently.  For this, the pattern has to use the  `(#b)'  globbing  flag  and  pairs  of
       parentheses  surrounding  the parts of the strings that are to be colored differently.  In
       this case the value may consist of more than one color code separated by equal signs.  The
       first code will be used for all parts for which no explicit code is specified and the fol-
       lowing codes will be used for the parts matched by the sub-patterns in  parentheses.   For
       example,  the specification `=(#b)(?)*(?)=0=3=7' will be used for all matches which are at
       least two characters long and will use the code `3' for the first character, `7'  for  the
       last character and `0' for the rest.

       All  three  forms  of name may be preceded by a pattern in parentheses.  If this is given,
       the value will be used only for matches in groups whose names are matched by  the  pattern
       given  in the parentheses.  For example, `(g*)m*=43' highlights all matches beginning with
       `m' in groups whose names  begin with `g' using the color code `43'.  In case of the `lc',
       `rc', and `ec' codes, the group pattern is ignored.

       Note  also  that all patterns are tried in the order in which they appear in the parameter
       value until the first one matches which is then used.

       When printing a match, the code prints the value of lc, the value for the file-type or the
       last  matching  specification  with  a `*', the value of rc, the string to display for the
       match itself, and then the value of ec if that is defined or the values of lc, no, and  rc
       if ec is not defined.

       The  default values are ISO 6429 (ANSI) compliant and can be used on vt100 compatible ter-
       minals such as xterms.  On monochrome terminals the default values will  have  no  visible
       effect.   The  colors function from the contribution can be used to get associative arrays
       containing the codes for ANSI terminals (see the  section  `Other  Functions'  in  zshcon-
       trib(1)).  For example, after loading colors, one could use `$colors[red]' to get the code
       for foreground color red and `$colors[bg-green]' for the code for background color green.

       If the completion system invoked by compinit is used, these parameters should not  be  set
       directly  because  the system controls them itself.  Instead, the list-colors style should
       be used (see the section `Completion System Configuration' in zshcompsys(1)).

   Scrolling in completion listings
       To enable scrolling through a completion list, the LISTPROMPT parameter must be set.   Its
       value  will  be  used  as  the prompt; if it is the empty string, a default prompt will be
       used.  The value may contain escapes of the form `%x'.   It  supports  the  escapes  `%B',
       `%b',  `%S',  `%s',  `%U',  `%u',  `%F', `%f', `%K', `%k' and `%{...%}' used also in shell
       prompts as well as three pairs of additional sequences: a `%l' or `%L' is replaced by  the
       number  of the last line shown and the total number of lines in the form `number/total'; a
       `%m' or `%M' is replaced with the number of the last match shown and the total  number  of
       matches;  and  `%p'  or `%P' is replaced with `Top', `Bottom' or the position of the first
       line shown in percent of the total number of lines, respectively.  In each of these  cases
       the  form  with the uppercase letter will be replaced with a string of fixed width, padded
       to the right with spaces, while the lowercase form will not be padded.

       If the parameter LISTPROMPT is set, the completion code will not ask if the list should be
       shown.   Instead  it  immediately  starts  displaying  the  list, stopping after the first
       screenful, showing the prompt at the bottom, waiting  for  a  keypress  after  temporarily
       switching  to  the  listscroll  keymap.   Some of the zle functions have a special meaning
       while scrolling lists:

              stops listing discarding the key pressed

       accept-line, down-history, down-line-or-history
       down-line-or-search, vi-down-line-or-history
              scrolls forward one line

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-complete-or-expand
              scrolls forward one screenful

              stop listing but take no other action

       Every other character stops listing and immediately processes the key as usual.   Any  key
       that  is not bound in the listscroll keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is looked up
       in the keymap currently selected.

       As for the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters, LISTPROMPT should not  be  set  directly
       when  using  the  shell  function based completion system.  Instead, the list-prompt style
       should be used.

   Menu selection
       The zsh/complist module also offers an alternative style of selecting matches from a list,
       called  menu  selection,  which  can  be used if the shell is set up to return to the last
       prompt after showing a completion  list  (see  the  ALWAYS_LAST_PROMPT  option  in  zshop-

       Menu  selection  can be invoked directly by the widget menu-select defined by this module.
       This is a standard ZLE widget that can be bound to a key in the usual way as described  in

       Alternatively,  the parameter MENUSELECT can be set to an integer, which gives the minimum
       number of matches that must be present before menu selection is automatically  turned  on.
       This second method requires that menu completion be started, either directly from a widget
       such as menu-complete, or due to one of the options MENU_COMPLETE or AUTO_MENU being  set.
       If  MENUSELECT  is set, but is 0, 1 or empty, menu selection will always be started during
       an ambiguous menu completion.

       When using the completion system based on shell functions, the MENUSELECT parameter should
       not  be  used  (like the ZLS_COLORS and ZLS_COLOURS parameters described above).  Instead,
       the menu style should be used with the select=... keyword.

       After menu selection is started, the matches will be listed. If  there  are  more  matches
       than fit on the screen, only the first screenful is shown.  The matches to insert into the
       command line can be selected from this list.  In the list one match is  highlighted  using
       the value for ma from the ZLS_COLORS or ZLS_COLOURS parameter.  The default value for this
       is `7' which forces the selected  match  to  be  highlighted  using  standout  mode  on  a
       vt100-compatible  terminal.  If neither ZLS_COLORS nor ZLS_COLOURS is set, the same termi-
       nal control sequence as for the `%S' escape in prompts is used.

       If there are more matches than fit on the screen and the parameter MENUPROMPT is set,  its
       value  will  be  shown  below the matches.  It supports the same escape sequences as LIST-
       PROMPT, but the number of the match or line shown will be that of the one where  the  mark
       is placed.  If its value is the empty string, a default prompt will be used.

       The  MENUSCROLL parameter can be used to specify how the list is scrolled.  If the parame-
       ter is unset, this is done line by line, if it is set to `0' (zero), the list will  scroll
       half  the number of lines of the screen.  If the value is positive, it gives the number of
       lines to scroll and if it is negative, the list will be scrolled the number  of  lines  of
       the screen minus the (absolute) value.

       As  for  the  ZLS_COLORS,  ZLS_COLOURS  and  LISTPROMPT parameters, neither MENUPROMPT nor
       MENUSCROLL should be set directly when using the shell function based  completion  system.
       Instead, the select-prompt and select-scroll styles should be used.

       The  completion  code sometimes decides not to show all of the matches in the list.  These
       hidden matches are either matches for which  the  completion  function  which  added  them
       explicitly  requested that they not appear in the list (using the -n option of the compadd
       builtin command) or they are matches which duplicate a string already in the list (because
       they differ only in things like prefixes or suffixes that are not displayed).  In the list
       used for menu selection, however, even these matches are shown so that it is  possible  to
       select  them.   To highlight such matches the hi and du capabilities in the ZLS_COLORS and
       ZLS_COLOURS parameters are supported for hidden matches of  the  first  and  second  kind,

       Selecting  matches  is  done  by  moving the mark around using the zle movement functions.
       When not all matches can be shown on the screen at the same time, the list will scroll  up
       and  down  when crossing the top or bottom line.  The following zle functions have special
       meaning during menu selection.  Note that the  following  always  perform  the  same  task
       within  the menu selection map and cannot be replaced by user defined widgets, nor can the
       set of functions be extended:

       accept-line, accept-search
              accept the current match and leave menu selection (but do  not  cause  the  command
              line to be accepted)

              leaves menu selection and restores the previous contents of the command line

       redisplay, clear-screen
              execute their normal function without leaving menu selection

       accept-and-hold, accept-and-menu-complete
              accept  the  currently inserted match and continue selection allowing to select the
              next match to insert into the line

              accepts the current match and then tries completion with menu selection again;   in
              the  case of files this allows one to select a directory and immediately attempt to
              complete files in it;  if there are no matches, a message is shown and one can  use
              undo  to  go  back to completion on the previous level, every other key leaves menu
              selection (including the other zle functions which  are  otherwise  special  during
              menu selection)

       undo   removes  matches  inserted  during the menu selection by one of the three functions

       down-history, down-line-or-history
       vi-down-line-or-history,  down-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line down

       up-history, up-line-or-history
       vi-up-line-or-history, up-line-or-search
              moves the mark one line up

       forward-char, vi-forward-char
              moves the mark one column right

       backward-char, vi-backward-char
              moves the mark one column left

       forward-word, vi-forward-word
       vi-forward-word-end, emacs-forward-word
              moves the mark one screenful down

       backward-word, vi-backward-word, emacs-backward-word
              moves the mark one screenful up

       vi-forward-blank-word, vi-forward-blank-word-end
              moves the mark to the first line of the next group of matches

              moves the mark to the last line of the previous group of matches

              moves the mark to the first line

              moves the mark to the last line

       beginning-of-buffer-or-history, beginning-of-line
       beginning-of-line-hist, vi-beginning-of-line
              moves the mark to the leftmost column

       end-of-buffer-or-history, end-of-line
       end-of-line-hist, vi-end-of-line
              moves the mark to the rightmost column

       complete-word, menu-complete, expand-or-complete
       expand-or-complete-prefix, menu-expand-or-complete
              moves the mark to the next match

              moves the mark to the previous match

              this toggles between normal and interactive mode;  in  interactive  mode  the  keys
              bound to self-insert and self-insert-unmeta insert into the command line as in nor-
              mal editing mode but without leaving menu selection; after each  character  comple-
              tion  is tried again and the list changes to contain only the new matches; the com-
              pletion widgets make the longest unambiguous string be inserted in the command line
              and undo and backward-delete-char go back to the previous set of matches

              this  starts  incremental  searches  in  the list of completions displayed; in this
              mode, accept-line only leaves incremental search, going back  to  the  normal  menu
              selection mode

       All  movement functions wrap around at the edges; any other zle function not listed leaves
       menu selection and executes that function.  It is possible to make widgets  in  the  above
       list  do  the  same by using the form of the widget with a `.' in front.  For example, the
       widget `.accept-line' has the effect of leaving menu selection and  accepting  the  entire
       command line.

       During  this selection the widget uses the keymap menuselect.  Any key that is not defined
       in this keymap or that is bound to undefined-key is looked  up  in  the  keymap  currently
       selected.   This  is  used  to  ensure  that the most important keys used during selection
       (namely the cursor keys, return, and TAB) have sensible defaults.  However,  keys  in  the
       menuselect  keymap can be modified directly using the bindkey builtin command (see zshmod-
       ules(1)). For example, to make the return key leave menu selection without  accepting  the
       match currently selected one could call

              bindkey -M menuselect '^M' send-break

       after loading the zsh/complist module.

       The zsh/computil module adds several builtin commands that are used by some of the comple-
       tion functions in the completion system based on shell  functions  (see  zshcompsys(1)  ).
       Except  for compquote these builtin commands are very specialised and thus not very inter-
       esting when writing your own completion functions.  In  summary,  these  builtin  commands

              This  is  used by the _arguments function to do the argument and command line pars-
              ing.  Like compdescribe it has an option -i to do the parsing and  initialize  some
              internal  state  and various options to access the state information to decide what
              should be completed.

              This is used by the _describe function to build the displays for the matches and to
              get the strings to add as matches with their options.  On the first call one of the
              options -i or -I should be supplied as the first argument.  In the first case, dis-
              play  strings  without  the descriptions will be generated, in the second case, the
              string used to separate the matches from their descriptions must be  given  as  the
              second  argument  and the descriptions (if any) will be shown.  All other arguments
              are like the definition arguments to _describe itself.

              Once compdescribe has been called with either the -i or the -I option,  it  can  be
              repeatedly called with the -g option and the names of five arrays as its arguments.
              This will step through the different sets of matches and store the options  in  the
              first  array, the strings with descriptions in the second, the matches for these in
              the third, the strings without descriptions in the fourth, and the matches for them
              in  the  fifth  array.   These  are  then directly given to compadd to register the
              matches with the completion code.

              Used by the _path_files function to optimize complex recursive filename  generation
              (globbing).   It  does three things.  With the -p and -P options it builds the glob
              patterns to use, including the paths already handled and  trying  to  optimize  the
              patterns with respect to the prefix and suffix from the line and the match specifi-
              cation currently used.  The -i option does the directory tests for the  ignore-par-
              ents style and the -r option tests if a component for some of the matches are equal
              to the string on the line and removes all other matches if that is true.

              Used by the _tags function to implement the internals  of  the  group-order  style.
              This  only takes its arguments as names of completion groups and creates the groups
              for it (all six types: sorted and unsorted, both without removing duplicates,  with
              removing all duplicates and with removing consecutive duplicates).

       compquote [ -p ] names ...
              There  may  be  reasons  to write completion functions that have to add the matches
              using the -Q option to compadd and perform quoting themselves.  Instead  of  inter-
              preting the first character of the all_quotes key of the compstate special associa-
              tion and using the q flag for parameter expansions, one can use this  builtin  com-
              mand.   The arguments are the names of scalar or array parameters and the values of
              these parameters are quoted as needed for the innermost quoting level.  If  the  -p
              option  is  given,  quoting is done as if there is some prefix before the values of
              the parameters, so that a leading equal sign will not be quoted.

              The return status is non-zero in case of an error and zero otherwise.

              These implement the internals of the tags mechanism.

              Like comparguments, but for the _values function.

       The zsh/curses module makes available one builtin command and various parameters.

       zcurses init
       zcurses end
       zcurses addwin targetwin nlines ncols begin_y begin_x [ parentwin ]
       zcurses delwin targetwin
       zcurses refresh [ targetwin ... ]
       zcurses touch targetwin ...
       zcurses move targetwin new_y new_x
       zcurses clear targetwin [ redraw | eol | bot ]
       zcurses position targetwin array
       zcurses char targetwin character
       zcurses string targetwin string
       zcurses border targetwin border
       zcurses attr targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col ] [...]
       zcurses bg targetwin [ {+/-}attribute | fg_col/bg_col | @char ] [...]
       zcurses scroll targetwin [ on | off | {+/-}lines ]
       zcurses input targetwin [ param [ kparam [ mparam ] ] ]
       zcurses mouse [ delay num | {+/-}motion ]
       zcurses timeout targetwin intval
       zcurses querychar targetwin [ param ]
              Manipulate curses windows.  All  uses  of  this  command  should  be  bracketed  by
              `zcurses  init'  to initialise use of curses, and `zcurses end' to end it; omitting
              `zcurses end' can cause the terminal to be in an unwanted state.

              The subcommand addwin creates a window with nlines lines and  ncols  columns.   Its
              upper  left  corner will be placed at row begin_y and column begin_x of the screen.
              targetwin is a string and refers to the name of a  window  that  is  not  currently
              assigned.   Note  in  particular  the curses convention that vertical values appear
              before horizontal values.

              If addwin is given an existing window as the final argument, the new window is cre-
              ated as a subwindow of parentwin.  This differs from an ordinary new window in that
              the memory of the window contents is shared with the parent's  memory.   Subwindows
              must  be  deleted before their parent.  Note that the coordinates of subwindows are
              relative to the screen, not the parent, as with other windows.

              Use the subcommand delwin to delete a window created with addwin.   Note  that  end
              does not implicitly delete windows, and that delwin does not erase the screen image
              of the window.

              The window corresponding to the full visible screen is  called  stdscr;  it  always
              exists after `zcurses init' and cannot be delete with delwin.

              The subcommand refresh will refresh window targetwin; this is necessary to make any
              pending changes (such as characters you have prepared for output with char) visible
              on  the  screen.   refresh  without an argument causes the screen to be cleared and
              redrawn.  If multiple windows are given, the screen is updated once at the end.

              The subcommand touch marks the targetwins listed as  changed.   This  is  necessary
              before  refreshing  windows  if a window that was in front of another window (which
              may be stdscr) is deleted.

              The subcommand move moves the cursor position in targetwin to new coordinates new_y
              and  new_x.  Note that the subcommand string (but not the subcommand char) advances
              the cursor position over the characters added.

              The subcommand clear erases the contents of targetwin.  One (and no more than  one)
              of  three  options  may be specified.  With the option redraw, in addition the next
              refresh of targetwin will cause the screen to be cleared and repainted.   With  the
              option  eol, targetwin is only cleared to the end of the current cursor line.  With
              the option bot, targetwin is cleared to the end of the window,  i.e  everything  to
              the right and below the cursor is cleared.

              The subcommand position writes various positions associated with targetwin into the
              array named array.  These are, in order:

              The y and x coordinates of the cursor relative to the top left
                     of targetwin

              The y and x coordinates of the top left of targetwin on the

              The size of targetwin in y and x dimensions.

              Outputting characters and strings are achieved by char and string respectively.

              To draw a border around window targetwin, use border.  Note that the border is  not
              subsequently  handled  specially:   in  other  words, the border is simply a set of
              characters output at the edge of the window.  Hence  it  can  be  overwritten,  can
              scroll off the window, etc.

              The  subcommand attr will set targetwin's attributes or foreground/background color
              pair for any successive character output.  Each attribute given on the line may  be
              prepended  by  a  +  to set or a - to unset that attribute; + is assumed if absent.
              The attributes supported are blink, bold, dim, reverse, standout, and underline.

              Each fg_col/bg_col attribute (to be read as `fg_col on bg_col') sets the foreground
              and  background  color for character output.  The color default is sometimes avail-
              able (in particular if the library is ncurses), specifying the foreground or  back-
              ground  color  with  which the terminal started.  The color pair default/default is
              always available.

              bg overrides the color and other attributes of all characters in the  window.   Its
              usual  use is to set the background initially, but it will overwrite the attributes
              of any characters at the time when it is called.   In  addition  to  the  arguments
              allowed with attr, an argument @char specifies a character to be shown in otherwise
              blank areas of the window.  Owing to limitations of curses this cannot be a  multi-
              byte character (use of ASCII characters only is recommended).  As the specified set
              of attributes override the existing background, turning attributes off in the argu-
              ments is not useful, though this does not cause an error.

              The subcommand scroll can be used with on or off to enabled or disable scrolling of
              a window when the cursor would otherwise move below the window  due  to  typing  or
              output.  It can also be used with a positive or negative integer to scroll the win-
              dow up or down the given number of lines without changing the current cursor  posi-
              tion  (which  therefore  appears  to move in the opposite direction relative to the
              window).  In the second case, if scrolling is off it is temporarily  turned  on  to
              allow the window to be scrolled.

              The  subcommand  input  reads a single character from the window without echoing it
              back.  If param is supplied the character is assigned to the parameter param,  else
              it is assigned to the parameter REPLY.

              If  both  param and kparam are supplied, the key is read in `keypad' mode.  In this
              mode special keys such as function keys and arrow keys return the name of  the  key
              in  the  parameter kparam.  The key names are the macros defined in the curses.h or
              ncurses.h with the prefix `KEY_' removed; see also the description of the parameter
              zcurses_keycodes below.  Other keys cause a value to be set in param as before.  On
              a successful return only one of param or kparam contains a  non-empty  string;  the
              other is set to an empty string.

              If  mparam  is  also  supplied, input attempts to handle mouse input.  This is only
              available with the ncurses library; mouse handling can be detected by checking  for
              the exit status of `zcurses mouse' with no arguments.  If a mouse button is clicked
              (or double- or triple-clicked, or pressed or released  with  a  configurable  delay
              from being clicked) then kparam is set to the string MOUSE, and mparam is set to an
              array consisting of the following elements:
              -      An identifier to discriminate different input devices; this is  only  rarely
              -      The  x,  y and z coordinates of the mouse click relative to the full screen,
                     as three elements in that order (i.e. the y coordinate is, unusually,  after
                     the  x  coordinate).   The  z coordinate is only available for a few unusual
                     input devices and is otherwise set to zero.
              -      Any events that occurred as separate items; usually there will be just  one.
                     An   event   consists  of  PRESSED,  RELEASED,  CLICKED,  DOUBLE_CLICKED  or
                     TRIPLE_CLICKED followed immediately (in the same element) by the  number  of
                     the button.
              -      If the shift key was pressed, the string SHIFT.
              -      If the control key was pressed, the string CTRL.
              -      If the alt key was pressed, the string ALT.

              Not  all  mouse  events may be passed through to the terminal window; most terminal
              emulators handle some mouse  events  themselves.   Note  that  the  ncurses  manual
              implies  that  using input both with and without mouse handling may cause the mouse
              cursor to appear and disappear.

              The subcommand mouse can be used to configure the use of the mouse.   There  is  no
              window  argument;  mouse  options  are  global.   `zcurses mouse' with no arguments
              returns status 0 if mouse handling is possible, else status 1.  Otherwise, the pos-
              sible  arguments  (which  may be combined on the same command line) are as follows.
              delay num sets the maximum delay in milliseconds between press and  release  events
              to be considered as a click; the value 0 disables click resolution, and the default
              is one sixth of a second.  motion proceeded by an optional `+' (the default)  or  -
              turns  on  or  off  reporting  of  mouse  motion in addition to clicks, presses and
              releases, which are always reported.  However, it appears reports for mouse  motion
              are not currently implemented.

              The subcommand timeout specifies a timeout value for input from targetwin.  If int-
              val is negative, `zcurses input' waits indefinitely for a character  to  be  typed;
              this  is  the  default.  If intval is zero, `zcurses input' returns immediately; if
              there is typeahead it is returned, else no input is done and status 1 is  returned.
              If  intval  is positive, `zcurses input' waits intval milliseconds for input and if
              there is none at the end of that period returns status 1.

              The subcommand querychar queries the character at the current cursor position.  The
              return  values  are  stored in the array named param if supplied, else in the array
              reply.  The first value is the character (which may be a multibyte character if the
              system  supports  them);  the  second  is the color pair in the usual fg_col/bg_col
              notation, or 0 if color is not supported.  Any attributes  other  than  color  that
              apply  to the character, as set with the subcommand attr, appear as additional ele-

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of colors the terminal supports.  This  value
              is  initialised  by  the  curses  library and is not available until the first time
              zcurses init is run.

              Readonly integer.  The maximum number of color  pairs  fg_col/bg_col  that  may  be
              defined in `zcurses attr' commands; note this limit applies to all color pairs that
              have been used whether or not they are currently active.  This value is initialised
              by  the  curses  library  and is not available until the first time zcurses init is

              Readonly array.  The attributes supported by zsh/curses; available as soon  as  the
              module is loaded.

              Readonly  array.  The colors supported by zsh/curses; available as soon as the mod-
              ule is loaded.

              Readonly array.  The values that may be returned in the second  parameter  supplied
              to  `zcurses  input'  in  the order in which they are defined internally by curses.
              Not all function keys are listed, only F0; curses reserves space for F0 up to F63.

              Readonly array.  The current list of windows, i.e. all windows that have been  cre-
              ated with `zcurses addwin' and not removed with `zcurses delwin'.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available one builtin command:

       strftime [ -s scalar ] format epochtime
       strftime -r [ -q ] [ -s scalar ] format timestring
              Output the date denoted by epochtime in the format specified.

              With  the  option  -r  (reverse),  use  the format format to parse the input string
              timestring and output the number of seconds since  the  epoch  at  which  the  time
              occurred.  If no timezone is parsed, the current timezone is used; other parameters
              are set to zero if not present.  If timestring does not match  format  the  command
              returns  status 1; it will additionally print an error message unless the option -q
              (quiet) is  given.   If  timestring  matches  format  but  not  all  characters  in
              timestring  were used, the conversion succeeds; however, a warning is issued unless
              the option -q is given.  The matching is implemented by the system  function  strp-
              time;  see  strptime(3).   This means that zsh format extensions are not available,
              however for reverse lookup they are not required.  If the function  is  not  imple-
              mented, the command returns status 2 and (unless -q is given) prints a message.

              If  -s  scalar  is given, assign the date string (or epoch time in seconds if -r is
              given) to scalar instead of printing it.

       The zsh/datetime module makes available several parameters; all are readonly:

              A floating point value representing the number of seconds  since  the  epoch.   The
              notional  accuracy  is to nanoseconds if the clock_gettime call is available and to
              microseconds otherwise, but in practice the  range  of  double  precision  floating
              point and shell scheduling latencies may be significant effects.

              An integer value representing the number of seconds since the epoch.

              An  array  value containing the number of seconds since the epoch in the first ele-
              ment and the remainder of the time since the epoch in  nanoseconds  in  the  second
              element.   To  ensure the two elements are consistent the array should be copied or
              otherwise referenced as a single substitution before the values are used.  The fol-
              lowing idiom may be used:

                     for secs nsecs in $epochtime; do

       The zsh/deltochar module makes available two ZLE functions:

              Read  a  character from the keyboard, and delete from the cursor position up to and
              including the next (or, with repeat count n, the nth) instance of  that  character.
              Negative repeat counts mean delete backwards.

              This behaves like delete-to-char, except that the final occurrence of the character
              itself is not deleted.

       The zsh/example module makes available one builtin command:

       example [ -flags ] [ args ... ]
              Displays the flags and arguments it is invoked with.

       The purpose of the module is to serve as an example of how to write a module.

       The zsh/files module makes  available  some  common  commands  for  file  manipulation  as
       builtins;  these  commands  are  probably not needed for many normal situations but can be
       useful in emergency recovery situations with constrained resources.  The commands  do  not
       implement all features now required by relevant standards committees.

       For  all  commands,  a  variant  beginning zf_ is also available and loaded automatically.
       Using the features capability of zmodload will let you load only those names you want.

       The commands loaded by default are:

       chgrp [ -hRs ] group filename ...
              Changes group of files specified.  This is equivalent to  chown  with  a  user-spec
              argument of `:group'.

       chown [ -hRs ] user-spec filename ...
              Changes ownership and group of files specified.

              The user-spec can be in four forms:

              user   change owner to user; do not change group
              user:: change owner to user; do not change group
              user:  change owner to user; change group to user's primary group
                     change owner to user; change group to group
              :group do not change owner; change group to group

              In  each  case,  the  `:' may instead be a `.'.  The rule is that if there is a `:'
              then the separator is `:', otherwise if there is a `.' then the separator  is  `.',
              otherwise there is no separator.

              Each  of user and group may be either a username (or group name, as appropriate) or
              a decimal user ID (group ID).  Interpretation as a name takes precedence, if  there
              is an all-numeric username (or group name).

              If  the  target is a symbolic link, the -h option causes chown to set the ownership
              of the link instead of its target.

              The -R option causes chown to recursively descend into  directories,  changing  the
              ownership  of all files in the directory after changing the ownership of the direc-
              tory itself.

              The -s option is a zsh extension to chown functionality.  It enables  paranoid  be-
              haviour,  intended  to avoid security problems involving a chown being tricked into
              affecting files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse  to  follow  symbolic
              links,  so  that  (for  example) ``chown luser /tmp/foo/passwd'' can't accidentally
              chown /etc/passwd if /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.   It  will  also  check
              where  it  is after leaving directories, so that a recursive chown of a deep direc-
              tory tree can't end up recursively chowning /usr as a result of  directories  being
              moved up the tree.

       ln [ -dfhins ] filename dest
       ln [ -dfhins ] filename ... dir
              Creates  hard (or, with -s, symbolic) links.  In the first form, the specified des-
              tination is created, as a link to the specified filename.  In the second form, each
              of the filenames is taken in turn, and linked to a pathname in the specified direc-
              tory that has the same last pathname component.

              Normally, ln will not attempt to create hard links to directories.  This check  can
              be overridden using the -d option.  Typically only the super-user can actually suc-
              ceed in creating hard links to directories.  This does not apply to symbolic  links
              in any case.

              By  default,  existing files cannot be replaced by links.  The -i option causes the
              user to be queried about replacing existing files.  The -f option  causes  existing
              files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              The  -h  and  -n options are identical and both exist for compatibility; either one
              indicates that if the target is a symlink then it should not be dereferenced.  Typ-
              ically this is used in combination with -sf so that if an existing link points to a
              directory then it will be removed, instead of followed.  If  this  option  is  used
              with  multiple  filenames and the target is a symbolic link pointing to a directory
              then the result is an error.

       mkdir [ -p ] [ -m mode ] dir ...
              Creates directories.  With the -p option, non-existing parent directories are first
              created  if  necessary,  and  there  will  be no complaint if the directory already
              exists.  The -m option can be used to specify (in octal) a set of file  permissions
              for  the created directories, otherwise mode 777 modified by the current umask (see
              umask(2)) is used.

       mv [ -fi ] filename dest
       mv [ -fi ] filename ... dir
              Moves files.  In the first form, the specified filename is moved to  the  specified
              destination.  In the second form, each of the filenames is taken in turn, and moved
              to a pathname in the specified directory that has the same last pathname component.

              By default, the user will be queried before replacing any file that the user cannot
              write  to,  but  writable files will be silently removed.  The -i option causes the
              user to be queried about replacing any existing files.  The -f  option  causes  any
              existing files to be silently deleted, without querying.  -f takes precedence.

              Note  that  this mv will not move files across devices.  Historical versions of mv,
              when actual renaming is impossible, fall back on copying  and  removing  files;  if
              this  behaviour  is  desired,  use cp and rm manually.  This may change in a future

       rm [ -dfirs ] filename ...
              Removes files and directories specified.

              Normally, rm will not remove directories (except  with  the  -r  option).   The  -d
              option  causes rm to try removing directories with unlink (see unlink(2)), the same
              method used for files.  Typically only  the  super-user  can  actually  succeed  in
              unlinking directories in this way.  -d takes precedence over -r.

              By  default, the user will be queried before removing any file that the user cannot
              write to, but writable files will be silently removed.  The -i  option  causes  the
              user  to  be  queried  about  removing any files.  The -f option causes files to be
              silently deleted, without querying, and suppresses all error indications.  -f takes

              The -r option causes rm to recursively descend into directories, deleting all files
              in the directory before removing the directory with  the  rmdir  system  call  (see

              The  -s  option is a zsh extension to rm functionality.  It enables paranoid behav-
              iour, intended to avoid common security problems  involving  a  root-run  rm  being
              tricked into removing files other than the ones intended.  It will refuse to follow
              symbolic links, so that (for example)  ``rm  /tmp/foo/passwd''  can't  accidentally
              remove  /etc/passwd  if  /tmp/foo happens to be a link to /etc.  It will also check
              where it is after leaving directories, so that a recursive removal of a deep direc-
              tory  tree  can't end up recursively removing /usr as a result of directories being
              moved up the tree.

       rmdir dir ...
              Removes empty directories specified.

       sync   Calls the system call of the same name (see sync(2)), which flushes  dirty  buffers
              to disk.  It might return before the I/O has actually been completed.

       The zsh/langinfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps langinfo elements to their values.

              Your implementation may support a number of the following keys:

              ABDAY_{1..7}, DAY_{1..7}, ABMON_{1..12}, MON_{1..12}, T_FMT_AMPM,  AM_STR,  PM_STR,

       The zsh/mapfile module provides one special associative array parameter of the same name.

              This associative array takes as keys the names of files; the resulting value is the
              content of the file.  The value is treated identically to  any  other  text  coming
              from  a  parameter.   The  value may also be assigned to, in which case the file in
              question is written (whether or not it originally existed); or an  element  may  be
              unset,  which  will  delete  the  file  in  question.   For  example,  `vared  map-
              file[myfile]' works as expected, editing the file `myfile'.

              When the array is accessed as a whole, the keys are the names of files in the  cur-
              rent directory, and the values are empty (to save a huge overhead in memory).  Thus
              ${(k)mapfile} has the same affect as the glob operator *(D), since files  beginning
              with  a  dot  are  not  special.   Care  must  be taken with expressions such as rm
              ${(k)mapfile}, which will delete every file in the current  directory  without  the
              usual `rm *' test.

              The parameter mapfile may be made read-only; in that case, files referenced may not
              be written or deleted.

              A file may conveniently be read into an array as one line per element with the form
              `array=("${(f)mapfile[filename]}")'.   The  double  quotes are necessary to prevent
              empty lines from being removed.

       Although reading and writing of the file in question is efficiently handled, zsh's  inter-
       nal  memory  management  may be arbitrarily baroque; however, mapfile is usually very much
       more efficient than anything involving a loop.  Note in particular that the whole contents
       of  the  file  will  always  reside  physically in memory when accessed (possibly multiple
       times, due to standard parameter substitution operations).  In particular, this means han-
       dling of sufficiently long files (greater than the machine's swap space, or than the range
       of the pointer type) will be incorrect.

       No errors are printed or flagged for non-existent, unreadable, or unwritable files, as the
       parameter mechanism is too low in the shell execution hierarchy to make this convenient.

       It  is  unfortunate  that the mechanism for loading modules does not yet allow the user to
       specify the name of the shell parameter to be given the special behaviour.

       The zsh/mathfunc module provides standard mathematical functions for use  when  evaluating
       mathematical formulae.  The syntax agrees with normal C and FORTRAN conventions, for exam-

              (( f = sin(0.3) ))

       assigns the sine of 0.3 to the parameter f.

       Most functions take floating point arguments and return a floating point value.   However,
       any  necessary  conversions from or to integer type will be performed automatically by the
       shell.  Apart from atan with a second argument and the abs, int and float  functions,  all
       functions behave as noted in the manual page for the corresponding C function, except that
       any arguments out of range for the function in question will be detected by the shell  and
       an error reported.

       The  following  functions take a single floating point argument: acos, acosh, asin, asinh,
       atan, atanh, cbrt, ceil, cos, cosh, erf, erfc, exp, expm1, fabs,  floor,  gamma,  j0,  j1,
       lgamma,  log,  log10,  log1p, logb, sin, sinh, sqrt, tan, tanh, y0, y1.  The atan function
       can optionally take a second argument, in which case it behaves like the C function atan2.
       The ilogb function takes a single floating point argument, but returns an integer.

       The  function  signgam takes no arguments, and returns an integer, which is the C variable
       of the same name, as described in gamma(3).  Note that it is therefore only useful immedi-
       ately  after  a  call to gamma or lgamma.  Note also that `signgam(RPAR' and `signgam' are
       distinct expressions.

       The following  functions  take  two  floating  point  arguments:  copysign,  fmod,  hypot,

       The following take an integer first argument and a floating point second argument: jn, yn.

       The  following take a floating point first argument and an integer second argument: ldexp,

       The function abs does not convert the type of its single argument; it returns the absolute
       value  of  either a floating point number or an integer.  The functions float and int con-
       vert their arguments into a floating point or integer value (by truncation) respectively.

       Note that the C pow function is available in ordinary math evaluation as the `**' operator
       and is not provided here.

       The  function  rand48  is available if your system's mathematical library has the function
       erand48(3).  It returns a pseudo-random floating point number between 0 and 1.  It takes a
       single string optional argument.

       If  the  argument  is not present, the random number seed is initialised by three calls to
       the rand(3) function --- this produces the same random numbers as the next three values of

       If the argument is present, it gives the name of a scalar parameter where the current ran-
       dom number seed will be stored.  On the first call, the value must contain at least twelve
       hexadecimal  digits  (the  remainder  of  the string is ignored), or the seed will be ini-
       tialised in the same manner as for a call to rand48 with no argument.  Subsequent calls to
       rand48(param)  will  then  maintain  the seed in the parameter param as a string of twelve
       hexadecimal digits, with no base signifier.  The random  number  sequences  for  different
       parameters are completely independent, and are also independent from that used by calls to
       rand48 with no argument.

       For example, consider

              print $(( rand48(seed) ))
              print $(( rand48() ))
              print $(( rand48(seed) ))

       Assuming $seed does not exist, it will be initialised by the first call.   In  the  second
       call,  the  default  seed is initialised; note, however, that because of the properties of
       rand() there is a correlation between the seeds used for the two initialisations,  so  for
       more  secure  uses,  you should generate your own 12-byte seed.  The third call returns to
       the same sequence of random numbers used in the first call, unaffected by the  intervening

       The  zsh/newuser  module  is loaded at boot if it is available, the RCS option is set, and
       the PRIVILEGED option is not set (all three are true by default).  This takes place  imme-
       diately  after  commands  in  the global zshenv file (typically /etc/zshenv), if any, have
       been executed.  If the module is not available it is silently ignored by  the  shell;  the
       module may safely be removed from $MODULE_PATH by the administrator if it is not required.

       On  loading,  the  module tests if any of the start-up files .zshenv, .zprofile, .zshrc or
       .zlogin exist in the directory given by the environment variable ZDOTDIR,  or  the  user's
       home  directory  if  that is not set.  The test is not performed and the module halts pro-
       cessing if the shell was in an emulation mode (i.e. had been invoked as some  other  shell
       than zsh).

       If none of the start-up files were found, the module then looks for the file newuser first
       in a sitewide directory, usually the parent directory of the site-functions directory, and
       if that is not found the module searches in a version-specific directory, usually the par-
       ent of the functions directory containing version-specific functions.  (These  directories
       can   be   configured   when  zsh  is  built  using  the  --enable-site-scriptdir=dir  and
       --enable-scriptdir=dir flags to configure, respectively; the defaults are prefix/share/zsh
       and prefix/share/zsh/$ZSH_VERSION where the default prefix is /usr/local.)

       If  the  file  newuser is found, it is then sourced in the same manner as a start-up file.
       The file is expected to contain code to install start-up files for the user,  however  any
       valid shell code will be executed.

       The zsh/newuser module is then unconditionally unloaded.

       Note  that  it is possible to achieve exactly the same effect as the zsh/newuser module by
       adding code to /etc/zshenv.  The module exists simply to allow the shell to make  arrange-
       ments  for  new  users without the need for intervention by package maintainers and system

       The script supplied with the module invokes the shell function zsh-newuser-install.   This
       may  be  invoked  directly  by the user even if the zsh/newuser module is disabled.  Note,
       however, that if the module is not installed the function will not  be  installed  either.
       The function is documented in the section User Configuration Functions in zshcontrib(1).

       The  zsh/parameter  module  gives  access  to some of the internal hash tables used by the
       shell by defining some special parameters.

              The keys for this associative array are the names of the options that  can  be  set
              and  unset  using the setopt and unsetopt builtins. The value of each key is either
              the string on if the option is currently set, or the string off if  the  option  is
              unset.   Setting  a  key  to  one of these strings is like setting or unsetting the
              option, respectively. Unsetting a key in this array is like setting it to the value

              This array gives access to the command hash table. The keys are the names of exter-
              nal commands, the values are the pathnames of the files that would be executed when
              the  command  would  be invoked. Setting a key in this array defines a new entry in
              this table in the same way as with the hash builtin. Unsetting a key as  in  `unset
              "commands[foo]"' removes the entry for the given key from the command hash table.

              This  associative  array maps names of enabled functions to their definitions. Set-
              ting a key in it is like defining a function with the name given by the key and the
              body  given  by  the value. Unsetting a key removes the definition for the function
              named by the key.

              Like functions but for disabled functions.

              This associative array gives  information  about  the  builtin  commands  currently
              enabled.  The  keys are the names of the builtin commands and the values are either
              `undefined' for builtin commands that will automatically be loaded from a module if
              invoked or `defined' for builtin commands that are already loaded.

              Like builtins but for disabled builtin commands.

              This array contains the enabled reserved words.

              Like reswords but for disabled reserved words.

              This maps the names of the regular aliases currently enabled to their expansions.

              Like aliases but for disabled regular aliases.

              Like aliases, but for global aliases.

              Like galiases but for disabled global aliases.

              Like raliases, but for suffix aliases.

              Like saliases but for disabled suffix aliases.

              The  keys  in  this  associative  array  are  the names of the parameters currently
              defined. The values are strings describing the type of the parameter, in  the  same
              format used by the t parameter flag, see zshexpn(1) .  Setting or unsetting keys in
              this array is not possible.

              An associative array giving information about modules. The keys are  the  names  of
              the  modules  loaded, registered to be autoloaded, or aliased. The value says which
              state the named module is in and is one of the strings `loaded',  `autoloaded',  or
              `alias:name', where name is the name the module is aliased to.

              Setting or unsetting keys in this array is not possible.

              A normal array holding the elements of the directory stack. Note that the output of
              the dirs builtin command includes one more directory, the  current  working  direc-

              This associative array maps history event numbers to the full history lines.

              A special array containing the words stored in the history.

              This  associative  array maps job numbers to the directories from which the job was
              started (which may not be the current directory of the job).

              The keys of the associative arrays are usually valid job numbers, and these are the
              values  output with, for example, ${(k)jobdirs}.  Non-numeric job references may be
              used when looking up a value; for example, ${jobdirs[%+]}  refers  to  the  current

              This associative array maps job numbers to the texts of the command lines that were
              used to start the jobs.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This associative array gives information about the states  of  the  jobs  currently
              known.  The  keys  are  the  job  numbers  and  the  values are strings of the form
              `job-state:mark:pid=state...'. The job-state gives the state the whole job is  cur-
              rently  in,  one of `running', `suspended', or `done'. The mark is `+' for the cur-
              rent job, `-' for the previous job and empty otherwise. This  is  followed  by  one
              `pid=state'  for every process in the job. The pids are, of course, the process IDs
              and the state describes the state of that process.

              Handling of the keys of the associative array is as described for jobdirs above.

              This associative array maps the names of named directories to  the  pathnames  they
              stand for.

              This associative array maps user names to the pathnames of their home directories.

              This  associative  array maps names of system groups of which the current user is a
              member to the corresponding group identifiers.  The contents are the  same  as  the
              groups output by the id command.

              This  array contains the absolute line numbers and corresponding file names for the
              point where the current function, sourced file, or (if  EVAL_LINENO  is  set)  eval
              command  was  called.  The array is of the same length as funcsourcetrace and func-
              trace, but differs from funcsourcetrace in that the line and file are the point  of
              call,  not  the  point of definition, and differs from functrace in that all values
              are absolute line numbers in files, rather than relative to the start  of  a  func-
              tion, if any.

              This  array  contains the file names and line numbers of the points where the func-
              tions, sourced files, and (if EVAL_LINENO is set)  eval  commands  currently  being
              executed  were  defined.   The line number is the line where the `function name' or
              `name ()' started.  In the case of an  autoloaded  function   the  line  number  is
              reported  as  zero.   The format of each element is filename:lineno.  For functions
              autoloaded from a file in native zsh format, where only the body  of  the  function
              occurs  in  the  file,  or  for  files that have been executed by the source or `.'
              builtins, the trace information is shown as filename:0, since the  entire  file  is
              the definition.

              Most  users  will  be  interested  in  the  information  in the funcfiletrace array

              This array contains the names of the functions, sourced files, and (if  EVAL_LINENO
              is  set)  eval commands. currently being executed. The first element is the name of
              the function using the parameter.

              This array contains the names and line numbers of the callers corresponding to  the
              functions  currently  being  executed.   The format of each element is name:lineno.
              Callers are also shown for sourced files; the caller is the point where the  source
              or `.' command was executed.

       The zsh/pcre module makes some commands available as builtins:

       pcre_compile [ -aimxs ] PCRE
              Compiles a perl-compatible regular expression.

              Option  -a  will  force  the  pattern  to  be  anchored.   Option -i will compile a
              case-insensitive pattern.  Option -m will compile a multi-line pattern; that is,  ^
              and  $  will match newlines within the pattern.  Option -x will compile an extended
              pattern, wherein whitespace and # comments are ignored.  Option -s  makes  the  dot
              metacharacter match all characters, including those that indicate newline.

              Studies the previously-compiled PCRE which may result in faster matching.

       pcre_match [ -v var ] [ -a arr ] [ -n offset ] [ -b ] string
              Returns successfully if string matches the previously-compiled PCRE.

              Upon  successful  match,  if the expression captures substrings within parentheses,
              pcre_match will set the array $match to those substrings, unless the -a  option  is
              given, in which case it will set the array arr.  Similarly, the variable MATCH will
              be set to the entire matched portion of the string, unless the -v option is  given,
              in  which  case the variable var will be set.  No variables are altered if there is
              no successful match.  A -n option starts searching for a match from the byte offset
              position  in  string.  If the -b option is given, the variable ZPCRE_OP will be set
              to an offset pair string, representing the byte  offset  positions  of  the  entire
              matched  portion  within  the string.  For example, a ZPCRE_OP set to "32 45" indi-
              cates that the matched portion began on byte offset 32 and ended on byte offset 44.
              Here,  byte  offset position 45 is the position directly after the matched portion.
              Keep in mind that the byte position isn't necessarily the  same  as  the  character
              position  when  UTF-8 characters are involved.  Consequently, the byte offset posi-
              tions are only to be relied on in the context of using them for subsequent searches
              on  string,  using  an  offset  position  as an argument to the -n option.  This is
              mostly used to implement the "find all non-overlapping matches" functionality.

              A simple example of "find all non-overlapping matches":

                     string="The following zip codes: 78884 90210 99513"
                     pcre_compile -m "\d{5}"
                     pcre_match -b -- $string
                     while [[ $? -eq 0 ]] do
                         pcre_match -b -n $b[2] -- $string
                     print -l $accum

       The zsh/pcre module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -pcre-match pcre
              Matches a string against a perl-compatible regular expression.

              For example,

              [[ "$text" -pcre-match ^d+$ ]] && print text variable contains only "d's".

       The zsh/regex module makes available the following test condition:
       expr -regex-match regex
              Matches a string against a POSIX extended regular expression.  On successful match,
              matched  portion  of  the string will normally be placed in the MATCH variable.  If
              there are any capturing parentheses within the regex, then the match array variable
              will contain those.  If the match is not successful, then the variables will not be

              For example,

                     [[ alphabetical -regex-match ^a([^a]+)a([^a]+)a ]] &&
                     print -l $MATCH X $match

              If the option REMATCH_PCRE is not set, then the =~ operator will automatically load
              this module as needed and will invoke the -regex-match operator.

              If  BASH_REMATCH  is  set, then the array BASH_REMATCH will be set instead of MATCH
              and match.

       The zsh/sched module makes available one builtin command and one parameter.

       sched [-o] [+]hh:mm[:ss] command ...
       sched [-o] [+]seconds command ...
       sched [ -item ]
              Make an entry in the scheduled list of commands to execute.  The time may be speci-
              fied in either absolute or relative time, and either as hours, minutes and (option-
              ally) seconds separated by a colon, or seconds alone.  An absolute number  of  sec-
              onds  indicates the time since the epoch (1970/01/01 00:00); this is useful in com-
              bination with the features in the zsh/datetime module, see the zsh/datetime  module
              entry in zshmodules(1).

              With no arguments, prints the list of scheduled commands.  If the scheduled command
              has the -o flag set, this is shown at the start of the command.

              With the argument `-item', removes the given item from the list.  The numbering  of
              the  list  is continuous and entries are in time order, so the numbering can change
              when entries are added or deleted.

              Commands are executed either immediately before a prompt, or while the shell's line
              editor is waiting for input.  In the latter case it is useful to be able to produce
              output that does not interfere with the line being edited.  Providing the option -o
              causes  the  shell  to clear the command line before the event and redraw it after-
              wards.  This should be used with any scheduled event that produces  visible  output
              to the terminal; it is not needed, for example, with output that updates a terminal
              emulator's title bar.

              The sched builtin is not made available by default when the shell starts in a  mode
              emulating  another  shell.   It can be made available with the command `zmodload -F
              zsh/sched b:sched'.

              A readonly array corresponding to the events scheduled by the sched  builtin.   The
              indices  of  the  array  correspond  to the numbers shown when sched is run with no
              arguments (provided that the KSH_ARRAYS option is not set).  The value of the array
              consists  of  the  scheduled  time in seconds since the epoch (see the section `The
              zsh/datetime Module' for facilities for using this number), followed  by  a  colon,
              followed  by  any  options (which may be empty but will be preceded by a `-' other-
              wise), followed by a colon, followed by the command to be executed.

              The sched builtin should be used for manipulating the events.  Note that this  will
              have  an  immediate effect on the contents of the array, so that indices may become

       The zsh/net/socket module makes available one builtin command:

       zsocket [ -altv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              zsocket is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command  line  edit-
              ing, file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

   Outbound Connections
       zsocket [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              Open  a  new Unix domain connection to filename.  The shell parameter REPLY will be
              set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.  Currently, only stream
              connections are supported.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       zsocket -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] filename
              zsocket -l will open a socket listening on filename.   The  shell  parameter  REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor associated with that listener.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       zsocket -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              zsocket -a will accept an incoming connection to the socket  associated  with  lis-
              tenfd.   The  shell  parameter  REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated
              with the inbound connection.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              If -t is specified, zsocket will return if no incoming connection is pending.  Oth-
              erwise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       The zsh/stat module makes available one builtin command under two possible names:

       zstat [ -gnNolLtTrs ] [ -f fd ] [ -H hash ] [ -A array ] [ -F fmt ] [ +element  ]  [  file
       ... ]
       stat ...
              The  command  acts  as a front end to the stat system call (see stat(2)).  The same
              command is provided with two names; as the name stat is often used by  an  external
              command  it  is  recommended that only the zstat form of the command is used.  This
              can be arranged by loading the  module  with  the  command  `zmodload  -F  zsh/stat

              If  the  stat call fails, the appropriate system error message printed and status 1
              is returned.  The fields of struct stat give information about the  files  provided
              as arguments to the command.  In addition to those available from the stat call, an
              extra element `link' is provided.  These elements are:

              device The number of the device on which the file resides.

              inode  The unique number of the file on this device (`inode' number).

              mode   The mode of the file; that is, the file's type and access permissions.  With
                     the  -s option, this will be returned as a string corresponding to the first
                     column in the display of the ls -l command.

              nlink  The number of hard links to the file.

              uid    The user ID of the owner of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed
                     as a user name.

              gid    The  group ID of the file.  With the -s option, this is displayed as a group

              rdev   The raw device number.  This is only useful for special devices.

              size   The size of the file in bytes.

              ctime  The last access, modification and inode change times of  the  file,  respec-
                     tively,  as  the  number of seconds since midnight GMT on 1st January, 1970.
                     With the -s option, these are printed as strings for the  local  time  zone;
                     the  format  can  be  altered with the -F option, and with the -g option the
                     times are in GMT.

                     The number of bytes in one allocation block on the device on which the  file

              block  The number of disk blocks used by the file.

              link   If the file is a link and the -L option is in effect, this contains the name
                     of the file linked to, otherwise it is empty.  Note that if this element  is
                     selected (``zstat +link'') then the -L option is automatically used.

              A particular element may be selected by including its name preceded by a `+' in the
              option list; only one element is allowed.  The element  may  be  shortened  to  any
              unique  set  of  leading characters.  Otherwise, all elements will be shown for all


              -A array
                     Instead of displaying the results on standard  output,  assign  them  to  an
                     array, one struct stat element per array element for each file in order.  In
                     this case neither the name of the element nor the name of the files  appears
                     in  array  unless  the  -t or -n options were given, respectively.  If -t is
                     given, the element name appears as a prefix to the  appropriate  array  ele-
                     ment; if -n is given, the file name appears as a separate array element pre-
                     ceding all the others.  Other formatting options are respected.

              -H hash
                     Similar to -A, but instead assign the values to hash.  The keys are the ele-
                     ments  listed above.  If the -n option is provided then the name of the file
                     is included in the hash with key name.

              -f fd  Use the file on file descriptor fd instead of named files; no list  of  file
                     names is allowed in this case.

              -F fmt Supplies  a strftime (see strftime(3)) string for the formatting of the time
                     elements.  The -s option is implied.

              -g     Show the time elements in the GMT time zone.  The -s option is implied.

              -l     List the names of the type elements (to  standard  output  or  an  array  as
                     appropriate) and return immediately; options other than -A and arguments are

              -L     Perform an lstat (see lstat(2)) rather than a stat  system  call.   In  this
                     case,  if  the file is a link, information about the link itself rather than
                     the target file is returned.  This option is required to make the link  ele-
                     ment  useful.   It's  important to note that this is the exact opposite from
                     ls(1), etc.

              -n     Always show the names of files.  Usually these are only shown when output is
                     to standard output and there is more than one file in the list.

              -N     Never show the names of files.

              -o     If  a  raw  file mode is printed, show it in octal, which is more useful for
                     human consumption than the default of  decimal.   A  leading  zero  will  be
                     printed  in this case.  Note that this does not affect whether a raw or for-
                     matted file mode is shown, which is controlled by the -r and -s options, nor
                     whether a mode is shown at all.

              -r     Print  raw  data (the default format) alongside string data (the -s format);
                     the string data appears in parentheses after the raw data.

              -s     Print mode, uid, gid and the three time elements as strings instead of  num-
                     bers.  In each case the format is like that of ls -l.

              -t     Always  show  the type names for the elements of struct stat.  Usually these
                     are only shown when output is to standard output and no  individual  element
                     has been selected.

              -T     Never show the type names of the struct stat elements.

       The zsh/system module makes available various builtin commands and parameters.

       syserror [ -e errvar ] [ -p prefix ] [ errno | errname ]
              This  command  prints  out  the error message associated with errno, a system error
              number, followed by a newline to standard error.

              Instead of the error number, a name errname, for example ENOENT, may be used.   The
              set of names is the same as the contents of the array errnos, see below.

              If the string prefix is given, it is printed in front of the error message, with no
              intervening space.

              If errvar is supplied, the entire message, without a newline, is  assigned  to  the
              parameter names errvar and nothing is output.

              A  return  status  of 0 indicates the message was successfully printed (although it
              may not be useful if the error number was out of the system's range), a return sta-
              tus  of  1 indicates an error in the parameters, and a return status of 2 indicates
              the error name was not recognised (no message is printed for this).

       sysread [ -c countvar ] [ -i infd ] [ -o outfd ]
         [ -s bufsize ] [ -t timeout ] [ param ]
              Perform a single system read from file descriptor infd, or  zero  if  that  is  not
              given.   The  result  of the read is stored in param or REPLY if that is not given.
              If countvar is given, the number of bytes read is assigned to the  parameter  named
              by countvar.

              The  maximum  number of bytes read is bufsize or 8192 if that is not given, however
              the command returns as soon as any number of bytes was successfully read.

              If timeout is given, it specifies a timeout in seconds, which may be zero  to  poll
              the  file descriptor.  This is handled by the poll system call if available, other-
              wise the select system call if available.

              If outfd is given, an attempt is made to write all the bytes just read to the  file
              descriptor  outfd.   If  this  fails, because of a system error other than EINTR or
              because of an internal zsh error during an interrupt, the bytes read but not  writ-
              ten  are  stored in the parameter named by param if supplied (no default is used in
              this case), and the number of bytes read but not written is stored in the parameter
              named by countvar if that is supplied.  If it was successful, countvar contains the
              full number of bytes transferred, as usual, and param is not set.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call)  is  handled  internally  so  that  shell
              interrupts are transparent to the caller.  Any other error causes a return.

              The possible return statuses are
              0      At  least  one byte of data was successfully read and, if appropriate, writ-

              1      There was an error in the parameters to the command.  This is the only error
                     for which a message is printed to standard error.

              2      There  was an error on the read, or on polling the input file descriptor for
                     a timeout.  The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              3      Data were successfully read, but there was an error writing them  to  outfd.
                     The parameter ERRNO gives the error.

              4      The  attempt to read timed out.  Note this does not set ERRNO as this is not
                     a system error.

              5      No system error occurred, but zero bytes were read.  This usually  indicates
                     end  of file.  The parameters are set according to the usual rules; no write
                     to outfd is attempted.

       syswrite [ -c countvar ] [ -o outfd ] data
              The data (a single string of bytes) are written to the file descriptor outfd, or  1
              if  that  is not given, using the write system call.  Multiple write operations may
              be used if the first does not write all the data.

              If countvar is given, the number of byte written is stored in the  parameter  named
              by countvar; this may not be the full length of data if an error occurred.

              The error EINTR (interrupted system call) is handled internally by retrying; other-
              wise an error causes the command to return.  For example, if the file descriptor is
              set  to  non-blocking  output,  an  error EAGAIN (on some systems, EWOULDBLOCK) may
              result in the command returning early.

              The return status may be 0 for success, 1 for an error in  the  parameters  to  the
              command,  or  2  for an error on the write; no error message is printed in the last
              case, but the parameter ERRNO will reflect the error that occurred.

       zsystem flock [ -t timeout ] [ -f var ] [-er] file
       zsystem flock -u fd_expr
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand flock performs  advisory  file  locking  (via  the
              fcntl(2)  system  call)  over  the entire contents of the given file.  This form of
              locking requires the processes accessing the file to cooperate;  its  most  obvious
              use is between two instances of the shell itself.

              In  the first form the named file, which must already exist, is locked by opening a
              file descriptor to the file and applying a lock to the file descriptor.   The  lock
              terminates  when  the  shell  process  that created the lock exits; it is therefore
              often convenient to create file locks within subshells, since the lock is automati-
              cally released when the subshell exits.  Status 0 is returned if the lock succeeds,
              else status 1.

              In the second form the file descriptor given by the arithmetic  expression  fd_expr
              is  closed,  releasing a lock.  The file descriptor can be queried by using the `-f
              var' form during the lock; on a successful lock, the shell variable var is  set  to
              the  file  descriptor  used  for  locking.   The  lock will be released if the file
              descriptor is closed by any other means, for example using  `exec  {var}>&-';  how-
              ever,  the  form described here performs a safety check that the file descriptor is
              in use for file locking.

              By default the shell waits indefinitely for the lock to  succeed.   The  option  -t
              timeout  specifies  a  timeout  for  the lock in seconds; currently this must be an
              integer.  The shell will attempt to lock the file once a second during this period.
              If the attempt times out, status 2 is returned.

              If  the  option -e is given, the file descriptor for the lock is preserved when the
              shell uses exec to start a new process; otherwise it is closed at  that  point  and
              the lock released.

              If  the option -r is given, the lock is only for reading, otherwise it is for read-
              ing and writing.  The file descriptor is opened accordingly.

       zsystem supports subcommand
              The builtin zsystem's subcommand supports tests whether a given subcommand is  sup-
              ported.   It  returns  status  0 if so, else status 1.  It operates silently unless
              there was a syntax error (i.e. the wrong number of arguments), in which case status
              255 is returned.  Status 1 can indicate one of two things:  subcommand is known but
              not supported by the current operating system, or subcommand is not known (possibly
              because this is an older version of the shell before it was implemented).

       errnos A readonly array of the names of errors defined on the system.  These are typically
              macros defined in C by including the system header file errno.h.  The index of each
              name  (assuming  the  option  KSH_ARRAYS is unset) corresponds to the error number.
              Error numbers num before the last known error which have no name are given the name
              Enum in the array.

              Note that aliases for errors are not handled; only the canonical name is used.

              A readonly associative array.  The keys are:
       pid    Returns  the  process  ID  of  the current process, even in subshells.  Compare $$,
              which returns the process ID of the main shell process.

       ppid   Returns the process ID of the parent of the current  process,  even  in  subshells.
              Compare  $PPID,  which  returns  the  process  ID  of  the parent of the main shell

       The zsh/net/tcp module makes available one builtin command:

       ztcp [ -acflLtv ] [ -d fd ] [ args ]
              ztcp is implemented as a builtin to allow full use of shell command  line  editing,
              file I/O, and job control mechanisms.

              If ztcp is run with no options, it will output the contents of its session table.

              If  it  is  run with only the option -L, it will output the contents of the session
              table in a format suitable for automatic parsing.  The option is ignored  if  given
              with  a command to open or close a session.  The output consists of a set of lines,
              one per session, each containing the following elements separated by spaces:

              File descriptor
                     The file descriptor in use for the connection.  For normal inbound  (I)  and
                     outbound  (O)  connections  this  may be read and written by the usual shell
                     mechanisms.  However, it should only be close with `ztcp -c'.

              Connection type
                     A letter indicating how the session was created:

                     Z      A session created with the zftp command.

                     L      A connection opened for listening with `ztcp -l'.

                     I      An inbound connection accepted with `ztcp -a'.

                     O      An outbound connection created with `ztcp host ...'.

              The local host
                     This is usually set to an all-zero IP address as the address of  the  local-
                     host is irrelevant.

              The local port
                     This is likely to be zero unless the connection is for listening.

              The remote host
                     This  is  the fully qualified domain name of the peer, if available, else an
                     IP address.  It is an all-zero IP address for a session opened  for  listen-

              The remote port
                     This is zero for a connection opened for listening.

   Outbound Connections
       ztcp [ -v ] [ -d fd ] host [ port ]
              Open a new TCP connection to host.  If the port is omitted, it will default to port
              23.  The connection will be added to the session  table  and  the  shell  parameter
              REPLY will be set to the file descriptor associated with that connection.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Inbound Connections
       ztcp -l [ -v ] [ -d fd ] port
              ztcp -l will open a socket listening on TCP port.  The socket will be added to  the
              session  table  and  the  shell  parameter REPLY will be set to the file descriptor
              associated with that listener.

              If -d is specified, its argument will be taken as the target  file  descriptor  for
              the connection.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       ztcp -a [ -tv ] [ -d targetfd ] listenfd
              ztcp  -a  will  accept an incoming connection to the port associated with listenfd.
              The connection will be added to the session table and  the  shell  parameter  REPLY
              will be set to the file descriptor associated with the inbound connection.

              If  -d  is  specified, its argument will be taken as the target file descriptor for
              the connection.

              If -t is specified, ztcp will return if no incoming connection is pending.   Other-
              wise it will wait for one.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

   Closing Connections
       ztcp -cf [ -v ] [ fd ]
       ztcp -c [ -v ] [ fd ]
              ztcp  -c will close the socket associated with fd.  The socket will be removed from
              the session table.  If fd is not specified, ztcp will close everything in the  ses-
              sion table.

              Normally,  sockets  registered  by  zftp (see zshmodules(1) ) cannot be closed this
              way.  In order to force such a socket closed, use -f.

              In order to elicit more verbose output, use -v.

       Here is how to create a TCP connection between two instances of zsh.  We need to  pick  an
       unassigned port; here we use the randomly chosen 5123.

       On host1,
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp -l 5123
              ztcp -a $listenfd
       The second from last command blocks until there is an incoming connection.

       Now create a connection from host2 (which may, of course, be the same machine):
              zmodload zsh/net/tcp
              ztcp host1 5123

       Now  on  each host, $fd contains a file descriptor for talking to the other.  For example,
       on host1:
              print This is a message >&$fd
       and on host2:
              read -r line <&$fd; print -r - $line
       prints `This is a message'.

       To tidy up, on host1:
              ztcp -c $listenfd
              ztcp -c $fd
       and on host2
              ztcp -c $fd

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one builtin command:

       echotc cap [ arg ... ]
              Output the termcap value corresponding to the capability cap, with  optional  argu-

       The zsh/termcap module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps termcap capability codes to their values.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one builtin command:

       echoti cap [ arg ]
              Output  the  terminfo  value corresponding to the capability cap, instantiated with
              arg if applicable.

       The zsh/terminfo module makes available one parameter:

              An associative array that maps terminfo capability names to their values.

       The zsh/zftp module makes available one builtin command:

       zftp subcommand [ args ]
              The zsh/zftp module is a client for FTP (file transfer  protocol).   It  is  imple-
              mented  as a builtin to allow full use of shell command line editing, file I/O, and
              job control mechanisms.  Often, users will access it via shell functions  providing
              a  more  powerful  interface;  a  set  is provided with the zsh distribution and is
              described in zshzftpsys(1).  However, the zftp command is entirely  usable  in  its
              own right.

              All commands consist of the command name zftp followed by the name of a subcommand.
              These are listed below.  The return  status  of  each  subcommand  is  supposed  to
              reflect  the  success or failure of the remote operation.  See a description of the
              variable ZFTP_VERBOSE for more information on how responses from the server may  be

       open host[:port] [ user [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Open a new FTP session to host, which may be the name of a TCP/IP connected host or
              an IP number in the standard  dot  notation.   If  the  argument  is  in  the  form
              host:port,  open a connection to TCP port port instead of the standard FTP port 21.
              This may be the name of a  TCP  service  or  a  number:   see  the  description  of
              ZFTP_PORT below for more information.

              If IPv6 addresses in colon format are used, the host should be surrounded by quoted
              square   brackets   to   distinguish   it    from    the    port,    for    example
              '[fe80::203:baff:fe02:8b56]'.   For  consistency  this is allowed with all forms of

              Remaining arguments are passed to the login subcommand.  Note that if no  arguments
              beyond  host are supplied, open will not automatically call login.  If no arguments
              at all are supplied, open will use the parameters set by the params subcommand.

              After a successful open, the shell  variables  ZFTP_HOST,  ZFTP_PORT,  ZFTP_IP  and
              ZFTP_SYSTEM are available; see `Variables' below.

       login [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
       user [ name [ password [ account ] ] ]
              Login  the  user  name with parameters password and account.  Any of the parameters
              can be omitted, and will be read from standard input  if  needed  (name  is  always
              needed).  If standard input is a terminal, a prompt for each one will be printed on
              standard error and password will not be echoed.  If any of the parameters  are  not
              used, a warning message is printed.

              After  a successful login, the shell variables ZFTP_USER, ZFTP_ACCOUNT and ZFTP_PWD
              are available; see `Variables' below.

              This command may be re-issued when a user is already logged in, and the server will
              first be reinitialized for a new user.

       params [ host [ user [ password [ account ] ] ] ]
       params -
              Store  the given parameters for a later open command with no arguments.  Only those
              given on the command line will be remembered.   If  no  arguments  are  given,  the
              parameters  currently  set are printed, although the password will appear as a line
              of stars; the return status is one if no parameters were set, zero otherwise.

              Any of the parameters may be specified as a `?', which may need  to  be  quoted  to
              protect  it  from shell expansion.  In this case, the appropriate parameter will be
              read from stdin as with the login subcommand, including special handling  of  pass-
              word.   If  the `?' is followed by a string, that is used as the prompt for reading
              the parameter instead of the default message (any necessary punctuation and  white-
              space should be included at the end of the prompt).  The first letter of the param-
              eter (only) may be quoted with a `\'; hence an argument "\\$word"  guarantees  that
              the string from the shell parameter $word will be treated literally, whether or not
              it begins with a `?'.

              If instead a single `-' is given, the existing parameters, if any, are deleted.  In
              that case, calling open with no arguments will cause an error.

              The  list of parameters is not deleted after a close, however it will be deleted if
              the zsh/zftp module is unloaded.

              For example,

                     zftp params ftp.elsewhere.xx juser '?Password for juser: '

              will store the host ftp.elsewhere.xx and the user juser and then  prompt  the  user
              for the corresponding password with the given prompt.

       test   Test  the  connection; if the server has reported that it has closed the connection
              (maybe due to a timeout), return status 2; if no connection was open anyway, return
              status 1; else return status 0.  The test subcommand is silent, apart from messages
              printed by the $ZFTP_VERBOSE mechanism, or error messages if the connection closes.
              There is no network overhead for this test.

              The  test  is only supported on systems with either the select(2) or poll(2) system
              calls; otherwise the message `not supported on this system' is printed instead.

              The test subcommand will automatically be called at the start of any other  subcom-
              mand for the current session when a connection is open.

       cd directory
              Change the remote directory to directory.  Also alters the shell variable ZFTP_PWD.

       cdup   Change  the remote directory to the one higher in the directory tree.  Note that cd
              .. will also work correctly on non-UNIX systems.

       dir [ args... ]
              Give a (verbose) listing of the remote directory.  The args are passed directly  to
              the  server. The command's behaviour is implementation dependent, but a UNIX server
              will typically interpret args as arguments to the ls command and with no  arguments
              return the result of `ls -l'. The directory is listed to standard output.

       ls [ args ]
              Give  a (short) listing of the remote directory.  With no args, produces a raw list
              of the files in the directory, one per line.  Otherwise,  up  to  vagaries  of  the
              server implementation, behaves similar to dir.

       type [ type ]
              Change  the  type  for  the  transfer to type, or print the current type if type is
              absent.  The allowed values are `A' (ASCII), `I' (Image, i.e. binary),  or  `B'  (a
              synonym for `I').

              The  FTP  default  for a transfer is ASCII.  However, if zftp finds that the remote
              host is a UNIX machine with 8-bit byes,  it  will  automatically  switch  to  using
              binary for file transfers upon open.  This can subsequently be overridden.

              The  transfer  type  is  only  passed  to the remote host when a data connection is
              established; this command involves no network overhead.

       ascii  The same as type A.

       binary The same as type I.

       mode [ S | B ]
              Set the mode type to stream (S) or block (B).  Stream mode is  the  default;  block
              mode is not widely supported.

       remote files...
       local [ files... ]
              Print  the  size and last modification time of the remote or local files.  If there
              is more than one item on the list, the name of the  file  is  printed  first.   The
              first number is the file size, the second is the last modification time of the file
              in the format CCYYMMDDhhmmSS consisting of year, month,  date,  hour,  minutes  and
              seconds  in  GMT.   Note  that this format, including the length, is guaranteed, so
              that time strings can be directly compared via the [[ builtin's < and >  operators,
              even if they are too long to be represented as integers.

              Not  all  servers  support  the  commands for retrieving this information.  In that
              case, the remote command will print nothing and return status 2, compared with sta-
              tus 1 for a file not found.

              The local command (but not remote) may be used with no arguments, in which case the
              information comes from examining file descriptor zero.  This is the  same  file  as
              seen by a put command with no further redirection.

       get file [...]
              Retrieve all files from the server, concatenating them and sending them to standard

       put file [...]
              For each file, read a file from standard input and send that  to  the  remote  host
              with the given name.

       append file [...]
              As  put,  but  if the remote file already exists, data is appended to it instead of
              overwriting it.

       getat file point
       putat file point
       appendat file point
              Versions of get, put and append which will start the transfer at the given point in
              the  remote  file.  This is useful for appending to an incomplete local file.  How-
              ever, note that this ability is not universally supported by servers  (and  is  not
              quite the behaviour specified by the standard).

       delete file [...]
              Delete the list of files on the server.

       mkdir directory
              Create a new directory directory on the server.

       rmdir directory
              Delete the directory directory  on the server.

       rename old-name new-name
              Rename file old-name to new-name on the server.

       site args...
              Send  a  host-specific  command to the server.  You will probably only need this if
              instructed by the server to use it.

       quote args...
              Send the raw FTP command sequence to the server.  You should be familiar  with  the
              FTP  command  set  as  defined  in  RFC959  before doing this.  Useful commands may
              include STAT and HELP.  Note also the mechanism for returning messages as described
              for  the variable ZFTP_VERBOSE below, in particular that all messages from the con-
              trol connection are sent to standard error.

       quit   Close the current data connection.  This unsets  the  shell  parameters  ZFTP_HOST,

       session [ sessname ]
              Allows multiple FTP sessions to be used at once.  The name of  the  session  is  an
              arbitrary  string  of characters; the default session is called `default'.  If this
              command is called without an argument, it will list all the current sessions;  with
              an argument, it will either switch to the existing session called sessname, or cre-
              ate a new session of that name.

              Each session remembers the status of the connection, the set of connection-specific
              shell  parameters  (the same set as are unset when a connection closes, as given in
              the description of close), and any user parameters specified with the  params  sub-
              command.   Changing  to a previous session restores those values; changing to a new
              session initialises them in the same way as if zftp had just been loaded.  The name
              of the current session is given by the parameter ZFTP_SESSION.

       rmsession [ sessname ]
              Delete  a  session; if a name is not given, the current session is deleted.  If the
              current session is deleted, the earliest existing session becomes the  new  current
              session,  otherwise  the  current  session  is  not  changed.  If the session being
              deleted is the only one, a new session called `default' is created and becomes  the
              current  session; note that this is a new session even if the session being deleted
              is also called `default'. It is recommended that  sessions  not  be  deleted  while
              background commands which use zftp are still active.

       The following shell parameters are used by zftp.  Currently none of them are special.

              Integer.   The  time  in seconds to wait for a network operation to complete before
              returning an error.  If this is not set when the module is loaded, it will be given
              the  default value 60.  A value of zero turns off timeouts.  If a timeout occurs on
              the control connection it will be closed.  Use a larger value if  this  occurs  too

              Readonly.  The IP address of the current connection in dot notation.

              Readonly.  The hostname of the current remote server.  If the host was opened as an
              IP number, ZFTP_HOST contains that instead; this saves  the  overhead  for  a  name
              lookup, as IP numbers are most commonly used when a nameserver is unavailable.

              Readonly.   The number of the remote TCP port to which the connection is open (even
              if the port was originally specified as a named  service).   Usually  this  is  the
              standard FTP port, 21.

              In  the  unlikely  event  that your system does not have the appropriate conversion
              functions, this appears in network byte order.  If your  system  is  little-endian,
              the  port then consists of two swapped bytes and the standard port will be reported
              as 5376.  In that case, numeric ports passed to zftp open will also need to  be  in
              this format.

              Readonly.  The system type string returned by the server in response to an FTP SYST
              request.  The most interesting case is a string beginning "UNIX  Type:  L8",  which
              ensures maximum compatibility with a local UNIX host.

              Readonly.   The  type  to be used for data transfers , either `A' or `I'.   Use the
              type subcommand to change this.

              Readonly.  The username currently logged in, if any.

              Readonly.  The account name of the current user,  if  any.   Most  servers  do  not
              require an account name.

              Readonly.  The current directory on the server.

              Readonly.   The three digit code of the last FTP reply from the server as a string.
              This can still be read after the connection is closed, and is not changed when  the
              current session changes.

              Readonly.   The  last line of the last reply sent by the server.  This can still be
              read after the connection is closed, and is not changed when  the  current  session

              Readonly.   The name of the current FTP session; see the description of the session

              A string of preferences for altering aspects of zftp's behaviour.  Each  preference
              is a single character.  The following are defined:

              P      Passive:   attempt  to make the remote server initiate data transfers.  This
                     is slightly more efficient than sendport mode.  If the letter S occurs later
                     in the string, zftp will use sendport mode if passive mode is not available.

              S      Sendport:   initiate  transfers  by  the  FTP  PORT command.  If this occurs
                     before any P in the string, passive mode will never be attempted.

              D      Dumb:  use only the bare minimum of FTP commands.  This prevents  the  vari-
                     ables ZFTP_SYSTEM and ZFTP_PWD from being set, and will mean all connections
                     default to ASCII type.  It may prevent ZFTP_SIZE from  being  set  during  a
                     transfer if the server does not send it anyway (many servers do).

              If  ZFTP_PREFS is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to a default of `PS',
              i.e. use passive mode if available, otherwise fall back to sendport mode.

              A string of digits between 0 and 5 inclusive, specifying which responses  from  the
              server  should be printed.  All responses go to standard error.  If any of the num-
              bers 1 to 5 appear in the string, raw responses from the server  with  reply  codes
              beginning  with  that  digit will be printed to standard error.  The first digit of
              the three digit reply code is defined by RFC959 to correspond to:

              1.     A positive preliminary reply.

              2.     A positive completion reply.

              3.     A positive intermediate reply.

              4.     A transient negative completion reply.

              5.     A permanent negative completion reply.

              It should be noted that, for unknown reasons, the reply  `Service  not  available',
              which  forces  termination  of  a connection, is classified as 421, i.e. `transient
              negative', an interesting interpretation of the word `transient'.

              The code 0 is special:  it indicates that  all  but  the  last  line  of  multiline
              replies  read from the server will be printed to standard error in a processed for-
              mat.  By convention, servers use this mechanism for  sending  information  for  the
              user  to  read.  The appropriate reply code, if it matches the same response, takes

              If ZFTP_VERBOSE is not set when zftp is loaded, it will be set to the default value
              450,  i.e.,  messages destined for the user and all errors will be printed.  A null
              string is valid and specifies that no messages should be printed.

              If this function is set by the user, it is called every time the directory  changes
              on  the server, including when a user is logged in, or when a connection is closed.
              In the last case, $ZFTP_PWD will be unset; otherwise it will reflect the new direc-

              If  this function is set by the user, it will be called during a get, put or append
              operation each time sufficient data has been received from the host.  During a get,
              the data is sent to standard output, so it is vital that this function should write
              to standard error or directly to the terminal, not to standard output.

              When it is called with a transfer  in  progress,  the  following  additional  shell
              parameters are set:

                     The name of the remote file being transferred from or to.

                     A G for a get operation and a P for a put operation.

                     The total size of the complete file being transferred: the same as the first
                     value provided by the remote and local subcommands for  a  particular  file.
                     If the server cannot supply this value for a remote file being retrieved, it
                     will not be set.  If input is from a pipe the value  may  be  incorrect  and
                     correspond simply to a full pipe buffer.

                     The amount of data so far transferred; a number between zero and $ZFTP_SIZE,
                     if that is set.  This number is always available.

              The  function  is  initially  called  with  ZFTP_TRANSFER  set  appropriately   and
              ZFTP_COUNT  set  to  zero.   After  the  transfer is finished, the function will be
              called one more time with ZFTP_TRANSFER set to GF or PF, in case it wishes to  tidy
              up.  It is otherwise never called twice with the same value of ZFTP_COUNT.

              Sometimes  the progress meter may cause disruption.  It is up to the user to decide
              whether the function should be defined and to use unfunction when necessary.

       A connection may not be opened in the left hand side of a pipe as this occurs  in  a  sub-
       shell  and  the file information is not updated in the main shell.  In the case of type or
       mode changes or closing the connection in a subshell,  the  information  is  returned  but
       variables  are not updated until the next call to zftp.  Other status changes in subshells
       will not be reflected by changes to the variables (but should be otherwise harmless).

       Deleting sessions while a zftp command is active in the  background  can  have  unexpected
       effects,  even  if  it  does not use the session being deleted.  This is because all shell
       subprocesses share information on the state of all connections,  and  deleting  a  session
       changes the ordering of that information.

       On  some  operating  systems,  the control connection is not valid after a fork(), so that
       operations in subshells, on the left hand side of a pipeline, or in the background are not
       possible, as they should be.  This is presumably a bug in the operating system.

       The zsh/zle module contains the Zsh Line Editor.  See zshzle(1).

       The  zsh/zleparameter  module  defines  two  special parameters that can be used to access
       internal information of the Zsh Line Editor (see zshzle(1)).

              This array contains the names of the keymaps currently defined.

              This associative array contains one entry per widget defined. The name of the  wid-
              get  is  the key and the value gives information about the widget. It is either the
              string `builtin' for  builtin  widgets,  a  string  of  the  form  `user:name'  for
              user-defined widgets, where name is the name of the shell function implementing the
              widget, or it is a string of the form `completion:type:name', for  completion  wid-
              gets.  In the last case type is the name of the builtin widgets the completion wid-
              get imitates in its behavior and name is the name of the shell function  implement-
              ing the completion widget.

       When  loaded,  the zsh/zprof causes shell functions to be profiled.  The profiling results
       can be obtained with the zprof builtin command made available by this module.  There is no
       way to turn profiling off other than unloading the module.

       zprof [ -c ]
              Without  the -c option, zprof lists profiling results to standard output.  The for-
              mat is comparable to that of commands like gprof.

              At the top there is a summary listing all functions that were called at least once.
              This  summary  is  sorted  in decreasing order of the amount of time spent in each.
              The lines contain the number of the function in order, which is used in other parts
              of  the  list in suffixes of the form `[num]', then the number of calls made to the
              function.  The next three columns list the time in milliseconds spent in the  func-
              tion  and  its  descendants, the average time in milliseconds spent in the function
              and its descendants per call and the percentage of time spent in  all  shell  func-
              tions  used in this function and its descendants.  The following three columns give
              the same information, but counting only the time spent in the function itself.  The
              final column shows the name of the function.

              After  the  summary,  detailed information about every function that was invoked is
              listed, sorted in decreasing order of the amount of time spent in each function and
              its  descendants.  Each of these entries consists of descriptions for the functions
              that called the function described, the function itself,  and  the  functions  that
              were  called  from it.  The description for the function itself has the same format
              as in the summary (and shows the same information).  The other lines don't show the
              number  of  the function at the beginning and have their function named indented to
              make it easier to distinguish the line showing the function described in  the  sec-
              tion from the surrounding lines.

              The  information  shown in this case is almost the same as in the summary, but only
              refers to the call hierarchy being displayed.  For example, for a calling  function
              the  column  showing  the  total running time lists the time spent in the described
              function and its descendants only for the times when it was called from  that  par-
              ticular  calling function.  Likewise, for a called function, this columns lists the
              total time spent in the called function and its descendants only for the times when
              it was called from the function described.

              Also  in this case, the column showing the number of calls to a function also shows
              a slash and then the total number of invocations made to the called function.

              As long as the zsh/zprof module is loaded, profiling  will  be  done  and  multiple
              invocations  of  the zprof builtin command will show the times and numbers of calls
              since the module was loaded.  With the -c option, the zprof  builtin  command  will
              reset its internal counters and will not show the listing.

       The zsh/zpty module offers one builtin:

       zpty [ -e ] [ -b ] name [ arg ... ]
              The arguments following name are concatenated with spaces between, then executed as
              a command, as if passed to the eval  builtin.   The  command  runs  under  a  newly
              assigned  pseudo-terminal;  this  is  useful for running commands non-interactively
              which expect an interactive environment.  The name is not part of the command,  but
              is used to refer to this command in later calls to zpty.

              With  the  -e  option,  the  pseudo-terminal is set up so that input characters are

              With the -b  option,  input  to  and  output  from  the  pseudo-terminal  are  made

       zpty -d [ names ... ]
              The second form, with the -d option, is used to delete commands previously started,
              by supplying a list of their names.  If  no  names  are  given,  all  commands  are
              deleted.   Deleting a command causes the HUP signal to be sent to the corresponding

       zpty -w [ -n ] name [ strings ... ]
              The -w option can be used to send the to command name the given  strings  as  input
              (separated  by  spaces).   If the -n option is not given, a newline is added at the

              If no strings are provided, the standard input is copied  to  the  pseudo-terminal;
              this may stop before copying the full input if the pseudo-terminal is non-blocking.

              Note  that  the  command  under  the  pseudo-terminal sees this input as if it were
              typed, so beware when sending special tty driver  characters  such  as  word-erase,
              line-kill, and end-of-file.

       zpty -r [ -mt ] name [ param [ pattern ] ]
              The -r option can be used to read the output of the command name.  With only a name
              argument, the output read is copied to the standard output.  Unless the pseudo-ter-
              minal  is non-blocking, copying continues until the command under the pseudo-termi-
              nal exits; when non-blocking, only as much output as is  immediately  available  is
              copied.  The return status is zero if any output is copied.

              When also given a param argument, at most one line is read and stored in the param-
              eter named param.  Less than a full line may be  read  if  the  pseudo-terminal  is
              non-blocking.   The  return  status  is zero if at least one character is stored in

              If a pattern is given as well, output is read until the whole string  read  matches
              the  pattern,  even  in  the  non-blocking  case.  The return status is zero if the
              string read matches the pattern, or if the command has  exited  but  at  least  one
              character  could  still be read.  If the option -m is present, the return status is
              zero only if the pattern matches.  As of this writing, a maximum of one megabyte of
              output  can  be  consumed this way; if a full megabyte is read without matching the
              pattern, the return status is non-zero.

              In all cases, the return status is non-zero if nothing could be read, and is  2  if
              this is because the command has finished.

              If  the  -r  option  is  combined  with the -t option, zpty tests whether output is
              available before trying to read.  If  no  output  is  available,  zpty  immediately
              returns  the status 1.  When used with a pattern, the behaviour on a failed poll is
              similar to when the command has exited:  the return value is zero if at  least  one
              character could still be read even if the pattern failed to match.

       zpty -t name
              The -t option without the -r option can be used to test whether the command name is
              still running.  It returns a zero status if the command is running and  a  non-zero
              value otherwise.

       zpty [ -L ]
              The  last  form,  without  any  arguments,  is  used to list the commands currently
              defined.  If the -L option is given, this is done in the form of calls to the  zpty

       The zsh/zselect module makes available one builtin command:

       zselect [ -rwe -t timeout -a array ] [ fd ... ]
              The  zselect builtin is a front-end to the `select' system call, which blocks until
              a file descriptor is ready for reading or writing, or has an error condition,  with
              an  optional  timeout.  If this is not available on your system, the command prints
              an error message and returns status 2 (normal errors return status  1).   For  more
              information,  see  your systems documentation for select(3).  Note there is no con-
              nection with the shell builtin of the same name.

              Arguments and options may be intermingled in any order.  Non-option  arguments  are
              file descriptors, which must be decimal integers.  By default, file descriptors are
              to be tested for reading, i.e. zselect will return when data  is  available  to  be
              read  from  the  file descriptor, or more precisely, when a read operation from the
              file descriptor will not block.  After a -r, -w and -e, the given file  descriptors
              are  to  be tested for reading, writing, or error conditions.  These options and an
              arbitrary list of file descriptors may be given in any order.

              (The presence of an `error condition' is not well defined in the documentation  for
              many  implementations  of  the select system call.  According to recent versions of
              the POSIX specification, it is really an exception condition,  of  which  the  only
              standard  example  is  out-of-band  data  received  on  a socket.  So zsh users are
              unlikely to find the -e option useful.)

              The option `-t timeout' specifies a timeout in hundredths of a second.  This may be
              zero,  in  which  case  the file descriptors will simply be polled and zselect will
              return immediately.  It is possible to call zselect with no file descriptors and  a
              non-zero timeout for use as a finer-grained replacement for `sleep'; note, however,
              the return status is always 1 for a timeout.

              The option `-a array' indicates that array should  be  set  to  indicate  the  file
              descriptor(s) which are ready.  If the option is not given, the array reply will be
              used for this purpose.  The array will contain a string similar  to  the  arguments
              for zselect.  For example,

                     zselect -t 0 -r 0 -w 1

              might  return  immediately  with status 0 and $reply containing `-r 0 -w 1' to show
              that both file descriptors are ready for the requested operations.

              The option `-A assoc' indicates that the associative array assoc should be  set  to
              indicate  the file descriptor(s( which are ready.  This option overrides the option
              -a, nor will reply be modified.  The keys of assoc are the  file  descriptors,  and
              the corresponding values are any of the characters `rwe' to indicate the condition.

              The  command  returns  status 0 if some file descriptors are ready for reading.  If
              the operation timed out, or a timeout of 0 was given and no file  descriptors  were
              ready,  or  there  was  an error, it returns status 1 and the array will not be set
              (nor modified in any way).  If there was an  error  in  the  select  operation  the
              appropriate error message is printed.

       The zsh/zutil module only adds some builtins:

       zstyle [ -L [ pattern [ style ] ] ]
       zstyle [ -e | - | -- ] pattern style strings ...
       zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
       zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
       zstyle -abs context style name [ sep ]
       zstyle -Tt context style [ strings ...]
       zstyle -m context style pattern
              This  builtin  command  is  used  to define and lookup styles.  Styles are pairs of
              names and values, where the values consist of any  number  of  strings.   They  are
              stored  together  with  patterns  and lookup is done by giving a string, called the
              `context', which is compared to the patterns.  The definition stored for the  first
              matching pattern will be returned.

              For ordering of comparisons, patterns are searched from most specific to least spe-
              cific, and patterns that are equally specific keep the order  in  which  they  were
              defined.   A  pattern is considered to be more specific than another if it contains
              more components (substrings separated by colons) or if the patterns for the  compo-
              nents  are  more  specific, where simple strings are considered to be more specific
              than patterns and complex patterns are considered to be more specific than the pat-
              tern `*'.

              The  first  form  (without  arguments)  lists the definitions.  Styles are shown in
              alphabetic order and patterns are shown in the order zstyle will test them.

              If the -L option is given, listing is done in the form of  calls  to  zstyle.   The
              optional  first argument is a pattern which will be matched against the string sup-
              plied as the pattern for the context; note that this means, for example, `zstyle -L
              ":completion:*"' will match any supplied pattern beginning `:completion:', not just
              ":completion:*":  use ":completion:\*" to match that.  The optional second argument
              limits  the  output to a specific style (not a pattern).  -L is not compatible with
              any other options.

              The other forms are the following:

              zstyle [ - | -- | -e ] pattern style strings ...
                     Defines the given style for the pattern with the strings as the  value.   If
                     the  -e option is given, the strings will be concatenated (separated by spa-
                     ces) and the resulting string will be evaluated (in the same way  as  it  is
                     done by the eval builtin command) when the style is looked up.  In this case
                     the parameter `reply' must be assigned to set the strings returned after the
                     evaluation.  Before evaluating the value, reply is unset, and if it is still
                     unset after the evaluation, the style is treated as if it were not set.

              zstyle -d [ pattern [ styles ... ] ]
                     Delete style definitions. Without arguments  all  definitions  are  deleted,
                     with  a  pattern  all  definitions  for  that pattern are deleted and if any
                     styles are given, then only those styles are deleted for the pattern.

              zstyle -g name [ pattern [ style ] ]
                     Retrieve a style definition. The name is used as the name  of  an  array  in
                     which  the  results  are stored. Without any further arguments, all patterns
                     defined are returned. With a pattern the styles defined for that pattern are
                     returned and with both a pattern and a style, the value strings of that com-
                     bination is returned.

              The other forms can be used to look up or test patterns.

              zstyle -s context style name [ sep ]
                     The parameter name is set to the value of the style interpreted as a string.
                     If  the value contains several strings they are concatenated with spaces (or
                     with the sep string if that is given) between them.

              zstyle -b context style name
                     The value is stored in name as a boolean, i.e. as the string  `yes'  if  the
                     value  has only one string and that string is equal to one of `yes', `true',
                     `on', or `1'. If the value is any other string or has more than one  string,
                     the parameter is set to `no'.

              zstyle -a context style name
                     The  value is stored in name as an array. If name is declared as an associa-
                     tive array,  the first, third, etc. strings are used as  the  keys  and  the
                     other strings are used as the values.

              zstyle -t context style [ strings ...]
              zstyle -T context style [ strings ...]
                     Test  the  value  of a style, i.e. the -t option only returns a status (sets
                     $?).  Without any strings the return status is zero if the style is  defined
                     for  at  least  one  matching pattern, has only one string in its value, and
                     that is equal to one of `true', `yes', `on' or `1'. If any strings are given
                     the status is zero if and only if at least one of the strings is equal to at
                     least one of the strings in the value. If the style is defined  but  doesn't
                     match, the return status is 1. If the style is not defined, the status is 2.

                     The  -T  option tests the values of the style like -t, but it returns status
                     zero (rather than 2) if the style is not defined for any matching pattern.

              zstyle -m context style pattern
                     Match a value. Returns status zero if the pattern matches at  least  one  of
                     the strings in the value.

       zformat -f param format specs ...
       zformat -a array sep specs ...
              This builtin provides two different forms of formatting. The first form is selected
              with the -f option. In this case the format string will be  modified  by  replacing
              sequences  starting  with  a  percent sign in it with strings from the specs.  Each
              spec should be of the form `char:string' which will cause every appearance  of  the
              sequence `%char' in format to be replaced by the string.  The `%' sequence may also
              contain optional minimum and maximum field width specifications between the `%' and
              the `char' in the form `%min.maxc', i.e. the minimum field width is given first and
              if the maximum field width is used, it has to be preceded by a dot.   Specifying  a
              minimum  field  width  makes  the  result be padded with spaces to the right if the
              string is shorter than the requested width.  Padding to the left can be achieved by
              giving  a negative minimum field width.  If a maximum field width is specified, the
              string will be truncated after that many characters.  After all `%'  sequences  for
              the  given specs have been processed, the resulting string is stored in the parame-
              ter param.

              The %-escapes also understand ternary expressions in the form used by prompts.  The
              % is followed by a `(' and then an ordinary format specifier character as described
              above.  There may be a set of digits either before or after the `('; these  specify
              a  test  number,  which  defaults  to zero.  Negative numbers are also allowed.  An
              arbitrary delimiter character follows the format specifier, which is followed by  a
              piece of `true' text, the delimiter character again, a piece of `false' text, and a
              closing parenthesis.  The complete expression (without the digits) thus looks  like
              `%(X.text1.text2)',  except  that  the `.' character is arbitrary.  The value given
              for the format specifier in the char:string expressions is evaluated as a mathemat-
              ical expression, and compared with the test number.  If they are the same, text1 is
              output, else text2 is output.  A parenthesis may be escaped in text2 as %).  Either
              of text1 or text2 may contain nested %-escapes.

              For example:

                     zformat -f REPLY "The answer is '%3(c.yes.no)'." c:3

              outputs  "The answer is 'yes'." to REPLY since the value for the format specifier c
              is 3, agreeing with the digit argument to the ternary expression.

              The second form, using the -a option, can be used for aligning strings.  Here,  the
              specs  are of the form `left:right' where `left' and `right' are arbitrary strings.
              These strings are modified by replacing the colons by the sep  string  and  padding
              the  left  strings  with  spaces to the right so that the sep strings in the result
              (and hence the right strings after them) are all aligned if the strings are printed
              below  each  other.  All strings without a colon are left unchanged and all strings
              with an empty right string have the trailing colon  removed.   In  both  cases  the
              lengths  of  the  strings are not used to determine how the other strings are to be
              aligned.  The resulting strings are stored in the array.

              This implements some internals of the _regex_arguments function.

       zparseopts [ -D ] [ -K ] [ -M ] [ -E ] [ -a array ] [ -A assoc ] specs
              This builtin simplifies the parsing of options in positional parameters,  i.e.  the
              set  of  arguments  given by $*.  Each spec describes one option and must be of the
              form `opt[=array]'.  If an option described by  opt  is  found  in  the  positional
              parameters  it  is  copied  into  the  array  specified  with the -a option; if the
              optional `=array' is given, it is instead copied into that array.

              Note that it is an error to give any spec without an `=array' unless one of the  -a
              or -A options is used.

              Unless  the  -E  option  is  given,  parsing  stops  at the first string that isn't
              described by one of the specs.  Even with -E, parsing always stops at a  positional
              parameter equal to `-' or `--'.

              The  opt  description  must be one of the following.  Any of the special characters
              can appear in the option name provided it is preceded by a backslash.

              name+  The name is the name of the option without the leading `-'.   To  specify  a
                     GNU-style  long option, one of the usual two leading `-' must be included in
                     name; for example, a `--file' option is represented by a name of `-file'.

                     If a `+' appears after name, the option is appended to array each time it is
                     found in the positional parameters; without the `+' only the last occurrence
                     of the option is preserved.

                     If one of these forms is used, the option  takes  no  argument,  so  parsing
                     stops  if the next positional parameter does not also begin with `-' (unless
                     the -E option is used).

              name:: If one or two colons are given, the  option  takes  an  argument;  with  one
                     colon,  the  argument  is mandatory and with two colons it is optional.  The
                     argument is appended to the array after the option itself.

                     An optional argument is put into the same array element as the  option  name
                     (note  that  this  makes  empty  strings as arguments indistinguishable).  A
                     mandatory argument is added as a separate element unless the  `:-'  form  is
                     used, in which case the argument is put into the same element.

                     A `+' as described above may appear between the name and the first colon.

       The options of zparseopts itself are:

       -a array
              As  described  above, this names the default array in which to store the recognised

       -A assoc
              If this is given, the options and their values are also  put  into  an  associative
              array with the option names as keys and the arguments (if any) as the values.

       -D     If  this option is given, all options found are removed from the positional parame-
              ters of the calling shell or shell function,  up  to  but  not  including  any  not
              described by the specs.  This is similar to using the shift builtin.

       -K     With  this  option,  the  arrays  specified with the -a and -A options and with the
              `=array' forms are kept unchanged when none of the specs for them  is  used.   This
              allows assignment of default values to them before calling zparseopts.

       -M     This changes the assignment rules to implement a map among equivalent option names.
              If any spec uses the `=array' form, the string array is interpreted as the name  of
              another  spec, which is used to choose where to store the values.  If no other spec
              is found, the values are stored as usual.  This changes only the way the values are
              stored,  not  the  way  $* is parsed, so results may be unpredicable if the `name+'
              specifier is used inconsistently.

       -E     This changes the parsing rules to not stop at the first string that isn't described
              by  one  of  the  specs.   It can be used to test for or (if used together with -D)
              extract options and their arguments, ignoring all other options and arguments  that
              may be in the positional parameters.

       For example,

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts a=foo b:=bar c+:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b x -c y -c z)

       The arguments from `baz' on will not be used.

       As an example for the -E option, consider:

              set -- -a x -b y -c z arg1 arg2
              zparseopts -E -D b:=bar

       will have the effect of

              bar=(-b y)
              set -- -a x -c z arg1 arg2

       I.e.,  the  option  -b  and its arguments are taken from the positional parameters and put
       into the array bar.

       The -M option can be used like this:

              set -- -a -bx -c y -cz baz -cend
              zparseopts -A bar -M a=foo b+: c:=b

       to have the effect of

              bar=(-a '' -b xyz)

zsh 5.0.2                               December 21, 2012                           ZSHMODULES(1)

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